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Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been approved by health agencies in several countries for treatment of neoplasia in a variety of sites and has been used for treatment of other pathologic conditions including actinic keratosis, atherosclerosis, and age related macular degeneration (AMD). PDT can be used to target different subcellular sites for photodamage, e.g., the endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes, mitochondria, and the plasma membrane. Photodamage can elicit cell death by activation of apoptosis, circumventing many common modes of drug resistance.

This conference will emphasize drug development, mechanisms, clinical applications, instrumentation for light delivery and dosimetry determinations along with new information on photodynamic mechanisms.

Abstracts are encouraged dealing with these topics: ;
In progress – view active session
Conference 11940

Optical Methods for Tumor Treatment and Detection: Mechanisms and Techniques in Photodynamic and Photobiomodulation Therapy XXX

In person: 22 - 23 January 2022
View Session ∨
  • 1: Photodynamic Therapy I
  • 2: Photodynamic Therapy II
  • 3: Photodynamic Therapy III
  • 4: Photodynamic Therapy IV
  • Discussion on Photodynamic Therapy
  • 5: Photodynamic Therapy V
  • 6: Mechanisms of Photobiomodulation Therapy I
  • 7: Mechanisms of Photobiomodulation Therapy II
  • Posters
Session 1: Photodynamic Therapy I
Session Chair: Theresa M. Busch, Univ. of Pennsylvania (United States)
11940-1
Author(s): Brian W. Pogue, Phuong Vincent, Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth (United States); Tayyaba Hasan, Massachusetts General Hospital (United States); Kenneth Wang, Mayo Clinic (United States)
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Radiomic signatures of pancreatic cancer can be extracted from CT scans, and this presents a unique and sensitive way to recover diagnostic information from treatments such as photodynamic therapy. While PDT of pancreatic cancer with Verteporfin induces large necrotic treatment zones, there is also a much more subtle alteration due to photodynamic priming (PDP). This effect alters collagen structures and changes the subsequent molecular signalling and sensitivity to adjuvant therapies. The approach to discovery of the key radiomic features will be discussed from both pre-clinical and clinical data sets, and the summary of the current clinical results will be presented.
11940-2
Author(s): Timothy C. Zhu, Yi Hong Ong, Hongjing Sun, Ryan H. Morales, Andreea Dimofte, Theresa M. Busch, Perelman Ctr. for Advanced Medicine (United States); Sunil Singhal, Univ. of Pennsylvania (United States); Keith A. Cengel, Perelman Ctr. for Advanced Medicine (United States)
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For improved dosimetry during Photofrin-mediated intrapleural photodynamic therapy (PDT), an eight-channel PDT dose dosimeter coupled with an IR navigation system was developed to measure PDT dose during pleural PDT. The combined system can lead to PDT dose guided PDT, which should improve the efficacy of PDT treatment compared to the currently employed systems.
11940-3
Author(s): Jonathan P. Celli, Univ. of Massachusetts Boston (United States); Tayyaba Hasan, Massachusetts General Hospital (United States)
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The World Health Organization recently reported that more than 60% of new cancer cases and 70% of deaths annually occur in low and middle income countries (LMICs). This disparity motivates the development of low-cost cancer treatment and imaging technologies that are specifically adapted for use in LMIC settings. We have developed and clinically validated technology to enable use of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for treatment of early-stage oral malignancy in India, which has been described as the “oral cancer capital of the world.” Here we discuss challenges and opportunities moving forward for broader implementation of this technology in India and beyond.
Session 2: Photodynamic Therapy II
Session Chair: Imran Rizvi, The Univ. of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (United States)
11940-4
Author(s): Laura Vesala, Robert Perttilä, Elias Kokko, Modulight, Inc. (Finland); Lasse Orsila, Modulight, Inc. (Finland), Tampere Univ. Hospital (Finland); Petteri Uusimaa, Modulight, Inc. (Finland)
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Site- and time-specific delivery of oncologic drugs is central for therapeutic success and is currently an active topic of biomedical research. One key strategy is to encapsulate drugs into light-sensitive liposomal carriers that promptly release their cargo upon near-infrared light stimulation. Modulight’s cloud-connected ML8500 illumination platform was designed to flexibly study the drug release processes in vitro. It offers endless possibilities for researchers to optimize the processes with a versatile selection of different laser parameters, well-plate formats and environmental conditions. Here we present an interesting case study of ML8500 activating the cargo release from indocyanine green liposomes.
