Proceedings Volume 7692

Unmanned Systems Technology XII

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Proceedings Volume 7692

Unmanned Systems Technology XII

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Volume Details

Date Published: 22 April 2010
Contents: 10 Sessions, 53 Papers, 0 Presentations
Conference: SPIE Defense, Security, and Sensing 2010
Volume Number: 7692

Table of Contents

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Table of Contents

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  • Front Matter: Volume 7692
  • Self-Organizing, Collaborative, and Unmanned ISR Robots: Joint Session with Conference 7707
  • Human Robot Interaction (HRI)
  • Perception
  • Special Topics
  • Intelligent Behaviors
  • Mobility
  • Government Programs
  • Navigation
  • Poster Session
Front Matter: Volume 7692
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Front Matter: Volume 7692
This Pdf file contains the Front Matter associated with SPIE Proceedings Volume 7692, including Title page, Copyright information, Table of contents, Conference Committee listing, and Introduction (if any).
Self-Organizing, Collaborative, and Unmanned ISR Robots: Joint Session with Conference 7707
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All weather collision avoidance for unmanned aircraft systems
For decades, military and other national security agencies have been denied unfettered access to the National Air Space (NAS) because their unmanned aircraft lack a highly reliable and effective collision avoidance capability. The controlling agency, the Federal Aviation Administration, justifiably demands "no harm" to the safety of the NAS. To overcome the constraints imposed on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) use of the NAS, a new, complex, conformable collision avoidance system has been developed - one that will be effective in all flyable weather conditions, overcoming the shortfalls of other sensing systems, including radar, lidar, acoustic, EO/IR, etc., while meeting form factor and cost criteria suitable for Tier II UAS operations. The system also targets Tier I as an ultimate goal, understanding the operational limitations of the smallest UASs may require modification of the design that is suitable for Tier II and higher. The All Weather Sense and Avoid System (AWSAS) takes into account the FAA's plan to incorporate ADS-B (out) for all aircraft by 2020, and it is intended to make collision avoidance capability available for UAS entry into the NAS as early as 2013. When approved, UASs can fly mission or training flights in the NAS free of the constraints presently in place. Upon implementation this system will achieve collision avoidance capability for UASs deployed for national security purposes and will allow expansion of UAS usage for commercial or other civil purposes.
Lidar-based door and stair detection from a mobile robot
Mayank Bansal, Ben Southall, Bogdan Matei, et al.
We present an on-the-move LIDAR-based object detection system for autonomous and semi-autonomous unmanned vehicle systems. In this paper we make several contributions: (i) we describe an algorithm for real-time detection of objects such as doors and stairs in indoor environments; (ii) we describe efficient data structures and algorithms for processing 3D point clouds acquired by laser scanners in a streaming manner, which minimize the memory copying and access. We show qualitative results demonstrating the effectiveness of our approach on runs in an indoor office environment.
Human Robot Interaction (HRI)
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Human-robot interaction research for current and future military applications: from the laboratory to the field
Keryl A. Cosenzo, Michael J. Barnes
Unmanned air and ground vehicles are an integral part of military operations. However, the use of the robot goes beyond moving the platform from point A to point B. The operator who is responsible for the robots will have a multitude of tasks to complete; route planning for the robot, monitoring the robot during the mission, monitoring and interpreting the sensor information received by the robot, and communicating that information with others. As a result, the addition of robotics can be considered a burden on the operator if not integrated appropriately into the system. The goal of the US Army Research Laboratory's Human Robotic Interaction (HRI) Program is to enable the Soldier to use robotic systems in a way that increases performance, that is, to facilitate effective collaboration between unmanned systems and the Soldier. The program uses multiple research approaches; modeling, simulation, laboratory experimentation, and field experimentation to achieve this overall goal. We have basic and applied research in HRI to include supervisory control, mounted and dismounted robotic control, and mitigation strategies for the HRI environment. This paper describes our HRI program across these various domains and how our research is supporting both current and future military operations.
