Phantoms with Skin-Mimicking Layers of Variable Pigmentation Level: Characterizing Impacts of Melanin on Photoacoustic Imaging Systems
Many applications of photoacoustic imaging (PAI) involve transdermal light delivery, and variable epidermal melanin content may be a potential confounding factor causing signal attenuation and imaging artifacts such as clutter. We developed polyvinyl chloride plastisol (PVCP) phantoms including epidermal and dermal layers. Skin phantoms were placed atop a breast-mimicking PVCP phantom to assess image quality. Nigrosin was added to epidermal layers to simulate Fitzpatrick Types I-VI and yielded a melanin-like spectral slope. Image quality testing indicated that higher pigmentation caused stronger clutter and reduced imaging depth. Phantom-based test methods may support evaluation of PAI device sensitivity to skin pigmentation variation.
U.S. Food and Drug Administration (United States)
William Vogt received his BS in mechanical engineering from UMass Amherst in 2009 and his PhD in biomedical engineering from Virginia Tech in 2013. He currently leads FDA’s photoacoustic imaging regulatory science program, which develops tools and test methods for evaluating the safety and effectiveness of photoacoustic imaging devices. His research interests include photoacoustics, tissue phantoms, nanoparticles, medical imaging, image quality, and standardization.