11940-5
Author(s): Shakir Khan, Univ. of Massachusetts Boston (United States); Bofan Song, Shaobai Li, The Univ. of Arizona (United States); M. A. Bilal Hussain, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College (India), Aligarh Muslim Univ. (India); Amjad P. Khan, Massachusetts General Hospital (United States), Harvard Medical School (United States); Hui Liu, Mayra S. Baptista Lopes Teix, Univ. of Massachusetts Boston (United States); Shaista Siddiqui, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College (India), Aligarh Muslim Univ. (India); Srivalleesha Mallidi, Massachusetts General Hospital (United States), Harvard Medical School (United States); Colin Hopper, Stephen G. Bown, Univ. College London (United Kingdom); Kafil Akhtar, Syed Abrar Hasan, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College (India), Aligarh Muslim Univ. (India); Shahid Ali Siddiqui, Aligarh Muslim Univ. (India); Rongguang Liang, The Univ. of Arizona (United States); Tayyaba Hasan, Massachusetts General Hospital (United States), Harvard Medical School (United States); Jonathan P. Celli, Univ. of Massachusetts Boston (United States)
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India has one of the highest burdens of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in the world, exacerbated by lack of medical infrastructure and routine screening and treatment in rural areas. Here, we explore the implementation of a low-cost photodynamic therapy (PDT) system in conjunction with a handheld smartphone-coupled, multichannel fluorescence-based screening probe. A total of 12 patients having moderately/well-differentiated micro-invasive OSCC lesions were imaged before and after administration of 60 mg/kg ALA and again after light delivery. The results indicate capability for reliable lesion segmentation and monitoring photobleaching while laying groundwork for an integrated system combining cancer screening and treatment.
11940-6
Author(s): Vida Karimnia, Univ. of Massachusetts Boston (United States); Imran Rizvi, The Univ. of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (United States); Frank Slack, Harvard Medical School (United States); Jonathan Celli, Univ. of Massachusetts Boston (United States)
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Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is among the most lethal of human malignancies. PDAC is characterized by dense fibrous stroma which obstructs drug delivery and also plays complex tumor-promoting roles through paracrine crosstalk. Here, we use in vitro heterocellular 3D co-culture models in conjunction with imaging, bulk rheology and microrheology methods to investigate the impact of verteporfin-based PDT on the cellular and non-cellular (ECM) components of PDAC stroma. We also evaluate the photodestruction of stromal fibroblasts to improve the delivery of recently developed RNA nanomedicine agents, demonstrated to be effective in targeting overexpressed microRNAs in PDAC linked with poor survival (onco-miRs).
11940-7
Author(s): Luis G. Arnaut, Lígia C. Gomes-da-Silva, Helder Tão, Barbara M. Lima, Univ. de Coimbra (Portugal)
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The delivery of drugs through biological membranes (e.g., the cell membrane, the stratum corneum) limits treatment outcomes when their molecular weight exceeds 500 Da. This is often the case in photodynamic therapy when large photosensitizer molecules are employed. We have shown that high intensity, broadband photoacoustic waves can permeabilize biological barriers in a few seconds and enhance local drug delivery. Here we present a 592 Da carboxamide bacteriochlorin with sub-nanomolar phototoxicity in vitro and its use in PDT of mice with tumors. PDT after topical delivery with photoacoustic waves led to cures of subcutaneous CT26 tumors. PDT after Intravenous administration led to cures of orthotopic 4T1 tumors. Photoacoustic tomography and fluorescence imaging provided insight into biodistribution and pharmacokinetics. This bacteriochlorin in combination with photoacoustic delivery can overcome biological barriers and increase drug uptake.