Robust natural language dialogues for instruction tasks
Matthias Scheutz
Being able to understand and carry out spoken natural instructions even in limited domains is extremely challenging for current robots. The difficulties are multifarious, ranging from problems with speech recognizers to difficulties with parsing disfluent speech or resolving references based on perceptual or task-based knowledge. In this paper, we present our efforts at starting to address these problems with an integrated natural language understanding system implemented in our DIARC architecture on a robot that can handle fairly unconstrained spoken ungrammatical and incomplete instructions reliably in a limited domain.
Field testing of tele-operation versus shared and traded control for military assets: an evaluation involving real-time embedded simulation and soldier assessment
Jason S. Metcalfe, Jillyn Alban, Keryl Cosenzo, et al.
Those applying autonomous technologies to military systems strive to enhance human-robot and robot-robot performance. Beyond performance, the military must be concerned with local area security. Characterized as "secure mobility", military systems must enable safe and effective terrain traversal concurrent with maintenance of situational awareness (SA). One approach to interleaving these objectives is supervisory control, with popular options being shared and traded control. Yet, with the scale and expense of military assets, common technical issues such as transition time and safeguarding become critical; especially as they interact with Soldier capabilities. Study is required to enable selection of control methods that optimize Soldier-system performance while safeguarding both individually. The current report describes a study utilizing experimental military vehicles and simulation systems enabling teleoperation and supervisory control. Automated triggering of SA demands was interspersed with a set of challenging driving maneuvers in a 'teleoperation-like' context to examine the influence of supervisory control on Soldier-system performance. Results indicated that direct application of supervisory control, while beneficial under particular demands, requires continued development to be perceived by Soldiers as useful. Future efforts should more tightly couple the information exchanged between the Soldier and system to overcome current challenges not addressed by standard control methods.
Comparison of tele-operation and supervisory control for navigation and driving with degraded communications
Gary Witus, R. Darin Ellis, Robert Karlsen, et al.
Teleoperation is the currently accepted method of control of military unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) in the field. Degraded communications affects the operator's tasks of driving, navigating and maintaining UGV situation awareness. A potential approach to address this challenge is to provide the UGV with local autonomy to generate driving commands (translation and rotation rates). This paper describes an experiment and preliminary results comparing "point-and-go" supervisory control in which the operator designates a goal point on the 2D driving display to teleoperation as a function of communications degradation and terrain roughness. Three methods of visual supervisory control were tested (visual dead reckoning and two visual sevoing methods) and compared to teleoperation.
Combined virtual and real robotic test-bed for single operator control of multiple robots
Sam Y.-S. Lee, Shawn Hunt, Alex Cao, et al.
Teams of heterogeneous robots with different dynamics or capabilities could perform a variety of tasks such as multipoint surveillance, cooperative transport and explorations in hazardous environments. In this study, we work with heterogeneous robots of semi-autonomous ground and aerial robots for contaminant localization. We developed a human interface system which linked every real robot to its virtual counterpart. A novel virtual interface has been integrated with Augmented Reality that can monitor the position and sensory information from video feed of ground and aerial robots in the 3D virtual environment, and improve user situational awareness. An operator can efficiently control the real multi-robots using the Drag-to-Move method on the virtual multi-robots. This enables an operator to control groups of heterogeneous robots in a collaborative way for allowing more contaminant sources to be pursued simultaneously. The advanced feature of the virtual interface system is guarded teleoperation. This can be used to prevent operators from accidently driving multiple robots into walls and other objects. Moreover, the feature of the image guidance and tracking is able to reduce operator workload.
Experimentation and evaluation of threat detection and local area awareness using advanced computational technologies in a simulated military environment
Jason S. Metcalfe, Gabriella Brick Larkin, Tony Johnson, et al.
