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Spie Press Book

Camera Lenses: From Box Camera to Digital
Author(s): Gregory Hallock Smith
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Book Description

"Camera Lenses is an instant classic, as both a valuable technical resource and a fascinating read for the optical engineer." --Dr. Kenneth Moore, President of ZEMAX Development Corporation

This book is an exploration and appreciation of cameras and their optics, covering all major lens types from the earliest to the most recent--including those roving the surface of Mars. A recurrent theme of this book is that lens types invented in the 19th century are just as useful in the 21st century. Another continuing theme is the impact of the digital revolution and the use of imaging in radically new circumstances. This book should be of interest to any who are curious and want to know more about the glass on the front of their cameras.


Book Details

Date Published: 18 April 2006
Pages: 320
ISBN: 9780819460936
Volume: PM158

Table of Contents
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Part A Concepts and Techniques / 1
1. Introduction / 3
1.1 Light / 3
1.2 Recording Light / 4
1.3 The Beginnings of Photographic Optics / 5
1.4 Photography and Imaging / 6
1.5 Cameras, Lenses, and Theory / 6
2. Films and Emulsions / 9
2.1 The Daguerreotype / 9
2.2 The Calotype / 9
2.3 The Collodion Wet-Plate / 10
2.4 The Gelatin Dry-Plate / 10
2.5 How a Photographic Emulsion Works / 11
2.6 Spectral Sensitivity / 12
2.7 Color Photography and Films / 13
2.7.1 Autochrome / 13
2.7.2 Technicolor / 14
2.7.3 Kodachrome / 14
2.7.4 Agfachrome and Ektachrome / 15
2.8 Standard Film Format Sizes / 16
3 Electronic Image Sensors / 17
3.1 The Charge-Coupled Device / 17
3.2 Types of CCDs / 18
3.2.1 Full-frame / 19
3.2.2 Frame-transfer / 19
3.2.3 Interline-transfer / 20
3.3 CMOS Image Sensors / 20
3.4 Impactron CCD Sensors / 21
3.5 Color Electronic Cameras / 22
3.6 Coding Color in Video and Digital / 23
3.7 Standard CCD/CMOS Format Sizes / 24
3.8 Applications / 25
4 Limiting Resolution of Image Sensors / 27
4.1 Film Limiting Resolution / 27
4.2 CCD/CMOS Limiting Resolution / 28
4.3 Total Numbers of Pixels / 30
5 Silver and Silicon / 31
5.1 Film versus Electronic Image Sensors / 31
5.1.1 Practical picture-taking / 31
5.1.2 Machine vision / 32
5.1.3 Grain, pixelation, and resolution / 32
5.1.4 Quantum efficiency and speed / 32
5.1.5 Reciprocity, fog, and dark current / 33
5.1.6 Maximum detector size / 33
5.1.7 Spectral response / 34
5.1.8 Photometric response / 34
5.1.9 Calibration / 34
5.1.10 Output form / 35
5.1.11 Image permanence / 35
5.2 Matching Sensors to the Application / 35
5.2.1 Snapshots / 35
5.2.2 Advanced amateur cameras / 36
5.2.3 News, sports, and action / 36
5.2.4 Movie films / 36
5.2.5 Portraits / 37
5.2.6 Glossy magazines / 37
5.2.7 Advertising photography / 37
5.2.8 Museum conservation/documentation / 37
5.2.9 Artistic photography / 37
5.2.10 Scientific photography / 38
5.3 Trends / 38
6 Cameras as Systems / 39
6.1 Defining System Parameters / 39