Session 3: Photodynamic Therapy III
Session Chair: Srivalleesha Mallidi, Tufts Univ. (United States)
11940-8
Author(s): Tina Saeidi, Univ. of Toronto (Canada), Univ. Health Network (Canada); Wania Khan, Univ. Health Network (Canada); Lothar Lilge, Dept. of Medical Biophysics (Canada)
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Personalized PDT treatment planning to optimize placement and power assignment of interstitial light sources requires knowledge of the spatial distribution and colocalization of PDT efficacy determining parameters, photosensitizers, oxygen, and photons in combination with a dose-response model. Predicting photosensitizer and oxygen extravasation is based on the knowledge of their diffusion constants (k) which are determined here on both a microscopic and mesoscopic scale. Localized blood flow and volume are imaged using window chamber models or photoacoustic imaging and the extravascular photosensitizer accumulation by fluorescence microscopy and spatial frequency domain imaging, respectively.
11940-9
Author(s): Farouk Nouizi, Maha Algarawi, John Tu & Thomas Yuen Ctr. for Functional Onco-Imaging, Univ. of California, Irvine (United States); Hakan Erkol, Bogaziçi Üniv. (Turkey); Alex Luk, Gultekin Gulsen, John Tu & Thomas Yuen Ctr. for Functional Onco-Imaging, Univ. of California, Irvine (United States)
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Photo-Magnetic Imaging (PMI) is a novel diffuse optical imaging technique that yields optical absorption maps with high-spatial resolution and quantitative accuracy. By probing the medium at specific wavelengths, the concentration of the medium constituents is accurately recovered, then used to calculate the total absorption spectrum of the medium in the near-infrared (NIR) window. Consequently, PMI is a key tool to be used prior to photothermal therapy to obtain an accurate spatially-resolved absorption map of the medium at any NIR wavelength and assist in the determination of important parameters such as laser power and exposure time.
11940-10
Author(s): Hongjing Sun, Yi Hong Ong, Timothy C. Zhu, Penn Medicine (United States)
11940-11
Author(s): Alberto J. Ruiz, Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth (United States); Ethan P. M. LaRochelle, Quel Imaging, LLC (United States); Brady Hunt, Kimberley S. Samkoe, Brian W. Pogue, Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth (United States); M. Shane Chapman, Geisel School of Medicine (United States)
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Indoor-daylight photodynamic therapy (PDT) for actinic keratoses (AKs) could overcome the treatment limitations associated with conventional lamp-based PDT and outdoor sunlight treatments. The objective of this study was to compare the AK lesion clearance efficacy of a conventional treatment (30 minute of 5-aminolevulinic acid [ALA] preincubation, followed by 10 minutes of red light) versus indoor daylight treatment (30 minute of ALA pre-incubation, followed by 2 hours of indoor sunlight). A prospective clinical trial was conducted with 43 patients. The results of the study indicate that indoor sunlight-based PDT provides equivalent AK treatment efficacy to a conventional lamp-based regimen while overcoming temperature limitations associated with winter season outdoor sunlight treatments.
Session 4: Photodynamic Therapy IV
Session Chair: Huang-Chiao Huang, Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States)
11940-13
Author(s): Barry J. Liang, Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States), National Cancer Institute (United States), National Institutes of Health (United States); Suresh V. Ambudkar, National Cancer Institute (United States), National Institutes of Health (United States); Huang-Chiao Huang, Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States), Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Ctr., Univ. of Maryland School of Medicine (United States)
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Rationally designed bioconjugates of photosensitizers have been shown to enhance the photochemical effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) via altering the sub-cellular localization of the photosensitizers or modulating the function of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2) are the two key members that contribute to chemoresistance and PDT resistance in cancer. Here, we introduce a porphyrin-based phospholipid conjugation strategy to circumvent and inhibit the efflux function of ABC drug transporters. Our results show the porphyrin-phospholipid conjugate enhances the photosensitizer accumulation and modulates the enzymatic activity and protein integrity of ABCB1 and ABCG2.