Tomorrows military systems will require novel methods for assessing Soldier performance and situational awareness (SA) in mobile operations involving mixed-initiative systems. Although new methods may augment Soldier assessments, they may also reduce Soldier performance as a function of demand on workload, requiring concurrent performance of mission and assessment tasks. The present paper describes a unique approach that supports assessment in environments approximating the operational context within which future systems will be deployed. A complex distributed system was required to emulate the operational environment. Separate computational and visualization systems provided an environment representative of the military operational context, including a 3D urban environment with dynamic human entities. Semi-autonomous driving was achieved with a simulated autonomous mobility system and SA was assessed through digital reports. A military crew station mounted on a 6-DOF motion simulator was used to create the physical environment. Cognitive state evaluation was enabled using physiological monitoring. Analyses indicated individual differences in temporal and accuracy components when identifying key features of potential threats; i.e., comparing Soldiers and insurgents with non-insurgent civilians. The assessment approach provided a natural, operationally-relevant means of assessing needs of future secure mobility systems and detecting key factors affecting Soldier-system performance as foci for future development.
Human-robot interaction modeling and simulation of supervisory control and situational awareness during field experimentation with military manned and unmanned ground vehicles
Tony Johnson, Jason Metcalfe, Benjamin Brewster, et al.
The proliferation of intelligent systems in today's military demands increased focus on the optimization of human-robot interactions. Traditional studies in this domain involve large-scale field tests that require humans to operate semiautomated systems under varying conditions within military-relevant scenarios. However, provided that adequate constraints are employed, modeling and simulation can be a cost-effective alternative and supplement. The current presentation discusses a simulation effort that was executed in parallel with a field test with Soldiers operating military vehicles in an environment that represented key elements of the true operational context. In this study, "constructive" human operators were designed to represent average Soldiers executing supervisory control over an intelligent ground system. The constructive Soldiers were simulated performing the same tasks as those performed by real Soldiers during a directly analogous field test. Exercising the models in a high-fidelity virtual environment provided predictive results that represented actual performance in certain aspects, such as situational awareness, but diverged in others. These findings largely reflected the quality of modeling assumptions used to design behaviors and the quality of information available on which to articulate principles of operation. Ultimately, predictive analyses partially supported expectations, with deficiencies explicable via Soldier surveys, experimenter observations, and previously-identified knowledge gaps.
Delegation control of multiple unmanned systems
Susan R. Flaherty, Robert J. Shively
Maturing technologies and complex payloads coupled with a future objective to reduce the logistics burden of current unmanned aerial systems (UAS) operations require a change to the 2-crew employment paradigm. Increased automation and operator supervisory control of unmanned systems have been advocated to meet the objective of reducing the crew requirements, while managing future technologies. Specifically, a delegation control employment strategy has resulted in reduced workload and higher situation awareness for single operators controlling multiple unmanned systems in empirical studies1,2. Delegation control is characterized by the ability for an operator to call a single "play" that initiates prescribed default actions for each vehicle and associated sensor related to a common mission goal. Based upon the effectiveness of delegation control in simulation, the U.S. Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate (AFDD) developed a Delegation Control (DelCon) operator interface with voice recognition implementation for play selection, real-time play modification, and play status with automation transparency to enable single operator control of multiple unmanned systems in flight. AFDD successfully demonstrated delegation control in a Troops-in-Contact mission scenario at Ft. Ord in 2009. This summary showcases the effort as a beneficial advance in single operator control of multiple UAS.
Perception
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Stereo-vision-based perception capabilities developed during the Robotics Collaborative Technology Alliances program
Arturo Rankin, Max Bajracharya, Andres Huertas, et al.
