Proceedings Volume 8382

Active and Passive Signatures III

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Proceedings Volume 8382

Active and Passive Signatures III

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Volume Details

Date Published: 7 May 2012
Contents: 7 Sessions, 21 Papers, 0 Presentations
Conference: SPIE Defense, Security, and Sensing 2012
Volume Number: 8382

Table of Contents

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Table of Contents

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  • Front Matter: Volume 8382
  • Active and Passive Signatures III
  • Materials Detection Signatures
  • Human Signatures
  • Spectral Signatures
  • Mathematical Methods
  • Atmospheric and Tropospheric Signatures
Front Matter: Volume 8382
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Front Matter: Volume 8382
This PDF file contains the front matter associated with SPIE Proceedings Volume 8382, including the Title Page, Copyright information, Table of Contents, and the Conference Committee listing.
Active and Passive Signatures III
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Disaster relief through composite signatures
Chadwick T. Hawley, Brian Hyde, Tom Carpenter, et al.
A composite signature is a group of signatures that are related in such a way to more completely or further define a target or operational endeavor at a higher fidelity. This paper builds on previous work developing innovative composite signatures associated with civil disasters, including physical, chemical and pattern/behavioral. For the composite signature approach to be successful it requires effective data fusion and visualization. This plays a key role in both preparedness and the response and recovery which are critical to saving lives. Visualization tools enhance the overall understanding of the crisis by pulling together and analyzing the data, and providing a clear and complete analysis of the information to the organizations/agencies dependant on it for a successful operation. An example of this, Freedom Web, is an easy-to-use data visualization and collaboration solution for use in homeland security, emergency preparedness, situational awareness, and event management. The solution provides a nationwide common operating picture for all levels of government through a web based, map interface. The tool was designed to be utilized by non-geospatial experts and is easily tailored to the specific needs of the users. Consisting of standard COTS and open source databases and a web server, users can view, edit, share, and highlight information easily and quickly through a standard internet browser.
The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) multimodal signature database (MMSDB) advanced data storage solutions and security of data over the web
Kelly Bennett, James Robertson
The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) archives vast amounts of data requiring a secure, portable file format, along with a versatile software library for storing and accessing its data. Hierarchical Data Format 5 (HDF5) is a popular, general-purpose library and open-source file format designed for archiving data, and providing extreme interoperability and data encryption for secure accessibility. This paper will provide an overview of the current state of effectively integrating encryption algorithms into HDF5 datasets, along with possible applications, expectations, and limitations, including a discussion on creating a framework for dissemination of sensitive data over the Web.
An interactive 2-D power-line modeling and simulation tool
David Hull, Ross Adelman
The U.S. Army Research Laboratory's Power-Line unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) Modeling and Simulation (ARL-PLUMS) is a tool for estimating and analyzing quasi-static electric and magnetic fields due to power lines. This tool consists of an interactive 2-D graphical user interface (GUI) and a compute engine that can be used to calculate and visualize the E-Field and H-Field due to as many as seven conductors (two 3-phase circuits and a ground wire). ARL-PLUMS allows the user to set the geometry of the lines and the load conditions on those lines, and then calculate Ey, Ez, Hy, or Hz along a linear path or cutting plane, or in the form of a movie. The path can be along the ground or in the air to simulate the fields that might be observed, for example, by a robotic vehicle or a UAV. ARL-PLUMS makes several simplifying assumptions in order to allow simulations to be completed on a laptop PC interactively. In most cases, the results are excellent, providing a "90% solution" in just a few minutes of total modeling and simulation time. This paper describes the physics used by ARL-PLUMS, including the simplifying assumptions and the 2-D Method of Moments solver. Examples of electric and magnetic fields for different wire configurations, including typical 3-phase distribution and transmissions lines, are provided. Comparisons to similar results using a full 3-D model are also shown, and a discussion of errors that may be expected from the 2-D simulations is provided.
