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Spie Press Book

Applications of Dispersive Optical Spectroscopy Systems
Author(s): Wilfried Neumann
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Book Description

Bridging the gap between a theoretical background in applied spectroscopy systems and practical recommendations, Applications of Dispersive Optical Spectroscopy Systems addresses the requirements, recommended configurations, and the justification and verification of systems for various applications. Topics include the selection and combination of components to fulfill requirements, as well as methods to justify the functionality. This book is suitable for students, engineers, and scientists looking for a concise text that provides background knowledge, perspective, and technical details for system designers and an easy-to-read compendium for specialists.

Book Details

Date Published: 30 March 2015
Pages: 224
ISBN: 9781628413724
Volume: PM253

Table of Contents
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Table of Contents


1 Transmission, Absorption, and Reflection Measurements
1.0 Introduction
     1.0.1 Principles
     1.0.2 Absorption measurements
     1.0.3 Reflection measurement
1.1 Techniques for Static Absorption Measurements
     1.1.1 Technical realization of an optimal spectrophotometer for absorption and reflection
     1.1.2 Detection range at the wavelength and signal scale
     1.1.3 Data-acquisition methods
     1.1.4 Light path and spectral disturbance
     1.1.5 The optimal spectrophotometer
     1.1.6 A standard high-performance spectrophotometer
     1.1.7 Spectrophotometer with parallel wavelength detection
     1.1.8 Detection range on the wavelength and signal scale with parallel wavelength detection, and single-beam spectrophotometers
     1.1.9 Proposal for a universal sample chamber for dual-beam spectrophotometry
     1.1.10 Calibration and the definition of stray light
1.2 Dynamic Absorption Measurements
     1.2.1 Typical experiments
1.3 Special Absorption Techniques
     1.3.1 Atomic absorption spectroscopy
 The principle of an atomic absorption spectrometer
 Applicable elements for AAS
 Compensation techniques without broadband lamps
     1.3.2 Polarized transmission: CD and ORD
 The origin of circularly polarized light, with alternating circulation
 Set up and functionality of a CD spectrometer with ORD option
 Instrumental considerations
     1.3.3 Spectrometers for scattered transmission
 Absorption spectrophotometer with an extra-large detector
 Dual-beam fiber optic spectrophotometer for kinetics and scattering
 Absorption spectrophotometer with an integrating sphere
     1.3.4 Photoacoustic (optoacoustic) spectroscopy
 Parameters that affect the PAS signal
 Setup of a PAS system
 Preferred PAS/OAS applications and referencing

2 Ellipsometry
2.0 Introduction
2.1 Elements of Spectroscopic Ellipsometers
     2.1.1 The Stokes parameters
     2.1.2 Research-grade spectroscopic ellipsometers
 Spectroscopic ellipsometer with a rotating polarizer
 Spectroscopic ellipsometer with rotating analyzer
2.2 Applications of Spectroscopic Ellipsometry
     2.2.1 Building blocks of SE for research, material analysis, and product definition
2.3 Basic Equations of RPSE Parameters Presented by Software and in Literature
2.4 Comparison between SE and Single-Wavelength Ellipsometry
2.5 Production-Oriented SE
     2.5.1 SE with parallel detection
     2.5.2 in situ SE
     2.5.3 SE with a reduced spot size
2.6 Data Origin and Reduction
2.7 Limits of the SE Method
     2.7.1 Measurement of P, the degree of polarization
2.8 SE Examples
2.9 Extensions of the Instrumentation for Spectroscopic Ellipsometry
     2.9.1 SE system for the deep UV
     2.9.2 SE system for the IR range
2.10 Calibration of SE Systems
2.11 Photometric Applications by SE Systems

3 Emission Spectroscopy
3.0 Introduction
     3.0.1 Instrumental technology for the acquisition of emission spectra
     3.0.2 Typical emission spectra
     3.0.3 Setup based on 2D Echelle spectrometers
 Stationary 2D Echelle spectrometer
 2D Echelle spectrometer with a small detector surface
 MCP-2D-Echelle spectrometer
     3.0.4 Scanning (Echelle) spectrometers
3.1 Atomic Emission Spectroscopy
     3.1.1 Scanning AES
     3.1.2 Parallel-detecting AES
3.2 Cathodo luminescence spectroscopy
3.3 Spectroscopy at Inductively Coupled Plasma
     3.3.1 ICP examples
3.4 Spark Optical Emission Spectroscopy
3.5 Laser Ablation
3.6 Plasma Etching
3.7 Solar and Stellar Emission
3.8 Emission Measurements at Explosions and Flames