The Robotics Collaborative Technology Alliances (RCTA) program, which ran from 2001 to 2009, was funded by the U.S. Army Research Laboratory and managed by General Dynamics Robotic Systems. The alliance brought together a team of government, industrial, and academic institutions to address research and development required to enable the deployment of future military unmanned ground vehicle systems ranging in size from man-portables to ground combat vehicles. Under RCTA, three technology areas critical to the development of future autonomous unmanned systems were addressed: advanced perception, intelligent control architectures and tactical behaviors, and human-robot interaction. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) participated as a member for the entire program, working four tasks in the advanced perception technology area: stereo improvements, terrain classification, pedestrian detection in dynamic environments, and long range terrain classification. Under the stereo task, significant improvements were made to the quality of stereo range data used as a front end to the other three tasks. Under the terrain classification task, a multi-cue water detector was developed that fuses cues from color, texture, and stereo range data, and three standalone water detectors were developed based on sky reflections, object reflections (such as trees), and color variation. In addition, a multi-sensor mud detector was developed that fuses cues from color stereo and polarization sensors. Under the long range terrain classification task, a classifier was implemented that uses unsupervised and self-supervised learning of traversability to extend the classification of terrain over which the vehicle drives to the far-field. Under the pedestrian detection task, stereo vision was used to identify regions-of-interest in an image, classify those regions based on shape, and track detected pedestrians in three-dimensional world coordinates. To improve the detectability of partially occluded pedestrians and reduce pedestrian false alarms, a vehicle detection algorithm was developed. This paper summarizes JPL's stereo-vision based perception contributions to the RCTA program.
Velodyne HDL-64E lidar for unmanned surface vehicle obstacle detection
Ryan Halterman, Michael Bruch
The Velodyne HDL-64E is a 64 laser 3D (360×26.8 degree) scanning LIDAR. It was designed to fill perception needs of DARPA Urban Challenge vehicles. As such, it was principally intended for ground use. This paper presents the performance of the HDL-64E as it relates to the marine environment for unmanned surface vehicle (USV) obstacle detection and avoidance. We describe the sensor's capacity for discerning relevant objects at sea- both through subjective observations of the raw data and through a rudimentary automated obstacle detection algorithm. We also discuss some of the complications that have arisen with the sensor.
Close range ISR (PRISTA) and close quarters combat (CQC) with unmanned aerial systems (UAS)
Ironically, the final frontiers for the UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) are the closest spaces at hand. There is an urgent operational capability gap in the area of proximate reconnaissance, intelligence, surveillance, and target acquisition (PRISTA) as well as close quarters combats (CQC). Needs for extremely close range functionality in land, sea and urban theaters remain unfilled, largely due to the challenges presented by the maneuverability and silent operating floor required to address these missions. The evolution of small, nimble and inexpensive VTOL UAV assets holds much promise in terms of filling this gap. Just as UAVs have evolved from large manned aircraft, so have MAVs (Micro Aerial Vehicles) evolved from UAVs. As unmanned aviation evolves into aerial robotics, NAV (Nano Aerial Vehicle) research will become the next hotbed of unmanned aerial systems development as these systems continue to mature in response to the need to find robotic replacements for humans in PRISTA, CQC, and many other hazardous duties.
Combining structure and appearance cues for real-time pedestrian detection
Mayank Bansal, Sang-Hack Jung, Bogdan Matei, et al.
We present a real-time pedestrian detection system which uses cues derived from structure and appearance classification We discuss several novel ideas to achieve computational efficien y while improving on both detection and false-alarm rates: (i) At the front end of our system we employ stereo to detect pedestrians in 3D range maps, and to classify surrounding structure such as buildings, trees, poles etc. in the scene. The structure classificatio efficientl labels substantial amount of non-relevant image regions and guides the further computationally expensive process to focus on relatively small image parts; (ii) We improve the appearance-based classifier based on HoG descriptors by performing template matching with 2D human shape contour fragments that results in improved localization and accuracy; (iii) We train individual classifier at several depth ranges that allow us to account for appearance and 2D shape changes at variable distances in front of the camera. Our method is evaluated on publicly available datasets and is shown to match or exceed the performance of leading pedestrian detectors in terms of accuracy as well as achieving real-time computation (10 Hz), which makes it adequate for deployment in fiel robots and other navigation platforms.
