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Spie Press Book

Robert Shannon and Roland Shack: Legends in Applied Optics
Editor(s): James E. Harvey; R. Brian Hooker
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Book Description

This tribute volume honors two icons in the world of applied optics: Robert (Bob) Shannon and Roland Shack. Based on an August 2004 tribute conference held at the SPIE Optical Science and Technology meeting, the volume contains both technical and nontechnical papers by the honorees' colleagues and former students at the University of Arizona's Optical Sciences Center (OSC). The papers divulge the origin and development of such technologies as the Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT) and the Shack-Hartmann Wavefront Sensor, as well as shed light on the formative years of the OSC. In addition to the original material, the volume contains a substantial collection of previously published journal papers authored by Bob Shannon, Roland Shack, or their former students.


Book Details

Date Published: 27 July 2005
Pages: 628
ISBN: 9780819458445
Volume: PM148

Table of Contents
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Preface
R. Brian Hooker and James E. Harvey

Biography of R. R. Shannon

Biography of R. V. Shack

List of Contributors (to Sections I and III)

Section I. Tribute Conference Proceedings
Invited papers from the tribute conference held August 4 and 5, 2004

Post-Sputnik days with Roland Shack
Juan L. Rayces

Optics to Rectify CORONA Panoramic Photographs for Map Making
Robert S. Hilbert

Informal Influence of R. V. Shack on the People of Applied Optics: Perkin-Elmer, Imperial College, and Beyond (abstract)
Morley S. Lipsett

Early Days at the Optical Sciences Center
John G. Thunen

Images from the Optical Paths of Roland Shack and Bob Shannon
Jack D. Gaskill

The Shack-Shannon Transformation
James B. Breckinridge

Roland Shack: Creative Scientist, Engineer, and Teacher in a Small R&D Environment
Leonard R. Porcello, Bobby R. Hunt, and Michael J. Price

Reinterpreting Coddington: Correcting 150 Years of Confusion
Kevin P. Thompson

Using Nodal Aberration Theory for Optical Design
John R. Rogers

Structural Aberration Coefficients in Phased-Array Telescope Design
Tilman W. Stuhlinger

Null Test for Concave Oblate Spheroids
Mitchell Ruda

An Equivalent Lens for Modeling Diffractive Optical Elements
William C. Sweatt

The Optical Fabrication of the Multiple Mirror Telescope Optics
Gregory M. Sanger

Stray Light versus the Sine Condition
W. A. Cheng

The Early Days of Interferogram Data Analysis
James Rancourt

Historical Development of the Shack-Hartmann Wavefront Sensor
Jim Schwiegerling and Daniel R. Neal

Shack-Hartmann Sensor Engineered for Commercial Measurement Applications
Daniel R. Neal

Measuring the Parent Radius of Curvature of an Off-Axis Parabola Remotely
Joe Geary and Brian Robinson

Multiconfiguration Optical Testing
William H. Swantner

The Shack Interferometer from a Thirty-Year Perspective
George W. Hopkins

A Global View of Diffraction: Revisited
James E. Harvey and Andrey Krywonos

Section II. Selected Contributions to the Field of Applied Optics
Reprints of published papers authored by R. V. Shack, R. R. Shannon, or their former students

Part A. Optical Design and Analysis

A large Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT) project
A. B. Meinel, R. R. Shannon, F. L. Whipple, and F. J. Low
Optical Engineering 11(2), 33-37 (March/April 1972)

Aberration generator
Richard A. Buchroeder and R. Brian Hooker
Applied Optics 14(10), 2476-2479 (October 1975)

Describing holographic optical elements as lenses
William C. Sweatt
Journal of the Optical Society of America 67(6), 803-808 (June 1977)

Reflecting Schmidt imaging spectrometers
J. B. Breckinridge, N. A. Page, R. R. Shannon, and J. M. Rodgers
Applied Optics 22(8), 1175-1180 (April 15, 1983)