11940-14
Author(s): Somon Hakimov, Salizhan Kylychbekov, Jordyn Hurley, Shelby Emberton, Shreya Neupane, Briana Harness, Molly Shreve, Simran Banga, Ali O. Er, Western Kentucky Univ. (United States)
11940-15
Author(s): Chialun Tsai, Snow H. Tseng, National Taiwan Univ. (Taiwan)
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We have developed a cone-beam X-ray luminescence computed tomography (CB-XLCT) to perform imaging and anatomy of small living animals in a non-invasive way. When nano-phosphor is transported to the tumor tissue and irradiated by X-rays, the luminous light with a wavelength range of 550-600 nm will be excited and detected by digital sCMOS camera in different directions. Then 3D Monte Carlo simulation is used to simulate and deeply explore the relationship between various parameters of tissue optics. Find the optimized parameters to assist the construction of the system. Finally, the Filtered Back Projection (FBP) And Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (ART) was used to help reconstruct the tissues and cancer cell models of mice. If this plan is feasible, it will help doctors make more accurate diagnosis through additional functional image information in the future.
11940-16
Author(s): Tina Saeidi, Univ. of Toronto (Canada), Univ. Health Network (Canada); Arjen Bogaards, Virtual Biotech (Germany); Alain Garcia, Lee Swanstrom, Benoit Gallix, IHU Strasbourg (France); Lothar Lilge, Dept. of Medical Biophysics (Canada)
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Monte Carlo dose simulations were used in a porcine model to investigate the feasibility of photodynamic therapy in the pancreas via the endovascular route. Results indicate that circumferential tissue necrosis can be anticipated around the target vessels with a margin thickness ranging over several millimeters. Such margins should be sufficient for surgeons to operate on these pancreatic cancer patients, traditionally deemed inoperable. The illumination times were in the range of minutes, which is clinically acceptable. Using maximum irradiances of 200 mW.cm-2 at the vessel wall, thermal damage is assumed unlikely. This work provides proof of concept and justifies further exploration.
11940-33
Author(s): Theresa M. Busch, Univ. of Pennsylvania (United States)
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Surgically induced inflammation is well known to create immunosuppression, potentially altering the efficacy of subsequently delivered therapies. When photodynamic therapy (PDT) is delivered during the peak of an inflammatory response to surgery, we have found it to alter the ability of PDT to generate antitumor immunity. These immunosuppressive effects of surgery can be transferred by multiple mechanisms that include splenocyte-derived T cells as well as though the generation of myeloid derived suppressor cells. These data support the study of immunomodulatory approaches to combat the inflammatory aspects of surgery when it is combined with PDT, or potentially other therapies.
Discussion on Photodynamic Therapy
Discussion Coordinator: Tayyaba Hasan, Wellman Ctr. for Photomedicine (United States)

Join a group of experts discussing current issues and problems relating to Photodynamic Therapy.
Session 5: Photodynamic Therapy V
Session Chair: Girgis Obaid, Wellman Ctr. for Photomedicine (United States)
11940-17
Author(s): Weili Zhong, Univ. of Pennsylvania (United States); Yi Hong Ong, The Univ. of Pennsylvania (United States); Mario Gallardo, The College of New Jersey (United States); Tianshun Miao, Yale Univ. (United States); Brian W. Pogue, Dartmouth College (United States); Timothy C. Zhu, The Univ. of Pennsylvania (United States)
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A study of Monte Carlo (MC) simulations with TOPAS is performed on realistic patient geometries that are obtained using a 3D scanner during total skin electron treatments (TSET) with the Stanford technique at UPenn. The accumulated dose and Cherenkov distributions for each patient are obtained by projecting the MC output of the 6 postures of the TSET treatment together. This MC study provides an evaluation of dose uniformity in a patient and the difference between dose and Cherenkov distributions, which is invaluable in developing correction factors for Cherenkov imaging.
11940-18
Author(s): Barry J. Liang, Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States); Michael Pigula, Wellman Ctr. for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital (United States), Harvard Medical School (United States); Yan Baglo, Daniel Najafali, Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States); Tayyaba Hasan, Wellman Ctr. for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital (United States), Harvard Univ. (United States), Harvard Medical School (United States); Huang-Chiao Huang, Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States), Wellman Ctr. for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital (United States), Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Ctr., Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States)
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Combination treatments are most effective when targeting different cancer survival and growth pathways. Nanotechnology combined with photochemistry provides a unique opportunity to simultaneously deliver and activate multiple drugs that target all major regions of a cancer cell—plasma membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus. In this study, we developed a light-activatable nanocomplex that selectively and simultaneously deliver three clinically relevant therapeutic agents at a synergistic drug ratio to destroy ovarian cancer cells, while sparing normal tissues.