ESARR: enhanced situational awareness via road sign recognition
V. E. Perlin, D. B. Johnson, M. M. Rohde, et al.
The enhanced situational awareness via road sign recognition (ESARR) system provides vehicle position estimates in the absence of GPS signal via automated processing of roadway fiducials (primarily directional road signs). Sign images are detected and extracted from vehicle-mounted camera system, and preprocessed and read via a custom optical character recognition (OCR) system specifically designed to cope with low quality input imagery. Vehicle motion and 3D scene geometry estimation enables efficient and robust sign detection with low false alarm rates. Multi-level text processing coupled with GIS database validation enables effective interpretation even of extremely low resolution low contrast sign images. In this paper, ESARR development progress will be reported on, including the design and architecture, image processing framework, localization methodologies, and results to date. Highlights of the real-time vehicle-based directional road-sign detection and interpretation system will be described along with the challenges and progress in overcoming them.
A final evaluation of pedestrian detection and tracking from a moving platform
Barry A. Bodt, Richard Camden
This work represents the fifth in a series of studies on safe operations of unmanned ground vehicles in the proximity of pedestrians. The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Robotics Collaborative Technology Alliance (RCTA) conducted the study on the campus of NIST in Gaithersburg, MD in 2009, the final year of the RCTA. The experiment was to assess the performance of six RCTA algorithms to detect and track moving pedestrians from sensors mounted on a moving platform. Sensors include 2-D and 3-D LADAR, 2-D SICK, and stereovision. Algorithms reported only detected human tracks. NIST ground truth methodology was used to assess the algorithm-reported detections as to true positive, misclassification, or false positive as well as distance to first detection and elapsed tracking time. A NIST-developed viewer facilitated real-time data checking and subsequent analysis. Factors of the study include platform speed, pedestrian speed, and clutter density in the environment. Pedestrian motion was choreographed to ensure similar perspective from the platform regardless of experimental conditions. Pedestrians were upright in the principal study, but excursions examined group movement, nonlinear paths, occluded paths, and alternative postures. We will present the findings of this study and benchmark detection and tracking for subsequent robotic research in this program. We also address the impact of this work on pedestrian avoidance.
Vision systems for manned and robotic ground vehicles
A Distributed Aperture Vision System for ground vehicles is described. An overview of the hardware including sensor pod, processor, video compression, and displays is provided. This includes a discussion of the choice between an integrated sensor pod and individually mounted sensors, open architecture design, and latency issues as well as flat panel versus head mounted displays. This technology is applied to various ground vehicle scenarios, including closed-hatch operations (operator in the vehicle), remote operator tele-operation, and supervised autonomy for multi-vehicle unmanned convoys. In addition, remote vision for automatic perimeter surveillance using autonomous vehicles and automatic detection algorithms is demonstrated.
3D vision upgrade kit for TALON robot
Richard Edmondson, Justin Vaden, Brian Hyatt, et al.
In this paper, we report on the development of a 3D vision field upgrade kit for TALON robot consisting of a replacement flat panel stereoscopic display, and multiple stereo camera systems. An assessment of the system's use for robotic driving, manipulation, and surveillance operations was conducted. The 3D vision system was integrated onto a TALON IV Robot and Operator Control Unit (OCU) such that stock components could be electrically disconnected and removed, and upgrade components coupled directly to the mounting and electrical connections. A replacement display, replacement mast camera with zoom, auto-focus, and variable convergence, and a replacement gripper camera with fixed focus and zoom comprise the upgrade kit. The stereo mast camera allows for improved driving and situational awareness as well as scene survey. The stereo gripper camera allows for improved manipulation in typical TALON missions.
Detecting and tracking moving objects from a moving platform using epipolar constraints
Jonah C. McBride, Andrey Ostapchenko, Howard Schultz, et al.
One of the principal challenges in autonomous navigation for mobile ground robots is collision avoidance, especially in dynamic environments featuring both moving and non-moving (static) obstacles. Detecting and tracking moving objects (such as vehicles and pedestrians) presents a particular challenge because all points in the scene are in motion relative to a moving platform. We present a solution for detecting and robustly tracking moving objects from a moving platform. We use a novel epipolar Hough transform to identify points in the scene which do not conform to the geometric constraints of a static scene when viewed from a moving camera. These points can then be analyzed in three different domains: image space, Hough space and world space, allowing redundant clustering and tracking of moving objects. We use a particle filter to model uncertainty in the tracking process and a multiple-hypothesis tracker with lifecycle management to maintain tracks through occlusions and stop-start conditions. The result is a set of detected objects whose position and estimated trajectory are continuously updated for use by path planning and collision avoidance systems. We present results from experiments using a mobile test robot with a forward looking stereo camera navigating among multiple moving objects.