Athermalization of a single-component lens with diffractive optics
Carmina Londono, William T. Plummer, and Peter P. Clark
Applied Optics 32(13), 2295-2302 (May 1, 1993)

How to approach the design of a bilateral symmetric optical system
Jose M. Sasian
Optical Engineering 33(6), 2045-2061 (June 1994)

Fundamentals of macro axial gradient index optical design and engineering
Paul. K. Manhart and Richard Blankenbecler
Optical Engineering 36(6), 1607-1621 (June 1997)

Part B. Image Evaluation

Characteristics of an image-forming system
Roland V. Shack
Journal of Research of the National Bureau of Standards 56(5), Research Paper 2672, 245-260 (May 1956)

Transfer functions for wide spectrum imagery
R. R. Shannon
Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 4, Suppl. 1, 231-233 (1965)

Effects of dilution on a six-element synthetic aperture
R. V. Shack, J. D. Rancourt, and H. Morrow
Applied Optics 10(2), 257-259 (February 1971)

Modulation transfer function degradation and false resolution in radiographic imaging systems
Joel E. Gray, M. Paul Capp, Robert R. Shannon, and Frank R. Whitehead
Proc. SPIE 35, 95-101 (1972)

Aberration tolerances for visual optical systems
Michael K. Giles
Journal of the Optical Society of America 67(5), 634-643 (May 1977)

Application of signal-to-noise concepts to optical power spectra
Robert R. Shannon
Proc. SPIE 117, 34-37 (1977)

Part C. Applications of the y-y Diagram

Analytic system design with pencil and ruler-the advantages of the y-y diagram
Roland V. Shack
Proc. SPIE 39, 127-140 (1973)

The diagram for radial gradient systems
John Rogers, Michael E. Harrigan, and Robert P. Loce
Applied Optics 27(3), 452-458 (February 1, 1988)

y-y diagram, a powerful optical design method for laser systems

David Kessler and Roland V. Shack
Applied Optics 31(15), 2692-2707 (May 20, 1992)

Part D. Optical Testing

Production of sinusoidal test charts
N. S. Kapany, J. A. Eyer, and R. R. Shannon
Journal of the Optical Society of America 47(1), 103 (January 1957)

An instrument for measurement of the optical transfer function
R. R. Shannon and A. H. Newman
Applied Optics 2(4), 365-369 (April 1963)

A suggested procedure for testing large Cassegrainian optical systems
J. D. Lytle
Applied Optics 9(11), 2497-2500 (November 1970)

Production and use of a lenticular Hartmann screen
R. V. Shack and B. C. Platt
Journal of the Optical Society of America, abstract MG23 from the 1971 Spring Meeting program of the Optical Society of America, 656 (1971)

Square-wave response of P.I. microscopes
R. Brian Hooker
Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 39(3), 283-289 (March 1973)

Automatic wavefront error sensor
R. Brian Hooker
Applied Optics 12(4), 865-871 (April 1973)

Fringe benefits in testing
R. R. Shannon
Proc. SPIE 39, 45-47 (1973)

The Shack Interferometer
Roland V. Shack and George W. Hopkins
Optical Engineering 18(2), 226-228 (March-April 1979)

Dynamic optical tests of a high-speed polygon
D. Kessler and R. V. Shack
Applied Optics 20(6), 1015-1019 (March 15, 1981)

Measurement of laser diode astigmatism using the beam-line method
Yakov Sidorin and Roland V. Shack
Optical Engineering 40(6), 995-1000 (June 2001)

Part E. Optical Fabrication

Optical fabrication techniques for the MMT
G. M. Sanger and R. R. Shannon
Sky and Telescope 46(5), 280-284 (November 1973)

Fabrication of aspherics using a mathematical model for material removal
R. E. Wagner and R. R. Shannon
Applied Optics 13(7), 1683-1689 (July 1974)

Current status of the MMT optics
R. G.[R.] Shannon and G. M. Sanger
Optical Engineering 14(6), 544-551 (November-December 1975)