11940-19
Author(s): Arthur Pétusseau, Petr Bruza, Brian W. Pogue, Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth (United States)
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Delayed fluorescence (DF) from the endogenous molecule protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) has been shown to be a truly unique reporter of the local oxygen partial pressure in tissue, with the origin of the signal comes from within or near the mitochondria of the cells. Here we developed a wide field system capable of real-time imaging of oxygen. During photodynamic therapy and FLASH radiation therapy (RT), oxygen is rapidly consumed in the targeted tissues and oxygen depletion is commonly known to occur. In both cases, we have used the pO2 imaging system to map out localized changes during treatment. We showed that mapping of partial oxygen pressure was possible at video rates up to 10 fps. This work also revealed that intracellular oxygen depletion is consequent during FLASH, bringing further clarification on the technique’s mechanism.
11940-20
Author(s): Karina G. Bridger, Jacob R. Roccabruna, Timothy M. Baran, Univ. of Rochester (United States)
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In order to safely and effectively treat patients with methylene blue photodynamic therapy (MB-PDT) for sterilization of deep tissue abscesses, abscess optical properties must be determined. We demonstrate the ability of our compact optical probe along with a Monte Carlo-based lookup table to retrieve optical properties in tissue simulating phantoms containing Intralipid as a scatterer, and Methylene Blue (MB) and/or Mn(III) meso-Tetra (4-sulfonatophenyl) porphine (MnTPPS) as absorbers. Our results demonstrate the system’s ability to accurately recover optical properties in the presence of multiple absorbers. Future applications for this system will allow for patient specific treatment throughout ongoing clinical trials.
11940-21
Author(s): Marvin Xavierselvan, Tufts Univ. (United States); Sumeyra Gokalp, Sabrina S. Hafiz, Michelle Foster, Univ. of Massachusetts Boston (United States); Srivalleesha Mallidi, Tufts Univ. (United States)
Session 6: Mechanisms of Photobiomodulation Therapy I
Session Chair: Ann Liebert, Australasian Research Institute (Australia)
11940-22
Author(s): Sungkyoo Lim, Dankook Univ. (Korea, Republic of)
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Photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy using red and near infrared light has been reported effective for reduction of pain, reduction of inflammation, wound healing, skin rejuvenation, hair growth, fat loss, slowing or stopping and even reversing progress of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD). Most of the clinical trial results of PBM therapy have been reported effective depending on the light pulsing frequencies and wavelengths of light of PBM therapy devices. Many PBM therapy devices for personal and home use have been introduced for PBM therapy, but the optical and electrical parameters of the PBM devices have not been clearly specified, which makes it difficult and confused for users to select PBM devices suitable for their applications. In this paper, the most frequently used PBM therapy conditions including wavelengths, light pulsing frequencies, and applications of the PBM therapy devices in the clinical papers were analyzed.
11940-23
Author(s): Jie Rao, Hainan Univ. (China)
11940-24
Author(s): Wataru Katagiri, Shinya Yokomizo, Satoshi Kashiwagi, Massachusetts General Hospital (United States)
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PBM typically employs 660 - 800 nm laser. However, we have recently discovered that NIR II laser induces photodissociation of nitric oxide (NO) from CcO in mitochondria using the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) computation. We have further found that a specific combination of wavelengths of NIR-II laser (1064 + 1270 nm) at low irradiances reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and modulated intracellular calcium in cultured cells, demonstrating that there is a causal relationship between a specific parameter of NIR-II light and its biological effects. PBM with NIR-II laser could be further explored for therapeutic purposes.
11940-25
Author(s): Nathaniel J. Pope, Gary D. Noojin, SAIC (United States); Michael L. Denton, Air Force Research Lab. (United States)
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We present a novel method allowing us to conduct real-time measurements of mitochondrial respiration while simultaneously applying low irradiance laser exposures consistent with those used in photobiomodulation. This technique utilized a polarographic oxygen sensor to make continuous in vitro measurements of oxygen consumption, before, during, and after laser irradiation. Using an integrated optical port, laser irradiation was applied to the sample accurately and reliably, allowing for precision dosimetry. This novel technique was then used to probe effects of light exposure at a number of wavelengths and irradiances on mitochondrial respiration.