Cognitive object recognition system (CORS)
Chaitanya Raju, Karthik Mahesh Varadarajan, Niyant Krishnamurthi, et al.
We have developed a framework, Cognitive Object Recognition System (CORS), inspired by current neurocomputational models and psychophysical research in which multiple recognition algorithms (shape based geometric primitives, 'geons,' and non-geometric feature-based algorithms) are integrated to provide a comprehensive solution to object recognition and landmarking. Objects are defined as a combination of geons, corresponding to their simple parts, and the relations among the parts. However, those objects that are not easily decomposable into geons, such as bushes and trees, are recognized by CORS using "feature-based" algorithms. The unique interaction between these algorithms is a novel approach that combines the effectiveness of both algorithms and takes us closer to a generalized approach to object recognition. CORS allows recognition of objects through a larger range of poses using geometric primitives and performs well under heavy occlusion - about 35% of object surface is sufficient. Furthermore, geon composition of an object allows image understanding and reasoning even with novel objects. With reliable landmarking capability, the system improves vision-based robot navigation in GPS-denied environments. Feasibility of the CORS system was demonstrated with real stereo images captured from a Pioneer robot. The system can currently identify doors, door handles, staircases, trashcans and other relevant landmarks in the indoor environment.
Special Topics
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Unmanned systems to support the human exploration of Mars
Robots and other unmanned systems will play many critical roles in support of a human presence on Mars, including surveying candidate landing sites, locating ice and mineral resources, establishing power and other infrastructure, performing construction tasks, and transporting equipment and supplies. Many of these systems will require much more strength and power than exploration rovers. The presence of humans on Mars will permit proactive maintenance and repair, and allow teleoperation and operator intervention, supporting multiple dynamic levels of autonomy, so the critical challenges to the use of unmanned systems will occur before humans arrive on Mars. Nevertheless, installed communications and navigation infrastructure should be able to support structured and/or repetitive operations (such as excavation, drilling, or construction) within a "familiar" area with an acceptable level of remote operator intervention. This paper discusses some of the factors involved in developing and deploying unmanned systems to make humans' time on Mars safer and more productive, efficient, and enjoyable.
Automatic payload deployment system
Narek Pezeshkian, Hoa G. Nguyen, Aaron Burmeister, et al.
The ability to precisely emplace stand-alone payloads in hostile territory has long been on the wish list of US warfighters. This type of activity is one of the main functions of special operation forces, often conducted at great danger. Such risk can be mitigated by transitioning the manual placement of payloads over to an automated placement mechanism by the use of the Automatic Payload Deployment System (APDS). Based on the Automatically Deployed Communication Relays (ADCR) system, which provides non-line-of-sight operation for unmanned ground vehicles by automatically dropping radio relays when needed, the APDS takes this concept a step further and allows for the delivery of a mixed variety of payloads. For example, payloads equipped with a camera and gas sensor in addition to a radio repeater, can be deployed in support of rescue operations of trapped miners. Battlefield applications may include delivering food, ammunition, and medical supplies to the warfighter. Covert operations may require the unmanned emplacement of a network of sensors for human-presence detection, before undertaking the mission. The APDS is well suited for these tasks. Demonstrations have been conducted using an iRobot PackBot EOD in delivering a variety of payloads, for which the performance and results will be discussed in this paper.