Materials Detection Signatures
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Enhancing nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) signature detection leveraging interference suppression algorithms
James A. DeBardelaben, Jeremy K. Miller, Wilbur L. Myrick, et al.
Nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) is a radio frequency (RF) magnetic spectroscopic technique that has been shown to detect and identify a wide range of explosive materials containing quadrupolar nuclei. The NQR response signal provides a unique signature of the material of interest. The signal is, however, very weak and can be masked by non-stationary RF interference (RFI) and thermal noise, limiting detection distance. In this paper, we investigate the bounds on the NQR detection range for ammonium nitrate. We leverage a low-cost RFI data acquisition system composed of inexpensive B-field sensing and commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) software-defined radios (SDR). Using collected data as RFI reference signals, we apply adaptive filtering algorithms to mitigate RFI and enable NQR detection techniques to approach theoretical range bounds in tactical environments.
Entangled-photons Raman spectroscopy
It is well known that Raman spectroscopy suers from low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In this paper we oer a general framework based on quantum illumination that describes Rayleigh and Raman spectroscopy using an arbitrarily large number of entangled and non-entangled photons. Our objective is to analyze Rayleigh and Raman spectroscopy as a quantum information channel and study its asymptotic limits. In particular, if we consider quantum entanglement as an information resource, then the use of entangled photons oers an exponentially large improvement on the SNR of the Raman spectrometer. That is, the correlations embedded in quantum entanglement can be exploited to enhance the Raman signature of tested samples.
Neutron detection based on capture-gamma sensing and calorimetry
Guntram Pausch, Claus-Michael Herbach, Dean Mitchell, et al.
Passive radiation detection systems have been developed to screen passengers, vehicles, and cargo for illicit radioactive sources by measuring gamma and neutron signatures with separate, specialized sensors. The paper introduces a novel concept combining neutron and gamma sensing in a single detector, thus reducing the overall expense. Low-cost converter media capture thermal neutrons and commute neutron flux in energetic gammas, which are then detected by a common gamma detector. Energy signals above 3 MeV indicate the neutron captures. Two prototype systems are presented: (1) The NCD-BGO, a segmented 655 ml BGO scintillator with embedded Cd absorber, demonstrated an intrinsic thermal-neutron detection efficiency of about 50%. (2) The PVTNG, comprising 75 l of PVT scintillator complemented with PVC panels, exhibited a neutron sensitivity of 1.9 cps/ng of 252Cf, thus almost meeting the corresponding requirement for Radiation Portal Monitors. Moreover, an unconventional construction of scintillator and light readout, combined with innovative electronics and proper detector stabilization, improved the gamma detector performance noticeably and enabled nuclide identification.
Photofission signatures for the detection of highly enriched uranium
S. A. Pozzi, S. D. Clarke
Linear-accelerator (LINAC) driven active interrogation systems are under increasing investigation for the detection and characterization of nuclear materials, such as uranium-235. Prompt-neutron emission during active interrogation is not unique to fissionable material; photoneutron reactions occur in common materials such as lead. Consequently, accurate simulation of the yield, multiplicity, and energy spectra of photoneutrons, as well as the detector response, is paramount in designing an effective interrogation system. Advanced Monte Carlo codes such as MCNPX-PoliMi are ideal for simulating these quantities. In this paper, we present new results of simulations performed with MCNPX-PoliMi using LINAC-based interrogating sources on HEU, depleted uranium, and lead.
Detection and identification of compound explosive using the SDA method of the reflected THz signal
The SDA (Spectral Dynamics Analysis) method was applied for the detection and identification of two mixtures of explosive (Hexogen-Trinitrotoluene-Penthryte and Hexogen-Trinitrotoluene-Octogen) hidden under various coverings - the thin, rough, thick layers of Polyethylene foils and a layer of cotton. The main difficulty for identification consists in fact that the mixtures have practically identical spectral properties both in the Stand-Off (reflection nearly at 90°) and Specular (reflection at 45°) mode. The presence of covering makes additional difficulties for identification because it distorts the spectral properties of the reflected THz signal. Nevertheless, it is possible to find the identifiers characterizing the presence of the individual explosive in the mixtures under the covering analyzing the spectrograms and dynamics of spectral lines of the main pulses and the sub-pulses following the main pulse.
