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Spie Press Book

Tissue Optics: Light Scattering Methods and Instruments for Medical Diagnostics, Third Edition
Author(s): Valery V. Tuchin
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Book Description

This third edition of the biomedical optics classic Tissue Optics covers the continued intensive growth in tissue optics—in particular, the field of tissue diagnostics and imaging—that has occurred since 2007. As in the first two editions, Part I describes fundamentals and basic research, and Part II presents instrumentation and medical applications. However, for the reader’s convenience, this third edition has been reorganized into 14 chapters instead of 9. The chapters covering optical coherence tomography, digital holography and interferometry, controlling optical properties of tissues, nonlinear spectroscopy, and imaging have all been substantially updated.

The book is intended for researchers, teachers, and graduate and undergraduate students specializing in the physics of living systems, biomedical optics and biophotonics, laser biophysics, and applications of lasers in biomedicine. It can also be used as a textbook for courses in medical physics, medical engineering, and medical biology.

Recipient of the Joseph W. Goodman Book Writing Award

Book Details

Date Published: 9 February 2015
Pages: 988
ISBN: 9781628415162
Volume: PM254

Table of Contents
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Preface to the First Edition
Preface to the Second Edition
Preface to the Third Edition


1 Optical Properties of Tissues with Strong (Multiple) Scattering
1.1 Propagation of Continuous Wave Light in Tissues
     1.1.1 Basic principles and major scatterers and absorbers
     1.1.2 Theoretical description
     1.1.3 Monte Carlo simulation techniques
1.2 Short Pulse Propagation in Tissues
     1.2.1 Basic principles and theoretical background
     1.2.2 Techniques for time-resolved spectroscopy and imaging
     1.2.3 Coherent backscattering
1.3 Diffuse Photon-Density Waves
     1.3.1 Basic principles and theoretical background
     1.3.2 Principles of FD spectroscopy and imaging of tissues
1.4 Spatially Modulated Light Propagation in Tissues
     1.4.1 Introduction
     1.4.2 Theory and measurement of diffuse light spatial frequency spectrum
     1.4.3 Spatially modulated spectroscopy and imaging of tissues
1.5 Conclusion

2 Electrical, Optical, and Structural Studies of InAs/InGaSb VLWIR Superlattices
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Tissue Structure and Anisotropy
2.3 Light Scattering by a Particle
2.4 Description and Detection of Polarized Light
2.5 Light Interaction with a Random Single-Scattering Media
2.6 Vector Radiative Transfer Equation
2.7 Monte Carlo Simulation
2.8 Strongly Scattering Tissues and Phantoms

3 Discrete Particle Models of Tissue
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Refractive-Index Variations of Tissue
3.3 Particle Size Distributions
3.4 Spatial Ordering of Particles
3.5 Scattering by Densely Packed Particle Systems
3.6 Optical Properties of Eye Tissues
     3.6.1 Optical models
     3.6.1 Spectral characteristics
     3.6.3 Polarization properties

4 Optothermal, Optoacoustic, and Acousto-Optic Interactions of Light with Tissues
4.1 Basic Principles and Classification
4.2 OA/PA Gas Cell Technique
4.3 Modulated (Phase) OA/PA Technique
4.4 Pulsed OA/PA
4.5 Grounds of OA/PA Tomography and Microscopy
4.6 Optothermal Radiometry
4.7 Optothermal Spectroscopy and Imaging
4.8 Acousto-Optical Interactions
4.9 Thermal Effects
4.10 Sonoluminescence
4.11 Prospective Applications and Measuring Techniques
     4.11.1 Vascular imaging
     4.11.2 Glucose monitoring
     4.11.3 Quantification of total hemoglobin and blood oxygenation
     4.11.4 Temperature measurement and monitoring temperature effects
     4.11.5 In vivo cytometry and imaging of sentinel lymph nodes
     4.11.6 OA/PA aensors and systems
4.12 Conclusion

5 Fluorescence and Inelastic Light Scattering
5.1 Fluorescence
5.2 Multiphoton Fluorescence
5.3 Vibrational and Raman Spectroscopies

6 Tissue Phantoms
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Concepts of Phantom Construction
6.3 Examples of Designed Tissue Phantoms
6.4 Examples of Whole Organ Models
6.5 Summary