Fusing ultra-wideband radar and lidar for small UGV navigation in all-weather conditions
Autonomous small UGVs have the potential to greatly increase force multiplication capabilities for infantry units. In order for these UGVs to be useful on the battlefield, they must be able to operate under all-weather conditions. For the Daredevil Project, we have explored the use of ultra-wideband (UWB) radar, LIDAR, and stereo vision for all-weather navigation capabilities. UWB radar provides the capability to see through rain, snow, smoke, and fog. LIDAR and stereo vision provide greater accuracy and resolution in clear weather but has difficulty with precipitation and obscurants. We investigate the ways in which the sensor data from UWB radar, LIDAR, and stereo vision can be combined to provide improved performance over the use of a single sensor modality. Our research includes both traditional sensor fusion, where data from multiple sensors is combined in a single representation, and behavior-based sensor fusion, where the data from one sensor is used to activate and deactivate behaviors using other sensor modalities. We use traditional sensor fusion to combine LIDAR and stereo vision for improved obstacle avoidance in clear air, and we use behavior-based sensor fusion to select between radar-based and LIDAR/vision-based obstacle avoidance based on current environmental conditions.
Experimental evaluation of assistive behaviors for man-portable robots
C. Pierce, D. Baran, B. Bodt
Man portable robots have been fielded extensively on the battlefield to enhance mission effectiveness of soldiers in dangerous conditions. The robots that have been deployed to date have been teleoperated. The development of assistive behaviors for these robots has the potential to alleviate the cognitive load placed on the robot operator. While full autonomy is the eventual goal, a range of assistive capabilities such as obstacle detection, obstacle avoidance, waypoint navigation, can be fielded sooner in a stand-alone fashion. These capabilities increase the level of autonomy on the robots so that the workload on the soldier can be reduced. The focus of this paper is on the design and execution of a series of scientifically rigorous experiments to quantifiably assess operator performance when operating a robot equipped with some of these assistive behaviors. The experiments helped to determine a baseline for teleoperation and to evaluate the benefit of Obstacle Detection and Obstacle Avoidance (OD/OA) vs. teleoperation and OD/OA with Open Space Planning (OSP) vs. teleoperation. The results of these experiments are presented and analyzed in the paper.
Intelligent Behaviors
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Experiments with autonomous mobile radios for wireless tethering in tunnels
Kevin L. Moore, Manoja D. Weiss, John P. Steele, et al.
Tunnels are a challenging environment for radio communications. In this paper we consider the use of autonomous mobile radio nodes (AMRs) to provide wireless tethering between a base station and a leader in a tunnel exploration scenario. Using a realistic, experimentally-derived underground radio signal propagation model and a tethering algorithm for AMR motion control based on a consensus variable protocol, we present experimental results involving a tele-operated leader with one or two followers. Using radio signal strength measurements, the followers autonomously space themselves so as to achieve equal radio distance between each entity in the chain from the base to the leader. Results show the feasibility of our ideas.
Unmanned aircraft systems as wingmen
This paper introduces a concept towards integrating manned and Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UASs) into a highly functional team though the design and implementation of 3-D distributed formation/flight control algorithms with the goal to act as wingmen for a manned aircraft. This method is designed to minimize user input for team control, dynamically modify formations as required, utilize standard operating formations to reduce pilot resistance to integration, and support splinter groups for surveillance and/or as safeguards between potential threats and manned vehicles. The proposed work coordinates UAS members by utilizing artificial potential functions whose values are based on the state of the unmanned and manned assets including the desired formation, obstacles, task assignments, and perceived intentions. The overall unmanned team geometry is controlled using weighted potential fields. Individual UAS utilize fuzzy logic controllers for stability and navigation as well as a fuzzy reasoning engine for flight path intention prediction. Approaches are demonstrated in simulation using the commercial simulator X-Plane and controllers designed in Matlab/Simulink. Experiments include trail and right echelon formations as well as splinter group surveillance.