11940-26
Author(s): Nathaniel J. Pope, SAIC (United States); Michael L. Denton, Air Force Research Lab. (United States)
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We have demonstrated near infrared (NIR) laser exposures enhance cytochrome c oxidase (C-IV) activity in isolated mitochondria. If the mechanism by which NIR exposure enhanced C-IV activity is a direct photochemical reaction, it is expected to exhibit photochemical reciprocity, and thus the outcome should depend on the exposed fluence. Surprisingly, irradiance was found to be the exposure parameter best correlated with the degree of C-IV activity enhancement. This violation of photochemical reciprocity suggests that NIR exposure may either be acting indirectly on C-IV, or there are other secondary processes at work, before C-IV activity can be enhanced.
11940-27
Author(s): Joshua W. Lalonde, Texas A&M Univ. (United States), CRFP (United States); Nathaniel J. Pope, Gary D. Noojin, SAIC (United States); Vladislav V. Yakovlev, Texas A&M Univ. (United States); Michael L. Denton, Air Force Research Lab. (United States)
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The effects of green light were explored in isolated mitochondria using resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopy. We found a dose-dependent response in increasing the kinetics of the electron transport chain when using the higher irradiances at 532 nm (170 and 402 W/cm2) through the RR method. This effect was determined to be a photochemical effect because temperature alone did not account for the increase in kinetics. Lower irradiance 520 nm light (30 mW/cm2) did not have an effect on the kinetics. We believe this result falls within those of photobiomodulation even though the dosimetry is out of the normal range.
Session 7: Mechanisms of Photobiomodulation Therapy II
Session Chairs: James D. Carroll, THOR Photomedicine Ltd. (United Kingdom), Mei X. Wu, Harvard Medical School (United States)
11940-28
Author(s): Mei X. Wu, Min Yan, Harvard Medical School (United States)
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Anaerobic exercise can gradually increase muscle mass over time as a result of adaptive responses of muscle cells, but it can also stimulate lactate production beyond the safe level causing irreversible muscle damage if too much anaerobic exercise. We found that hypoxia, a condition generated following anaerobic exercise, significantly impeded myotube differentiation from myoblasts. This adverse effect was mitigated greatly by pre-exposure of myoblast cells to a 980nm laser at 0.1 J/cm2. The photobiomodulation enhanced glucose uptake, prevented energy metabolic switch from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis, and diminished lactate production under hypoxic conditions. The observation demonstrates the potentials of photobiomodulation on maximizing anaerobic exercise and accelerate muscle mass build-up in a healthy manner.
11940-29
Author(s): Anna V. Maslennikova, Privolzhsky Research Medical Univ. (Russian Federation); Arteom O. Belotelov, Elena I. Cherkasova, Lobachevsky State Univ. of Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Dmitriy V. Skamnitsky, Nizhny Novgorod Regional Oncology Hospital (Russian Federation); Vladimir I. Yusupov, Institute of Photonic Technologies (Russian Federation); Nikita V. Minaev, Institute of Laser and Information Technologies (Russian Federation); Anastasia S. Nerush, Institute of Applied Physics (Russian Federation)
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The aim of the work was to study the effects of photobiomodulation (PBM) in the red spectrum with fluences from 3 mJ/cm2 to 2 J/cm2 in combination with ionizing radiation (IR) at doses of 2-6 Gy against human BJ-5ta-hTERT - postnatal fibroblasts. The cells were exposed to low-intensity red light before or after their exposure to IR, the viability of the cells was determined by MTT 24 hours after the last exposure. It is shown that the effects of PBM depend on the fluence of PBM, the dose of IR and the sequence of the actions of these physical factors on cells. The adaptive effect of PBM was observed only for high fluences-1 and 2 J/cm2 when exposed to PBM and subsequent (after 1 hour) irradiation of IR. At the same time, the stimulating effect of PBM was observed only for low fluences from 3 to 300 mJ/cm2 under IR irradiation and subsequent (after 1 hour) exposure to PBM. These data should be taken into account when using PBM for the correction of adverse events of radiation therapy.
