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Proceedings Paper

Chronic label-free volumetric photoacoustic microscopy of melanoma cells in scaffolds in vitro
Author(s): Xin Cai; Yu Zhang; Chulhong Kim; Sung-Wook Choi; Younan Xia; Lihong V. Wang
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Paper Abstract

Visualizing cells in three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds has been one of the major challenges in tissue engineering. Current imaging modalities have limitations. Microscopy, including confocal microscopy, cannot penetrate deeply (> 300 μm) into the scaffolds; X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) requires staining of the structure with a toxic agent such as osmium tetroxide. Here, we demonstrate photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) of the spatial distribution and temporal proliferation of melanoma cells inside three-dimensionally porous scaffolds with thicknesses over 1 mm. Melanoma cells have a strong intrinsic contrast which is easily imaged by label-free PAM with high sensitivity. Spatial distributions of the cells in the scaffold were well-resolved in PAM images. Moreover, we chronically imaged the same cell/scaffold constructs at different time points over 2 weeks. The number of cells in the scaffold was quantitatively measured from the PAM volumetric information. The cell proliferation profile obtained from PAM correlated well with that obtained using the traditional 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. We believe that PAM will become a useful imaging modality for tissue engineering applications, especially when thick scaffold constructs are involved, and that this modality can also be extended to image other cell types labeled with contrast agents.

Paper Details

Date Published: 18 February 2011
PDF: 6 pages
Proc. SPIE 7899, Photons Plus Ultrasound: Imaging and Sensing 2011, 789926 (18 February 2011); doi: 10.1117/12.873226
Show Author Affiliations
Xin Cai, Washington Univ. in St. Louis (United States)
Yu Zhang, Washington Univ. in St. Louis (United States)
Chulhong Kim, Washington Univ. in St. Louis (United States)
Sung-Wook Choi, Washington Univ. in St. Louis (United States)
Younan Xia, Washington Univ. in St. Louis (United States)
Lihong V. Wang, Washington Univ. in St. Louis (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 7899:
Photons Plus Ultrasound: Imaging and Sensing 2011
Alexander A. Oraevsky; Lihong V. Wang, Editor(s)

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