7 Methods and Algorithms for Measurement of the Optical Parameters of Tissues
7.1 Basic Principles
7.2 Integrating Sphere Technique
7.3 Multiflux Models
7.4 Inverse Adding-Doubling Method
7.5 Inverse Monte Carlo Method
7.6 Spatially Resolved Techniques
7.7 Optical Coherence Tomography
7.8 Direct Measurement of the Scattering Phase Function
7.9 Estimates of the Optical Properties of Tissues
7.10 Determination of Optical Properties of Blood
7.11 Measurements of Tissue Penetration Depth and Light Dosimetry
7.12 Refractive Index Measurements

8. Coherent Effects at the Interaction of Laser Radiation with Tissues and Cell Flows
8.1 Formation of Speckle Structures
8.2 Interference of Speckle Fields
8.3 Propagation of Spatially Modulated Laser Beams in a Scattering Medium
8.4 Dynamic Light Scattering
     8.4.1 Quasi-elastic light scattering
     8.4.2 Dynamic speckles
     8.4.3 Full-field speckle technique: LASCA
     8.4.4 Diffusion wave spectroscopy
8.5 Confocal Microscopy
8.6 Optical Coherence Tomography
8.7 Digital Holographic and Interferential Microscopy
8.8 Second Harmonic Generation and Nonlinear Raman Scattering
8.9 Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging

9. Controlling Optical Properties of Tissues
9.1 Fundamentals of Controlling Optical Properties of Tissue and Brief Review
9.2 Tissue Optical Immersion by Exogenous Chemical Agents
     9.2.1 Principles of optical immersion technique
     9.2.2 Water transport
     9.2.3 Tissue swelling and hydration
9.3 Optical Clearing of Fibrous Tissues
     9.3.1 Spectral properties of immersed sclera
     9.3.2 Scleral in vitro frequency-domain measurements
     9.3.3 Scleral in vivo measurements
     9.3.4 OCT monitoring of OCA and drug delivery in eye sclera and cornea
     9.3.5 Dura mater immersion and agent diffusion rate
9.4 Skin
     9.4.1 Introduction
     9.4.2 In vitro spectral measurements
     9.4.3 In vivo spectral reflectance measurements
     9.4.4 In vivo frequency-domain measurements
     9.4.5 OCT imaging
     9.4.6 OCA delivery, skin permeation, and reservoir function
9.5 Optical Clearing of Digestive Tract Tissue
     9.5.1 Spectral measurements
     9.5.2 OCT imaging
9.6 Optical Clearing of Other Tissues
     9.6.1 Muscle
     9.6.2 Breast and lung
     9.6.3 Cranial bone
     9.6.4 Tooth dentin
9.7 Other Prospective Optical Techniques
     9.7.1 Polarization measurements
     9.7.2 Confocal microscopy
     9.7.3 Fluorescence detection
     9.7.4 Two-photon scanning fluorescence microscopy
     9.7.5 Second harmonic generation
     9.7.6 Vibrational, Raman, and CARS spectroscopy
     9.7.7 Tissue clearing in the terahertz range
9.8 Imaging of Cells and Cell Flows
     9.8.1 Blood flow imaging
     9.8.2 Optical clearing of blood
     9.8.3 Cell studies
     9.8.4 "Self-clearing" or metabolic clearing effects
9.9 Applications of the Tissue Immersion Technique
     9.9.1 Glucose sensing
     9.9.2 Characterization of atherosclerotic vascular tissues
     9.9.3 Optical imaging of lymph nodes
     9.9.4 Precision femtosecond laser surgery
     9.9.5 Skin tattoo imaging and laser removal
9.10 Other Techniques for Controlling Tissue Optical Properties
     9.10.1 Tissue compression and stretching
     9.10.2 Temperature effects and tissue coagulation
     9.10.3 Tissue whitening
9.11 Conclusion


10 Continuous Wave Spectrophotometry and Imaging
10.1 Techniques and Instruments for in vivo Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues
10.2 Example of the Spectroscopic System
10.3 Example of the Imaging System
10.4 Light Scattering Spectroscopy


