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Spie Press Book

Handbook of Medical Imaging, Volume 1. Physics and Psychophysics
Editor(s): Richard L. Van Metter; Jacob Beutel; Harold L. Kundel
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Book Description

This book examines x-ray imaging physics and reviews linear systems theory and its application to signal and noise propagation. The first half addresses the physics of important imaging modalities now in use: ultrasound, CT, MRI, and the recently emerging flat panel x-ray detectors and their application to mammography. The second half describes the relationship between image quality metrics and visual perception of the diagnostic information carried by medical images.

Softcover version of PM79.

Book Details

Date Published: 16 February 2000
Pages: 968
ISBN: 9780819477729
Volume: PM79

Table of Contents
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Part I. Physics
1. X-ray production, interaction, and detection in diagnostic imaging
John Boone
2. Applied linear-systems theory
Ian Cunningham
3. Image quality metrics for digital systems
James Dobbins
4. Flat panel detectors for digital radiography
John Yorkston, John Rowlands
5. Digital mammography
Martin Yaffe
6. Magnetic resonance imaging
David Pickens
7. Three-dimensional ultrasound imaging
Aaron Fenster, Donal Downey
8. Tomographic imaging
David Goodenough
Part II. Psychophysics
Introduction Harold Kundel
9. Ideal observer models of visual signal detection
Kyle Myers
10. A practical guide to model observers for visual detection in synthetic and natural noisy images
Miguel Eckstein, Craig Abbey, Francois Buchod
11. Modeling visual detection tasks in correlated image noise with linear model observers
Craig Abbey, Francois Buchod
12. Effects of anatomical structure on signal detection
Ehsan Samei, William Eyler, Lisa Baron
13. Synthesizing anatomical images for image understanding
Jannick Rolland
14. Quantitative image quality studies and the design of x-ray fluoroscopy systems
David Wilson, Kadri Jabri, Ravindra Manjeshwar
15. Fundamental ROC analysis
Charles Metz
16. The FROC, AFROC, and DROC variants of the ROC analysis
Dev Chakraborty
17. Agreement and accuracy mixture distribution analysis
Marcia Polansky
18. Visual search in medical images
Harold Kundel
19. The nature of expertise in radiology
Calvin Nodine, Claudia Mello-Thoms
20. Practical applications of perceptual research
Elizabeth Krupinski


During the last few decades of the twentieth century, partly in concert with the increasing availability of relatively inexpensive computational resources, medical imaging technology, which had for nearly 80 years been almost exclusively concerned with conventional film/screen x-ray imaging, experienced the development and commercialization of a plethora of new imaging technologies. Computed tomography, MRI imaging, digital subtraction angiography, Doppler ultrasound imaging, various imaging techniques based on nuclear emission (PET, SPECT, etc.) have all been valuable additions to the radiologist's arsenal of imaging tools toward ever more reliable detection and diagnosis of disease. More recently, conventional x-ray imaging technology itself is being challenged by the emerging possibilities offered by flat panel x-ray detectors. In addition to the concurrent development of rapid and relatively inexpensive computational resources, this era of rapid change owes much of its success to an improved understanding of the information theoretic principles on which the development and maturation of these new technologies is based. A further important corollary of these developments in medical imaging technology has been the relatively rapid development and deployment of methods for archiving and transmitting digital images. Much of this engineering development continues to make use of the ongoing revolution in rapid communications technology offered by increasing bandwidth.

A little more than 100 years after the discovery of x-rays, this three-volume Handbook of Medical Imaging is intended to provide a comprehensive overview of the theory and current practice of Medical Imaging as we enter the 21st century. Volume I, which concerns the physics and the psychophysics of medical imaging, begins with a fundamental description of x-ray imaging physics and progresses to a review of linear systems theory and its application to an understanding of signal and noise propagation in such systems. The subsequent chapters concern the physics of the important individual imaging modalities currently in use: ultrasound, CT, MRI, the recently emerging technology of flat panel x-ray detectors and, in particular, their application to mammography. The second half of this volume, on psychophysics, describes the current understanding of the relationship between image quality metrics and visual perception of the diagnostic information carried by medical images. In addition, various models of perception in the presence of noise or "unwanted" signal are described. Lastly, the statistical methods used in determining the efficacy of medical imaging tasks, ROC analysis and its variants, are discussed.

Volume II, which concerns Medical Image Processing and Image Analysis, provides descriptions of the methods currently being used or being developed for enhancing the visual perception of digital medical images obtained by a wide variety of imaging modalities and for image analysis as a possible aid to detection and diagnosis. Image analysis may be of particular significance in future developments, since, aside from the inherent efficiencies of digital imaging, the possibility of performing analytic computation on digital information offers exciting prospects for improved detection and diagnostic accuracy.

Lastly, Volume III, describes the concurrent engineering developments which or in some instances have actually enabled further developments in digital diagnostic imaging. Among the latter, the ongoing development of bright, high resolution monitors for viewing high resolution digital radiographs, particularly for mammography, stands out. Other efforts, in this field offer exciting, previously inconceivable possibilities, e.g., the use of 3D (virtual reality) visualization for surgical planning and for image guided surgery. Another important area of ongoing research in this field involves image compression, which in concert with increasing bandwidth, enables rapid image communication and increases storage efficiency. The latter will be particularly important with the expected increase in the acceptance of digital radiography as a replacement for conventional film/screen imaging, which is expected to generate data volumes far in excess of currently available capacity. The second half of this volume describes current developments in Picture Archiving and Communications (PACS) technology, with particular emphasis on integration of the new and emerging imaging technologies into the hospital environment and the provision of means for rapid retrieval and transmission of imaging data. Developments in rapid transmission are of particular importance since they will enable access via telemedicine to remote or underdeveloped areas.

As evidenced by the variety of the research described in these volumes, medical imaging is still undergoing very rapid change. The editors hope that this publication will provide at least some of the information by means of which students, researchers and practitioners in this exciting field are aided in contributing to it ever increasing usefulness.

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