6.2 Effect of Object Distance / 40
6.3 Curved Field versus Flat Field / 41
6.4 Fast and Slow Lenses and Detectors / 41
6.5 Antireflection Coatings / 41
6.6 Single-Lens-Reflex versus Rangefinder-Viewfinder / 42
6.7 Zoom Lenses / 43
7 Basic Geometrical Optics / 45
7.1 Geometrical and Physical Optics / 45
7.2 Lenses and Mirrors / 45
7.3 Objects and Images / 46
7.3.1 Real and virtual objects and images / 47
7.4 Optical Axis / 47
7.5 Stops / 47
7.6 Vignetting / 48
7.7 Marginal and Chief Rays / 48
7.8 Pupils / 49
7.9 Focal Length / 50
7.10 Focal Ratio / 50
7.11 Surface Shapes / 51
7.12 Paraxial Optics and First-Order Properties / 52
8 Aberrations / 53
8.1 The Major Ray Aberrations / 53
8.1.1 Longitudinal chromatic aberration / 53
8.1.2 Lateral chromatic aberration / 54
8.1.3 Spherical aberration / 54
8.1.4 Coma / 54
8.1.5 Astigmatism and field curvature / 54
8.1.6 Distortion / 56
8.2 Petzval Curvature / 57
8.3 Effective Focal Length and Back Focal Length / 59
8.4 Aberrations in Terms of BFL and EFL / 60
8.5 Blur Size Dependences / 61
9 Basic Physical Optics / 63
9.1 Wavefronts and Optical Path Differences / 63
9.2 Diffraction / 64
9.3 The Airy Disk / 65
9.4 Diffraction Plus Aberrations / 66
10 Designing Camera Lenses / 69
10.1 The Design Process / 69
10.2 Optimizing with Rays versus OPDs / 70
10.3 Aspheric Lens Surfaces / 71
10.4 The Symmetry Principle / 72
10.5 Scaling the System / 73
10.6 Optical Prescriptions / 74
10.7 Optical Patents / 74
11 How to Handle Vignetting / 77
11.1 Delete Vignetted Rays / 78
11.2 Vignetting Factors / 78
11.3 User-Defined Constraints / 79
12 Optical Glass / 81
12.1 Refractive Index / 81
12.2 Dispersion / 82
12.3 Partial Dispersion / 82
12.4 Color Correction / 84
12.4.1 Singlets / 84
12.4.2 Mirrors / 84
12.4.3 Achromats / 84
12.4.4 Apochromats / 85
12.5 Glass Manufacturers / 85
12.6 Environmentally Friendly Glasses / 86
13 Evaluating Camera Lens Performance / 87
13.1 Layout / 87
13.2 Spot Diagrams / 89
13.3 Ray Fan Plots / 91
13.4 Optical Path Differences / 93
13.5 Astigmatism and Field Curvature / 93
13.6 Distortion / 93
13.7 Relative Image Illumination / 95
13.8 Point Spread Function / 96
13.9 The Strehl Ratio / 98
13.10 Encircled and Ensquared Energy / 99
13.11 Ghost-Image Analysis / 100
13.12 Tolerance Analysis / 100
13.13 Further Considerations / 100
14 Spatial Frequency Response of Lenses / 101
14.1 Spatial Frequencies / 101
14.2 Modulation Transfer Function / 102
14.3 Spurious Resolution / 105
14.4 Aliasing / 105
15 How Camera Lenses Perform Stopped Down / 107
15.1 The f/2 Double-Gauss / 108
15.2 Other Examples / 113
15.3 Vibrations and Tripods / 114
16 Optics-Limited or Detector-Limited / 115
16.1 Sharpest Images in Camera Lenses / 115
16.2 Sampling the Point Spread Function / 115
16.3 Small-Format Digital Cameras / 116
16.4 An Example / 117
16.5 35mm and 645 Film and Digital Cameras / 117
16.5.1 Film / 117
16.5.2 Digital / 118
16.6 Large-Format Film Cameras / 118
16.7 Television / 119
17 Choosing Your Camera / 121
17.1 Film Cameras / 121
17.2 Electronic Cameras / 122
17.3 Cameras of the Future / 123