Resonance structure of water complexes of beta-HMX for THz frequencies
L. Huang, A. Shabaev, S. G. Lambrakos, et al.
Calculations are presented of ground state resonance structure associated with water complexes of -HMX using density functional theory (DFT), which is for subsequent construction of permittivity functions to be used for simulations of explosives detection within a humid environment. The DFT software GAUSSIAN was used for the calculations of ground state resonance structure presented.
Human Signatures
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Data dependency on measurement uncertainties in speaker recognition evaluation
Jin Chu Wu, Alvin F. Martin, Craig S. Greenberg, et al.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology conducts an ongoing series of Speaker Recognition Evaluations (SRE). Speaker detection performance is measured using a detection cost function defined as a weighted sum of the probabilities of type I and type II errors. The sampling variability can result in measurement uncertainties. In our prior study, the data independency was assumed in using the nonparametric two-sample bootstrap method to compute the standard errors (SE) of the detection cost function based on our extensive bootstrap variability studies in ROC analysis on large datasets. In this article, the data dependency caused by multiple uses of the same subjects is taken into account. The data are grouped into target sets and non-target sets, and each set contains multiple scores. One-layer and two-layer bootstrap methods are proposed based on whether the two-sample bootstrap resampling takes place only on target sets and non-target sets, or subsequently on target scores and non-target scores within the sets, respectively. The SEs of the detection cost function using these two methods along with those with the assumption of data independency are compared. It is found that the data dependency increases both estimated SEs and the variations of SEs. Some suggestions regarding the test design are provided.
Speckle signatures of articulating humans
D. G. Conrad III, E. A. Watson
Speckle is a well-investigated interference phenomenon that is produced by coherent light scattering off a rough surface. While speckle is often considered a noise source, it can be used to obtain information about the object. We investigate a non-imaging technique using speckle statistics to estimate object articulation. It is known that the speckle intensity in the far field depends on two factors: the illumination distribution at the object and the field correlation properties of the materials composing the object. It is anticipated that as an object articulates, perhaps periodically as in a person walking, the object illumination distribution, and therefore average speckle size in the far field, will vary in time. An estimate of the time variation of the average speckle size can then be used to estimate the motion of the object. In this paper we investigate, through simulation and lab experiments, the effect of object articulation on speckle statistics. We find that the motion of a person walking will produce a measurable variation in speckle statistics (intensity correlation function) and that the correlation function can be estimated from a single speckle realization.
The use of spectral skin reflectivity and laser doppler vibrometry data to determine the optimal site and wavelength to collect human vital sign signatures
Kenneth A. Byrd, Balvinder Kaur, Van A. Hodgkin
The carotid artery has been used extensively by researchers to demonstrate that Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV) is capable of exploiting vital sign signatures from cooperative human subjects at stando. Research indicates that, the carotid, although good for cooperative and non-traumatic scenarios, is one of the first vital signs to become absent or irregular when a casualty is hemorrhaging and in progress to circulatory (hypovolemic) shock. In an effort to determine the optimal site and wavelength to measure vital signs off human skin, a human subject data collection was executed whereby 14 subjects had their spectral skin reflectivity and vital signs measured at five collection sites (carotid artery, chest, back, right wrist and left wrist). In this paper, we present our findings on using LDV and re ectivity data to determine the optimal collection site and wavelength that should be used to sense pulse signals from quiet and relatively motionless human subjects at stando. In particular, we correlate maximum levels of re ectivity across the ensemble of 14 subjects with vital sign measurements made with an LDV at two ranges, for two scenarios.