11 Time-Resolved and Spatially Modulated Spectroscopy and Tomography of Tissues
11.1 Time-Domain Techniques and Instruments
11.2 Frequency-Domain Techniques and Instruments
11.3 Phased-Array Technique
11.4 In vivo Measurements, Detection Limits, and Examples of Clinical Study
11.5 Spatially Modulated Method

12 Polarization-Sensitive Techniques
12.1 Polarization Imaging
     12.1.1 Transillumination polarization technique
     12.1.2 Backscattering polarization imaging
12.2 Polarized Reflectance Spectroscopy of Tissues
     12.2.1 In-depth polarization spectroscopy
     12.2.2 Superficial epithelial layer polarization spectroscopy
12.3 Polarization Microscopy
12.4 Digital Photoelasticity Measurements
12.5 Fluorescence Polarization Measurements
12.6 Conclusion

13 Coherence-Domain Methods and Instruments for Biomedical Diagnostics and Imaging
13.1 Photon-Correlation Spectroscopy of Transparent Tissues and Cell Flows
     13.1.1 Introduction
     13.1.2 Cataract diagnostics
     13.1.3 Blood and lymph flow monitoring in microvessels
13.2 Diffusion-Wave Spectroscopy and Interferometry: Measurement of Blood Microcirculation
13.3 Blood Flow Imaging
13.4 Interferometric and Speckle-Interferometric Methods for the Measurement of Biovibrations
13.5 Optical Speckle Topography and Tomography of Tissues
13.6 Methods of Coherent Microscopy
13.7 Interferential Retinometry and Blood Sedimentation Study

14 Optical Coherence Tomography and Heterodye Imaging
14.1 Optical Coherence Tomography
     14.1.1 Introduction
     14.1.2 Time-domain OCT
     14.1.3 Two-wavelength fiber OCT
     14.1.4 Ultrahigh-resolution fiber OCT
     14.1.5 Frequency-domain OCT
     14.1.6 Doppler OCT and blood flow measurements
     14.1.7 Polarization sensitive OCT
     14.1.8 Phase-sensitive OCT
     14.1.9 Optical coherence elastography
     14.1.10 Full-field OCT
     14.1.11 Optical coherence microscopy
     14.1.12 Endoscopic OCT
     14.1.13 Speckle OCT
     14.1.14 OCT quantitative parametric imaging of attenuation
     14.1.15 Combined OCT systems
14.2 Optical Heterodyne Imaging
14.3 Summary


Preface to Third Edition

The idea to publish the third edition of this book was stimulated by several factors and strongly supported by SPIE Press staff. A couple of years ago, SPIE Press received requests to republish this book in Russian by Fizmatlit Publishers (Moscow) and in Japanese by Optronics (Tokyo). Since the second edition of the English language book was issued seven years ago, and accounting for rapid developments in the field of tissue optics and corresponding optical medical instrumentation, the author offered to provide the further updates of this book to SPIE Press before its translation. In addition, the book structure was changed to provide more convenient and readable presented materials. The third edition contains 14 chapters instead of 9, as in the second edition. In addition, chapters related to optical coherence tomography, digital holography and interferometry, controlling of optical properties of tissues, nonlinear spectroscopy, and imaging were substantially updated.

Since the second edition of Tissue Optics, many other monographs, special issues of journals, and conference proceedings have been published related to tissue optics and biophotonics. This highlights the urgency of this research field and education, as well as the growing market for biomedical optics, medical lasers and fibers, optical biosensors, high-speed digital cameras, other devices for medical diagnostics and treatment, and skill training. These books and journals address similar issues to those discussed in this monograph; in many ways, they are essentially complementary to Tissue Optics and can be recommended for more in-depth study of selected topics.

The previous editions of Tissue Optics contained two glossaries on (1) physics, statistics, and engineering; and (2) medicine, biology, and chemistry. These glossaries have been considerably updated and were published recently as a separate book, V. V. Tuchin, Dictionary of Biomedical Optics and Biophotonics SPIE Press (2012). Therefore, the third edition does not contain Glossaries because the reader can use this published dictionary instead.

The book is intended for researchers, teachers, and graduate and undergraduate students specializing in the physics of living systems, biomedical optics and biophotonics, laser biophysics, and applications of lasers in biomedicine. This monograph can be useful as a textbook for students of physical, engineering, biological, and medical specialties.

Valery V. Tuchin
December 2014

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