4 Luminescence
4.0 Introduction
     4.0.1 Parameters of luminescence measurements
     4.0.2 Requirements of luminescence measurements
4.1 Setup of a Static Luminescence Spectrophotometer
     4.1.1 Light path and spectral disturbance
     4.1.2 Details of a static photoluminescence spectrophotometer
 The excitation arm
 Creation of the reference signal
 Justification of a double monochromator in the excitation branch
 Illumination of the sample
 The emission light pass
 Spectral dispersion and processing of the luminescent light
     4.1.3 Measurement methods of static luminescence spectroscopy
 Emission scan
 Excitation scan
 Fluorescence polarization
 Acquisition of the total fluorescence
 Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)
 Two-photon excitation/upward luminescence
 Modulated excitation for NIR/IR, and phosphorescence
 Laser excitation
 Luminescence microscopy
 Confocal microscopy and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy
 Remote luminescence
     4.1.4 Summary of the requirements for a static luminescence spectrophotometer
     4.1.5 Calibration, comparison of systems, and stray light tests
 Comparison of luminescence systems and performance test
 Weakness of the Raman-on-water method
 Stray light test of the excitation arm
 Stray light test of the emission arm
4.2 Dynamic Luminescence/Lifetime Measurements
     4.2.1 Available instrumentation
 Analysis of the change in the state of polarization
 Pulsed methods
 Synchronized integration, also called boxcar integration or pulse/sample analysis
 Single photon counting: TCSPC
     4.2.2 Continuous methods
 Phase/modulation analysis
 Setup of a phase/modulation system
 Multiharmonic Fourier transform systems
     4.2.3 Methods using parallel wavelength detection
 Synchronized CCD gating
 Modulated MCP/CCD analysis
     4.2.4 Pulsed excitation and streak camera detection
 Description of a streak camera lifetime system

5 Radiometry
5.0 Introduction
5.1 Radiometric Parameters
     5.1.1 Definition and measurement of the spectral radiant power
 The sphere
 Data collection, interpretation, and processing, exemplary for a radiant flux measurement
 System limits
     5.1.2 Measurement of the spectral irradiance E and the radiance L
 Fixed mounting of a sphere and spectrometer
 Definition of a sphere to work with a pre-defined V or steradian
 Acquisition of radiation from pulsed sources
     5.1.3 Radiometry with parallel-detecting spectrographs
5.2 Radiometric Sample Illumination
     5.2.1 General requirements, independent from the application
 Bandwidth: the spectral bandwidth
 Bandwidth: the uniformity of the wavelength over the slitwidth
 Wavelength (wavenumber, photon energy, frequency): accuracy of the wavelength
 Wavelength range: the useful range
 Illuminated area: size and shape
 Irradiance E at the illuminated surface
 Uniformity of irradiance E over the illuminated area
 Stray light/false light, tolerated by the experiment
 Spectral illumination with a reference channel for calibrated flux of radiation
5.3 Analysis of Spectral and Power Spatial Distribution Provided by the System
     5.3.1 Reference analysis by a single point detector
     5.3.2 Analysis of spectral and power distribution over the illuminated field
5.4 Calibration of Radiometric Spectral Data
     5.4.1 Description of a realized system and its calibration with a certified source, enabling calibrated source analysis
 Experimental considerations
 Experimental operations
     5.4.2 Calibration facilities

6 Raman and Brillouin Spectroscopy
6.0 Introduction to Scattering Spectroscopy
6.1 The Principle of Raman Spectroscopy Measurements
6.2 Requirements for a Raman Spectrometer
     6.2.1 Spectrometer options
     6.2.2 Summary of wavelength dependence
6.3 Beam Travel and Spectral Interferences
6.4 Exemplary Raman and Brillouin Spectra
6.5 Design or Selection of Raman Spectrometers
     6.5.1 The wavelength of excitation
     6.5.2 Applicable distance of Raman signals
 Single-stage spectrometer with notch filter
 Double spectrometers versus single-stage systems
 Stray light consideration
 Spectrometers for measurements extremely close to the Rayleigh line, Brillouin spectrometers
 Triple spectrometers, the work horses of Raman and Brillouin spectroscopy
 Estimation on the impact of Rayleigh scattering in different systems
6.6 Special Raman Methods
     6.6.1 Raman versus fluorescence
     6.6.2 NIR Raman
     6.6.3 UV Raman
     6.6.4 Raman microscopy
 Confocal Raman microscopy
     6.6.5 Resonance Raman (RR)
     6.6.6 Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)
     6.6.7 Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS)