Part F. Phased Telescope Arrays 431

Aberration limitations on optical array telescopes
Roland V. Shack
Journal of the Optical Society of America, abstract TuE2 from the 1978 Annual
Meeting program of the Optical Society of America, 1361 (1978)

Demonstration of an optically phased telescope array
Janet S. Fender and Richard A Carreras
Optical Engineering 27(9), 706-711 (September 1988)

Design of wide-field arrays
Cheng-Hsi Miao and Robert R. Shannon
Proc. SPIE 1236, 372-378 (1990)

Field-of-view limitations of phased telescope arrays
James E. Harvey and Christ Ftaclas
Applied Optics 34(25), 5787-5798 (September 1, 1995)

Phase theory for multiple aperture systems
Erin M. Sabatke and Jose M. Sasian
Optical Engineering 41(3), 647-655 (March 2002)

Part G. Aberration Theory

The use of normalization in the application of simple optical systems
Roland V. Shack
Proc. SPIE 54, 155-162 (1974)

Influence of alignment errors of a telescope system on its aberration field
Roland V. Shack and Kevin Thompson
Proc. SPIE 251, 146-153 (1980)

Aberration field properties of simple non-axially symmetric optical systems
Tatiana E. Jewell and Roland V. Shack
Proc. SPIE 554, 128-138 (1986)

Part H. Propagation Effects in the Atmosphere

An experiment for measuring effect of atmospheric turbulence on a vertical
optical path
Robert R. Shannon and W. Scott Smith
Proc. SPIE 75, 44-47 (1976)

New experimental data on atmospheric propagation
R. R. Shannon, W. S. Smith, W. Metheny, C. Ceccon, and R. Philbrick
Science 206(4424), 1267-1272 (1979)

Influence of lower stratospheric aerosol variations on guidestar performance
D. A. Nahrstedt
Applied Optics 34(15), 2755-2764 (May 20, 1995)

Part I. Diffraction/Surface Scatter Phenomena

APART, a first-order deterministic stray radiation analysis program
Steven R. Lang, Robert P. Breault, and Alan W. Greynolds
Proc. SPIE 107, 89-97 (1977)

Aberrations of diffracted wave fields
James E. Harvey and Roland V. Shack
Applied Optics 17(18), 3003-3009 (September 15, 1978)

Space Telescope low-scattered-light camera: a model
J. B. Breckinridge, T. G. Kuper, and R. V. Shack
Optical Engineering 23(6), 816-820 (1984)

Plane wave and spread function decompositions in vector diffraction theory
Thomas G. Kuper and Roland V Shack
Proc. SPIE 560, 2-11 (1985)

Surface scatter phenomena: A linear, shift-invariant process
James E. Harvey
Proc. SPIE 1165, 87-99 (1989)

Section III. Anecdotes and Accolades
Informal observations of Bob Shannon and Roland Shack

One Professor's Impact: A Tribute to Bob Shannon
Michael K. Giles

Memories of my Mentor, Dr. Roland Shack
Robert P. Breault

Is there Life after Lens Design?
Carmina Londono

Discovery of the Shack Cube Interferometer
Mitchell Ruda and William H. Swantner

A Letter to Dr. Shack
Valorie Valencia

Memories of Bob Shannon
Dave Nahrstedt

Roland Shack - Zen and the Art of Problem Solving
Tom Kuper

Some Examples of the Teaching Techniques of Robert Shannon
Gregory Sanger

Professor Roland Shack's Employment Agency
Brian Hooker

Roland Shack: The "High Priest" of Applied Optics
Jim Harvey

Gratulor toto ex animo...Ergo bibamus!
Tanya Jewel

Of Bob Shannon and Roland Shack...
Jose Sasian

Memories of Roland Shack
David Kessler

Professor Shannon's Real World Lessons
Janet Fender

Preface

Late in 2003 we were approached by SPIE with a request that would change the next year of our lives. Would we be willing to chair a tribute conference at SPIE's 2004 Optical Science and Technology meeting with the purpose of honoring Bob Shannon and Roland Shack? Without hesitation we declared our delight at having the opportunity to create a forum for celebrating the careers of these two icons from the world of optics.