11940-30
Author(s): Ann Liebert, Australasian Research Institute (Australia)
11940-31
Author(s): Ann Liebert, The Univ. of Sydney (Australia); Joseph Ryan, The Univ. of Melbourne (Australia), Charles Sturt Univ. (Australia)
11940-32
Author(s): Ann Liebert, The Univ. of Sydney (Australia); Vincent Pang, Brian Bicknell, Western Sydney Univ. (Australia); Joseph Ryan, The Univ. of Melbourne (Australia); Liisa Laakso, The Univ. of Queensland (Australia); Jonathan Stone, The Univ. of Sydney (Australia); Hosen Kiat, Macquarie Univ. (Australia)
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Photobiomodulation dose-responses have traditionally followed a biphasic pattern modelled on the Arndt-Schulz model of hormesis, describing incremental intervention concentrations having no effect until a bio-stimulatory threshold is reached, but further doses eliciting a reduction in response with possible inhibitory effects. In this review, an evidence-based clinical perspective on the dose-response and optimal standard dosing parameters of photobiomodulation for the symptomatic regulation of chronic and acute diseases will be discussed, using previously published studies investigating the effects of photobiomodulation on patients suffering from Parkinson’s disease and radiotherapy-induced oral mucositis.
11940-34
Author(s): Mitra Rouhani, Marquette Univ. (United States); Miguel A. Tolentino, Chi C. Cho, Univ. of Wisconsin-Milwaukee (United States); Jeri-Anne Lyons, Univ. of Northern Colorado (United States); Alexander Ng, Marquette Univ. (United States)
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Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a devasting autoimmune and neurodegenerative disease. Current therapies slow disease by controlling the immune response but do not prevent nerve damage leading to permanent disability. Muscle fatigue and strength loss are common in MS. Here, we report our findings investigating Photobiomodulation (PBM) to treat MS. We found that one acute PBM treatment with a combination of three wavelengths of light significantly improved muscle recovery. Furthermore, we found that a 2-week treatment protocol with the same wavelengths significantly improved strength. Wavelength, dose, and disease modifying therapy may affect the outcome of photobiomodulation on muscle function MS.
11940-35
Author(s): Miguel A. Tolentino, Chi C. Cho, Univ. of Wisconsin-Milwaukee (United States); Alexander Ng, Marquette Univ. (United States); Jeri-Anne Lyons, Univ. of Northern Colorado (United States)
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Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a devastating disease. Studies in an animal model demonstrated that Photobiomodulation (PBM) ameliorated disease progression by targeting the immune response and oxidative stress. We investigated the effect of multiple wavelengths of light over a range of doses on immune cells isolated from persons with MS. Results differed depending on the wavelength and the dose delivered. 670nm-3J/cm2 increased anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10. Higher disease severity is correlated with increased anti-inflammatory expression in response to 670 nm light. 830nm-10J/cm2 decreased NO2 and pro-inflammatory cytokine (IFN-ɣ) and increase IL-10. Our data indicate that PBM targets mechanisms important to MS progression.
Posters
Conference attendees are invited to attend the BiOS poster session. Come view the posters, enjoy light refreshments, ask questions, and network with colleagues in your field.

View poster presentation guidelines and set-up instructions at:
https://spie.org/PW/Poster-Guidelines
11940-36
Author(s): Phillip Bretz, The Visionary Breast Ctr. (United States)
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Despite all ongoing research, breast cancer with its forecasted increased numbers by the NCI remains a devastating disease that requires new thinking with current state-of-the-art technology such as modified military infrared and cryoablation aka Lavender Procedure. The key lies in using a predictive breast cancer genetics test that gives lifetime and 5-year risk. Then as the perceived time of appearance of cancer draws near, using modified military infrared, ultrasound, and Sure-Touch (non-radiation modalities) imaging is accelerated to identify ultra-small breast cancers (5-8mm) generally before the tumor has the ability to metastasize. This method is called the Lavender Way, which protends the use of cryoablation aka The Lavender Procedure that kills the tumor with liquid nitrogen in a 20-minute office procedure and patients resume normal activity with the breast appearing untouched.