Spectral Signatures
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Study of hyperspectral characteristics of different types of flares and smoke candles
Modern infrared camouflage and countermeasure technologies used in the context of military operations have evolved rapidly over the last decade. Indeed, some infrared seekers and decoy/flares tend to have spectral sensitivity tailored to closely match the emission signatures of military vehicles (such as aircrafts, tanks) and reject other sources. Similarly, some candles (or smoke bombs) are developed to generate large area screens with very high absorption in the infrared. The Military University of Technology has conducted an intensive field campaign where various types of flares and smoke candles were deployed in different conditions and measured. The high spectral, spatial and temporal resolution acquisition of these thermodynamic events was recorded with the Telops Hyper-Cam. The Hyper-Cam enables simultaneous acquisition of spatial and spectral information at high resolutions in both domains. The ability to study combustion systems with high resolution, co-registered imagery and spectral data is made possible. This paper presents the test campaign concept and definition and the analysis of the recorded measurements.
Multispectral and hyperspectral measurements of soldier's camouflage equipment
Mariusz Kastek, Tadeusz Piątkowski, Rafal Dulski, et al.
In today's electro-optic warfare era, it is more than vital for one nation's defense to possess the most advanced measurement and signature intelligence (MASINT) capabilities. This is critical to gain a strategic advantage in the planning of the military operations and deployments. The thermal infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum is a key region that is exploited for infrared reconnaissance and surveillance missions. The Military University of Technology has conducted an intensive measurement campaign of various soldier's camouflage devices in the scope of building a database of infrared signatures. One of today's key technologies required to perform signature measurements has become infrared hyperspectral and broadband/multispectral imaging sensors. The Telops Hyper-Cam LW product represents a unique commercial offering with outstanding performances and versatility for the collection of hyperspectral infrared images. The Hyper-Cam allows for the infrared imagery of a target (320 × 256 pixels) at a very high spectral resolution (down to 0.25 cm-1). Moreover, the Military University of Technology has made use of a suite of scientific grade commercial infrared cameras to further measure and assess the targets from a broadband/multispectral perspective. The experiment concept and measurement results are presented in this paper.
Blind separation of human- and horse-footstep signatures using independent component analysis
Asif Mehmood, Thyagaraju Damarla
Seismic footstep detection based systems for homeland security applications are important to perimeter protection and other security systems. This paper reports seismic footstep signal separation for a walking horse and a walking human. The well-known Independent Component Analysis (ICA) approach is employed to accomplish this task. ICA techniques have become widely used in audio analysis and source separation. The concept of lCA may actually be seen as an extension of the principal component analysis (PCA), which can only impose independence up to the second order and, consequently, defines directions that are orthogonal. They can also be used in conjunction with a classification method to achieve a high percentage of correct classification and reduce false alarms. In this paper, an ICA based algorithm is developed and implemented on seismic data of human and horse footsteps. The performance of this method is very promising and is demonstrated by the experimental results.
Analysis of electrostatic charge on small-arms projectiles
Stephen Vinci, Jack Zhu, David Hull
Triboelectric (frictional) and combustion processes impart electrostatic charge on projectiles as they are fired. Additional charging and discharging processes alter the magnitude of charge in-flight and are complex functions of a plethora of environmental conditions. There is an interest in using electric-field sensors to help detect and track projectiles in counter-sniper and projectile ranging systems. These applications require knowledge of the quantity of charge, as well as the sensitivity of electric-field sensors. The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) took part in multiple experiments at Aberdeen Proving Grounds (APG) to simulate a battlefield-like environment. Sensors were placed in strategic locations along the bullets' paths and recorded the electric-field signatures of charged small-arms bullets. The focus of this effort was to analyze the electric-field signatures collected during the APG experiment in order to estimate electrostatic charge on the bullets. Algorithms were written to extract electric-field bullet signatures from raw data; these signatures were further processed to estimate the miss distance, velocity and charge. The estimates of range and velocity were compared to similar estimates from acoustic signatures for verification. Ground-truth Global Positioning System (GPS) data were used to independently calculate ranges, azimuths, and miss distances. Signatures were filtered to remove clutter signals from power lines and other unwanted field sources. Closed-form equations were then fitted to the collected signatures to retrieve estimates for the magnitude of charge on the bullets. Test data, collected with sensors placed on a wall, showed enhanced E-field intensity. A Method of Moments (MoM) model of the wall was created to improve signature simulation. Detectable charges on bullets were found to exist in the 1 pC to 1 nC (10-12 - 10-9 C) range. Relationships between estimated charge, gun type, bullet caliber, noise thresholds and number of shots in sequence are presented and statistically analyzed.