A primary motive in agreeing to chair the conference was to thank Bob and Roland, in some small way, for all we had gained from them when we were graduate students in the Optical Sciences Center (OSC) at the University of Arizona. But there was a secondary benefit that was also significant to us. In the nearly 30 years since we graduated from OSC, we have had limited contact with many of the people who have also benefited from their experiences with Roland and Bob. We thought it would be fascinating to re-establish contact and to learn how others perceived the influence of Bob and Roland so many years after their graduate school experiences.

In inviting speakers to the conference, we made a point of finding people from all periods in Roland and Bob's careers. Both men had worked in industry before beginning their long tenure at the OSC. In their university roles, Bob and Roland directed the research of nearly 100 students, and taught many hundreds more in classes at the OSC. We found that these students, in their subsequent careers in industry, government, and education, often applied and further developed key technical ideas that originated with Bob and Roland. Just as important, students acquired an approach to optics, and often even an approach to life, from their interactions with Roland and Bob.

One of the challenges we faced was selecting whom to invite to present a paper at the conference. While we wanted a representative sampling of people who knew Roland and Bob in a variety of roles, we also wanted a focus that would help underscore the point that Bob and Roland were successful in making contributions to both optics research and optics education. We reasoned that by inviting their students from the OSC, we could show how Roland and Bob�s technical and educational contributions propagated into the careers of scientists, engineers, and businesspeople in optics. Accordingly, about 80% of the invited conference talks were by former students of Roland and Bob.

Barbara Myers in the Director's Office at the OSC was very helpful in providing contact information for Bob and Roland�s previous students. However, we were eventually able to make contact with only about half of these people. It is likely there were others we were unable to contact who would have wanted to speak at the conference.

The tribute conference was held August 4-5, 2004, in Denver, Colorado, with 31 invited speakers. Most of those conference speakers prepared a paper for this tribute volume.

This tribute book is organized into three sections. Section 1 contains 21 invited papers from the tribute conference. Some of the papers are highly technical, while others provide a complementary, nontechnical view of Bob and Roland and their illustrious careers. Section II is a collection of journal article reprints that contain representative technical contributions made by Bob and Roland during their careers. In some cases Bob or Roland authored the papers, while in other cases their students authored the papers. The 45 papers are divided into nine technical areas to show the breadth of Roland and Bob's impact on applied optics. Section III, Anecdotes and Accolades, contains 14 short, informal observations of Roland and Bob. Some of these anecdotes were presented during the tribute conference, and others have since been collected.

We would like to acknowledge Dr. Lloyd Hillman, who presented "Aberrations and the y-y bar diagram" at the tribute conference but was unable to complete his paper for this volume before he passed away on May 2, 2005. Dr. Hillman was Chair of the Physics Department at the University of Alabama, Hunstville.

The editors appreciate the contributions of the Program Committee in helping to develop the program for the tribute conference. Members of the committee included James W. Bilbro, Dennis H. Goldstein, James C. Wyant, Robert S. Hilbert, Robert P. Breault, Kevin P. Thompson, Gregory M. Sanger, Mitchell C. Ruda, and Douglas S. Goodman.

The editors want to acknowledge the generous contributions of the sponsors who helped finance the tribute conference as well as this book. Sponsors include Optical Research Associates, the Optical Sciences Center at the University of Arizona, and CREOL at the University of Central Florida.

The editors appreciate the help of Barbara Myers of the OSC, who provided much of the background information that was necessary to arrange the conference and this book.

And finally, the editors enjoyed working with the always-helpful Margaret Thayer, the editor at SPIE Press, during preparation of this book.

Brian Hooker and Jim Harvey
May 2005


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