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SPIE Professional October 2010

R&D Highlights

Editor's Recommendation: Journal of Biomedical Optics

Ruikang K. Wang, professor at Oregon Health & Science University (USA) and an editorial board member of the Journal of Biomedical Optics, recommends "Speckle fluctuation spectroscopy of intracellular motion in living tissue using coherence-domain digital holography," in the May/June issue of the Journal of Biomedical Optics.

Authors Kwan Jeong, John J. Turek, and David D. Nolte report on how they performed fluctuation spectroscopy on dynamic light scattering, which was captured using coherence-domain digital holography. They obtained the spectral response of tissue that was perturbed by temperature, osmolarity, and antimitotic cytoskeletal drugs.

Different perturbations induced specific spectrogram response signatures that can show simultaneous enhancement and suppression in different spectral ranges.

The authors note that dynamic speckle from 3D coherence-gated optical sections provides a sensitive, label-free measure of cellular activity up to 1 mm deep in living tissue and that specificity to cellular functionality had not previously been demonstrated.

Diagnostic approaches using dynamic speckle and 3D imaging are important for monitoring blood flow and for assessing the health of living tissue, tissue viability, pharmacological toxicity, and cancer progression.

Nolte is a frequent presenter at SPIE conferences and has submitted a paper for SPIE Photonics West 2011 on fluctuation imaging.

This work, which is open access in the SPIE Digital Library, was supported by a National Science Foundation grant. Jeong gratefully acknowledges financial support from the STX Foundation.

Source: Journal of Biomedical Optics 15, 030514 (2010); doi:10.1117/1.3456369.

What would Edison do?

In a plenary talk on solid-state lighting at SPIE Optics + Photonics, SPIE Fellow Ian Ferguson (University of North Carolina, Charlotte) drew inspiration from Thomas Edison to discuss the innovations that are needed before SSL technologies can replace incandescent lamps. He reviewed "Edison-like" contributions to this next-generation lighting by researchers at Georgia Institute of Technology, who are coauthors of the paper published in the SPIE Digital Library.

Ferguson also discussed how SSL sources may enable new functionality beyond simple illumination, noting recent evidence for the positive health benefits of full-spectrum light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in regulating circadian rhythm, our physiological "clock."

SPIE Fellow Ian Ferguson
Plenary speaker SPIE Fellow Ian Ferguson on solid-state lighting at SPIE Optics + Photonics.

Source: Proceedings of SPIE 7784, 77840A (2010); doi:10.1117/12.863800

Special journal sections on nanophotonics

The Journal of Nanophotonics had several special sections this year, including one with selected papers from the 2nd Mediterranean Conference on Nanophotonics and one honoring Craig F. Bohren.

Manuscripts from the October 2009 conference in Greece focus on devices (metamaterial-, plasmon-mode-, and waveguides-based) as well as on nanophotonics-related measurement techniques such as differential evanescent light-intensity imaging.

The special section commemorating the 70th birthday of Bohren, distinguished professor emeritus of meteorology at Pennsylvania State University, has papers on scattering by nanoparticles and other nanostructures. A video interview with Bohren is also available at spie.org/jnp.

Future special sections will cover nanostructured thin films, metamaterials, nanophotonics materials, and nanoengineering.

Source: spiedl.org/jnp

3 win Kingslake Medal for design of femtosecond laser pulse shaper

The 2009 Rudolf Kingslake Medal and Prize has been awarded to Hans Knuppertz, Michael Bohling, and SPIE Fellow Jürgen Jahns of Fern Universität (Germany) for their paper, "All-reflective planar-integrated free-space micro-optical femtosecond pulse shaper," published in the December 2009 issue of Optical Engineering.

The Kingslake Award Committee recognized the vitally important technology of shaping optical pulses with durations in the femtosecond range, without dispersion, for numerous applications in material processing and biomedical research. The SPIE journal article describes a novel design for a compact pulse shaper that adopts an all-reflective optical system fabricated by micromachining, and which has the potential of integrating a spatial light modulator for advanced signal filtering.

An honorarium of $2,000 comes with the prize.

SPIE Fellow Jürgen Jahns receives the Rudolf Kingslake Medal from SPIE President-Elect Katarina Svanberg for a paper he coauthored.

Source: Optical Engineering 48, 123001 (2009); doi:10.1117/1.3269689

Efficient solar concentrators

Roland Winston, director of the Energy Research Institute at the University of California, Merced, reviews the calculations that will make possible an increase in efficiency of solar concentrating power generation in "Design principles of the first fixed 4X solar concentrator." Efficiency is limited by sun-earth geometry, with the maximum concentration subject to the laws of nonimaging optics.

Winston told a conference at SPIE Optics + Photonics that he expects to be able to achieve 5X efficiency by "maximally matching the acceptance of concentrators to the sun's direction."

Source: Proceedings of SPIE 7785, 77850B (2010); doi:10.1117/12.863248

"Smart" membrane systems can control gas with light

A new membrane developed at the University of Rochester blocks gas from flowing through it when one color of light is shined on its surface and permits gas to flow through when another color of light is used.

The membrane is a piece of hard plastic riddled with tiny holes that are filled with liquid crystals and a dye. When purple light illuminates the surface of the membrane, the dye molecules straighten out and the liquid crystals fall into line, which allows gas to easily flow through the holes. But when ultraviolet light illuminates the surface, the dye molecules bend into a banana shape and the liquid crystals scatter into random orientations, clogging the tunnel and blocking gas from penetrating.

Controlling a membrane's permeability with light is preferable to controlling it with heat or electricity "two readily used alternative methods" for several reasons, according to Eric Glowacki, a co-author of a paper presented at SPIE Optics + Photonics in San Diego. For example, light can operate remotely; instead of attaching electrical lines to the membrane, a lamp or laser can be directed at the membrane from a distance. This could allow engineers to make much smaller, simpler setups. The membrane could also be useful in controlled drug delivery and any tasks that require the ability to turn the flow of gas on and off.

The paper is titled "Photoswitchable gas permeation membranes based on azobenzene-doped liquid crystals II. Permeation-switching characterization under variable volume and variable pressure conditions." Glowacki's co-authors are K. Hunt, D. Abud, and K.L. Marshall.

Sources: University of Rochester, and Proceedings of SPIE 7775, 77750G (2010); doi:10.1117/12.860635

OPV, OLEDs in new SPIE e-journal

Authors in conferences on OLEDs and organic photovoltaics at SPIE Optics + Photonics are participating in a new publishing model, with their August 2010 manuscripts being reviewed as submissions for special sections in the new SPIE Journal of Photonics for Energy, in lieu of proceedings publication.

Other interested journal authors working in appropriate fields are invited to submit manuscripts for review as well.

The journal will launch in January, with SPIE Fellow Zakya Kafafi, director of the materials research division at the National Science Foundation, as editor. The journal will be freely available in the SPIE Digital Library for the first year.

Have a question or comment about this article? Write to us at spieprofessional@spie.org.

DOI: 10.1117/2.4201010.08

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