Mathematical Methods
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Tripod operators for efficient search of point cloud data for known surface shapes
We address the problem of searching large amounts of 3D point set data for specific objects of interest, as characterized by their surface shape. Motivating applications include the detection of ambush weapons from a convoy and the search for objects of interest on the ground from an aircraft. Such data can occur in the form of relatively unstructured point sets or range images, and can be derived from a variety of sensors. We study here the performance of Tripod Operators (TOs) on synthetic range image data containing the shape of an oil drum; a cylinder with planar top. Tripod Operators are an efficient method of extracting coordinate invariant shape information from surface shape representations using discrete samples extracted in a specially constrained manner. They can be used in a variety of ways as components of a system which performs detection, recognition and localization of objects based on their surface shape. We present experimental results which characterize the approximate accuracy of detection of the test shape as a function of the accuracy of the surface shape data. This is motivated by the need for an estimate of the required accuracy of 3D surveillance data to enable detection of specific shapes.
Acoustic change detection algorithm using an FM radio
Geoffrey H. Goldman, Owen Wolfe
The U.S. Army is interested in developing low-cost, low-power, non-line-of-sight sensors for monitoring human activity. One modality that is often overlooked is active acoustics using sources of opportunity such as speech or music. Active acoustics can be used to detect human activity by generating acoustic images of an area at different times, then testing for changes among the imagery. A change detection algorithm was developed to detect physical changes in a building, such as a door changing positions or a large box being moved using acoustics sources of opportunity. The algorithm is based on cross correlating the acoustic signal measured from two microphones. The performance of the algorithm was shown using data generated with a hand-held FM radio as a sound source and two microphones. The algorithm could detect a door being opened in a hallway.
Atmospheric and Tropospheric Signatures
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Characterization of the atmosphere as a random bit-stream generator
Carlos Font, David Bonanno, Hunter Long, et al.
Characterizing atmospheric turbulence through modeling dates back to the 1960's. For decades scientists have studied how to mitigate the effects of the atmospheric turbulence on communications and imaging systems, but learning how to use those properties of the atmosphere instead of mitigate them raise new challenges. Due to the fact that atmospheric turbulence is inherently a random process, it can be an ideal "key generator" for strongly secure information transfer. The purpose of this effort is to investigate to what extent the atmospheric turbulence can be exploited as a robust random number generator. In this paper we report the progress in characterizing the atmosphere and a random bitstream generator.
Coherent uplink arraying techniques for next generation orbital debris, near earth object, and space situational awareness radar systems
With the successful completion of a field demonstration of uplink arraying at 8 GHz (X-band) using real-time atmospheric compensation enabled by phase transfer rather than time transfer techniques- completion in mid-Aug 2010, NASA is interested in demonstrating a similar capability at 30-31 GHz (Ka band). Such a demonstration would enable NASA to establish [a] a high power, high resolution, 24 / 7 availability radar system for characterizing observations of Near Earth Objects, determining the statistics of small [≤10cm] orbital debris, [ b ] to incorporate the capability into its space communication and navigation tracking stations for emergency spacecraft commanding in the Ka band era which NASA is entering and [c] to field capabilities of interest to other US government agencies. We describe a a project of Evolutionary Steps Leading to Revolutionary Increases in Capability and Capacity