7 Spectrometry of Laser Light
7.0 Introduction
     7.0.1 Near field and far field
     7.0.2 Considerations
7.1 Measurements in the UV�Vis�NIR Range
     7.1.1 Spectral analysis of lasers with single or rather distant lines, and small-beam cross-section (like He-Ne, argon ion, or other gas lasers)
 Required working range and bandwidth/resolution of the spectrometer
 High-resolution, single-stage spectrometer limits
 Ultra-high-resolution spectrometers
7.2 Fabry-Perot Interferometer
7.3 Spectral Measurements of Large Laser Images
7.4 Imaging Analysis
7.5 Hyperspectral Analysis
7.6 Commercial Analysis Systems



My search for universal and comprehensive literature on dispersive optical spectroscopy revealed many gaps. The books with very basic information are rather theoretical and dig deep into arithmetic derivations to calculate spectrometers, illumination, and detection. The majority of books about the different applications of optical spectroscopy are either very theoretical or are "cookbooks" that do not explain the rationale for doing something a certain way. Even though several books bridge the gap between background knowledge and instrumental realization, I found none that combines the different techniques. The books with comprehensive content (available from the vendors of dispersers, spectrometers, detectors, and applied systems) naturally feature the advantages of the supported products, but they rarely offer an overall view.

For more than twenty years, I have calculated and delivered special dispersive spectroscopy systems for different applications. In the time between inquiry and decision, customers wanted to justify my presentation and compare it. A common problem was finding useful references to verify my calculations and predictions. So, I often, wrote long letters combining the different parameters of the project. Several of my customers - industrial project managers as well as researchers - not only acknowledged the proposals but also often used the papers to check the instrumental performance at delivery. Because the proposals fit the requirements and the predictions were at least reached, their confidence was earned. Customers used my papers for internal documentation and teaching.

Several asked me to provide the knowledge in a general, written database in order to encompass the theory, practice, and applications. After my retirement from regular work, I did just that and published my writing on my homepage ( The content has since been improved and extended into a pair of books, the second of which you are reading now. This volume complements my previous book, Fundamentals of Dispersive Optical Spectroscopy Systems (SPIE Press, 2014), which describes and evaluates the parameters relevant to spectrometer systems, as well as the most important equations and their interpretation for dispersion elements, basic spectrometer concepts, illumination, light transfer, and detection. In principle, it also combines the parameters of the components into function groups (building blocks) and performance curves; however, it only briefly touches on the requirements of the multiple, and very different, applications in optical spectroscopy. Separating the fundamentals and applications was necessary to keep the topics manageable and concise.

It is not the goal of this book to introduce the chemistry, biology, or physics behind applications. The theory is only discussed if it is required to discuss spectrophotometric parameters. Like every other kind of technical equipment, a certain solution benefits the user the better it fits the application requirements. Thus, it is useful to connect measurement needs and the available technology.

The aim of this book is to supply students, scientists, and technicians entering the field of optical spectroscopy with a complete and concise tutorial; to offer background knowledge, perspective, and technical details to system designers for reference purposes; and to provide an easy-to-read compendium for specialists familiar with the details of optical spectroscopy. The technical requirements are developed and converted or compared with existing solutions. In some cases, nonexistent "ideal" or "optimal" systems are defined because they will help determine what compromise must be made for the planned system. These comparisons can help estimate whether an experiment is possible by dispersive optical spectroscopy and within what limits. Engineers and laboratory technicians may support their work with background information about typical systems or - if required - justify existing systems with respect to other applications.


My thanks are first addressed to my wife, Heidi, for her patience during the months spent investigating, reviewing, and writing. I also thank those who urged me to start writing in the first place and who collected data and calculations. It is my pleasure to thank the numerous customers who challenged me with requirements not fulfilled by systems offered by existing systems, and their trust to buy systems without possible previous tests. I also appreciate the companies that employed me for over 30 years and supported my ideas and plans to implement the special systems. After the manuscript was given to SPIE, external reviewers spent much effort on the content, providing corrections and suggestions for improvement; that valuable support came from Mr. Robert Jarratt and Dr. Alexander Scheeline. Last but not least, I'd like to thank Tim Lamkins, Scott McNeill, and Kerry McManus Eastwood at SPIE for the work they invested into the project. I hope that readers will find useful details that further their interest or work.

Wilfried Neumann
December 2014

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