11940-37
Author(s): Jerry C. Ku, Univ. of Toronto (Canada); Joel Ramjist, Ryerson Univ. (Canada); Yuta Dobashi, Christopher R. Pasarikovski, Victor X. D. Yang, Univ. of Toronto (Canada)
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Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an emerging treatment for brain tumors, but early clinical trials have utilized variable approaches for light delivery, making cross-comparison and standardization difficult. We assessed the conditions of light delivery with different fibre types and diffusing fluids to determine optimal parameters using a 3D model. Light intensity was stronger with the bare fibre versus balloon catheter but less uniform. Light uniformity increased as the concentration of intralipid increased. With the addition of india ink to mimic blood in the resection cavity, the bare fibre performed better than the balloon catheter. Finding optimal light delivery parameters is critical to ensure PDT treatment efficacy.
11940-38
Author(s): Mario Gallardo, The College of New Jersey (United States); Weili Zhong, Univ. of Pennsylvania (United States); Yi Hong Ong, Timothy C. Zhu, Dept. of Radiation Oncology (United States); Tianshun Miao, Yale Univ. (United States); Brian W. Pogue, Dartmouth College (United States)
11940-39
Author(s): Hongjing Sun, Ryan Hall, Yi Hong Ong, Timothy C. Zhu, Penn Medicine (United States)
11940-40
Author(s): Brandon Gaitan, Collin Inglut, Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States); He N. Xu, Lin Li, Univ. of Pennsylvania (United States); Yu Chen, Univ. of Massachusetts Amherst (United States); Huang-Chiao Huang, Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States)
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We aim to develop a minimally invasive endoscope to assist in cancer diagnosis and to quantify photodynamic therapy (PDT) treatment effects using the intrinsically fluorescent co-enzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide. Our preliminary data showed the endoscope could detect metabolic changes of ex vivo tissue upon metabolic modulations, using the mitochondrial uncoupler FCCP and complex one and three inhibitors rotenone and antimycin A. Data has also been gathered to study the effect of PDT treatment on tumor metabolic activity. Preliminary results indicate that the endoscope can detect metabolic modulations and that PDT treatments lead to an increase in oxidative stress.
11940-41
Author(s): Vsevolod Cheburkanov, Vladislav V. Yakovlev, Texas A&M Univ. (United States)
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Recent advances in photodynamic inactivation and photobiomodulation require extensive research of application safety in living tissues in vitro and in vivo. Superficial phototoxicity induced cellular morphological changes have been observed and reported, however biomechanical processes occurring in cells have been largely overlooked. We are reporting application of our custom confocal Brillouin-Raman microscope to probing elastic properties of 4T1 murine fibroblast cells after exposure to high power laser radiation. Spatial distribution of subcellular structures’ stiffness was recorded with high precision and analyzed, drawing correlation between existing morphological model and novel stiffness data within the cell.
11940-33
Author(s): Ji Bian, Ann Liebert, The Univ. of Sydney (Australia)
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The results showed that TGF-β1 significantly increased MCP-1, TNF-α, and fibronectin mRNA expression in HK2 cells, which was significantly reversed by the low dosage of PBM (0.45 J/cm2, P<0.05), but not the higher dosage of PBM (0,9 J/cm2) when compared with the SHAM control group. The dose-response characteristics of PBM observed in this study followed the biphasic pattern. In conclusion, the present study suggests that PBM directly reduced inflammation and fibrosis in kidney tubular cells when used at the appropriate dose.
Conference Chair
Wayne State Univ. (United States)
Conference Chair
Wellman Ctr. for Photomedicine (United States)
Conference Co-Chair
THOR Photomedicine Ltd. (United Kingdom)
Conference Co-Chair
Australasian Research Institute (Australia)
Conference Co-Chair
Harvard Medical School (United States)
Program Committee
Univ. of Pennsylvania (United States)
Program Committee
Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States)
Program Committee
Wellman Ctr. for Photomedicine (United States)
Program Committee
Acibadem Üniv. (Turkey)
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