Part B Lenses for Large-Format 4 X 5 Film Cameras / 125
18 Pre-Anastigmatic Early Lenses / 127
18.1 Singlet Landscape Lens / 128
18.2 Achromatic Landscape Lenses / 131
18.3 Petzval Portrait Lens / 133
18.4 Rapid Rectilinear Lens / 135
19 Symmetrical Anastigmats / 139
19.1 Dagor / 140
19.2 Reversed Dagor / 143
19.3 Orthostigmat / 143
19.4 Celor / 143
20 Higher Performance and Modern Anastigmats / 149
20.1 Cooke Triplet / 149
20.2 Tessar / 152
20.3 Heliar and Pentac / 154
20.4 Planar / 154
20.5 Plasmat / 158
21 Wide-Angle Lenses / 163
21.1 Hypergon / 163
21.2 Topogon / 166
21.3 Biogon / 169
Part C Lense sfor Small-Format 35 mm Film and Digital Cameras / 173
22 Moderate-Speed Standard Lenses / 175
22.1 Cooke Triplet, f/3.5 / 177
22.2 Tessar, f/3.5 / 179
22.3 Tessar, f/2.8 / 182
23 High-Speed Standard Lenses / 183
23.1 Double-Gauss, f/2.0 / 184
23.2 Sonnar, f/2.0 / 186
23.3 Double-Gauss, f/1.4 / 188
24 Wide-Angle Lenses / 191
24.1 Double-Gauss, 35mm, f/2.8 / 191
24.2 Biogon, 21mm, f/3.5 / 193
24.3 Hologon, 15mm, f/8.0 / 195
24.4 Retrofocus Lenses, 21mm, f/3.5 / 198
24.4.1 Negative-in-front / 199
24.4.2 Positive-in-front / 199
24.5 Full-Frame Fisheye, 14mm, f/2.8 / 202
24.5.1 Elliptical distortion / 203
25 Tele Lenses / 207
25.1 Double-Gauss, 105mm, f/2.8 / 207
25.2 Sonnar, 105mm, f/2.8 / 209
25.3 True Telephoto, 300mm, f/4.0 / 210
25.4 Catadioptric Telescope, 1200mm, f/8.0 / 212
26 Zoom Lenses / 215
Part D Special-Purpose Optics / 223
27 Astrocameras / 225
27.1 Schmidt Camera / 225
27.2 Wright Camera / 229
27.3 Wynne Camera / 231
28 Telecentric Machine-Vision Metrology Lens / 235
29 Ultraviolet and Infrared Lenses / 239
29.1 Ultraviolet Celor Lens / 239
29.2 Mid-Wave Infrared Petzval Lens / 241
29.3 Mid-Wave Infrared Double-Gauss Lens / 244
29.4 Mid-Wave Infrared Hologon Lens / 244
29.5 Long-Wave Infrared Double-Gauss Lens / 247
30 Widescreen Movie Systems / 249
30.1 Anamorphic Afocal Attachment / 250
30.2 360-Scope / 252
31 The Mars Rover Camera Lenses / 255
31.1 The Cameras / 256
31.2 Pan Cams / 256
31.3 NavCams / 258
31.4 HazCams / 260
31.5 Microscopic Imager / 260
31.6 SunCam and Descent Camera / 264
31.7 Acknowledgments / 265
31.8 For Further Reading / 266
Part E Timeline of Advances and Milestones / 267
Appendix Optical Prescriptions / 277
Index / 305

Introduction

This book is an exploration and appreciation of cameras and their optics. In most cases, camera optics means lenses. The book is about what lenses have to do and how well they do it. It covers the major types from the earliest lenses to the latest innovations. Early lenses are important because they often have new applications. A recurrent theme here is that lens types that may have been invented in the 19th century are just as useful in the 21st century. The impact of the digital revolution and the use of imaging in radically new circumstances is another continuing theme. The book should be of interest to anyone who is curious and wants to know more about that thing made of glass on the front of his or her camera.


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