Fault tolerant formation control of nonholonomic mobile robots using online approximators
For unmanned systems, it is desirable to have some sort of fault tolerant ability in order to accomplish the mission. Therefore, in this paper, the fault tolerant control of a formation of nonholonomic mobile robots in the presence unknown faults is undertaken. Initially, a kinematic/torque leader-follower formation control law is developed for the robots under the assumption of normal operation, and the stability of the formation is verified using Lyapunov theory. Subsequently, the control law for the formation is modified by incorporating an additional term, and this new control law compensates the effects of the faults. Moreover, the faults could be incipient or abrupt in nature. The additional term used in the modified control law is a function of the unknown fault dynamics which are recovered using the online learning capabilities of online approximators. Additionally, asymptotic convergence of the FDA scheme and the formation errors in the presence of faults is shown using Lyapunov theory. Finally, numerical results are provided to verify the theoretical conjectures.
Control of an indoor autonomous mobile communications relay via antenna diversity
Brian Griffin, Rafael Fierro, Ivana Palunko
Presented here is a motion planning scheme for enabling a quadrotor to serve as an autonomous communications relay in indoor/GPS-denied environments. Using antenna selection diversity, the quadrotor is able to optimize its location in the communication chain so as to maximize the link throughput. Measurements of the communications field drive a gradient descent algorithm that moves the quadrotor to an optimal location while avoiding obstacles, all without the use of positioning data.
Online gaming for learning optimal team strategies in real time
This paper first presents an overall view for dynamical decision-making in teams, both cooperative and competitive. Strategies for team decision problems, including optimal control, zero-sum 2-player games (H-infinity control) and so on are normally solved for off-line by solving associated matrix equations such as the Riccati equation. However, using that approach, players cannot change their objectives online in real time without calling for a completely new off-line solution for the new strategies. Therefore, in this paper we give a method for learning optimal team strategies online in real time as team dynamical play unfolds. In the linear quadratic regulator case, for instance, the method learns the Riccati equation solution online without ever solving the Riccati equation. This allows for truly dynamical team decisions where objective functions can change in real time and the system dynamics can be time-varying.
Mobility
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Urban Hopper
Jonathan R. Salton, Stephen Buerger, Lisa Marron, et al.
Hopping robots provide the possibility of breaking the link between the size of a ground vehicle and the largest obstacle that it can overcome. For more than a decade, DARPA and Sandia National Laboratories have been developing small-scale hopping robot technology, first as part of purely hopping platforms and, more recently, as part of platforms that are capable of both wheeled and hopping locomotion. In this paper we introduce the Urban Hopper robot and summarize its capabilities. The advantages of hopping for overcoming certain obstacles are discussed. Several configurations of the Urban Hopper are described, as are intelligent capabilities of the system. Key challenges are discussed.
Agile and dexterous robot for inspection and EOD operations
David A. Handelman, Gordon H. Franken, Haldun Komsuoglu
The All-Terrain Biped (ATB) robot is an unmanned ground vehicle with arms, legs and wheels designed to drive, crawl, walk and manipulate objects for inspection and explosive ordnance disposal tasks. This paper summarizes on-going development of the ATB platform. Control technology for semi-autonomous legged mobility and dual-arm dexterity is described as well as preliminary simulation and hardware test results. Performance goals include driving on flat terrain, crawling on steep terrain, walking on stairs, opening doors and grasping objects. Anticipated benefits of the adaptive mobility and dexterity of the ATB platform include increased robot agility and autonomy for EOD operations, reduced operator workload and reduced operator training and skill requirements.
Toward humanoid robots for operations in complex urban environments
Jerry E. Pratt, Peter Neuhaus, Matthew Johnson, et al.
Many infantry operations in urban environments, such as building clearing, are extremely dangerous and difficult and often result in high casualty rates. Despite the fast pace of technological progress in many other areas, the tactics and technology deployed for many of these dangerous urban operation have not changed much in the last 50 years. While robots have been extremely useful for improvised explosive device (IED) detonation, under-vehicle inspection, surveillance, and cave exploration, there is still no fieldable robot that can operate effectively in cluttered streets and inside buildings. Developing a fieldable robot that can maneuver in complex urban environments is challenging due to narrow corridors, stairs, rubble, doors and cluttered doorways, and other obstacles. Typical wheeled and tracked robots have trouble getting through most of these obstacles. A bipedal humanoid is ideally shaped for many of these obstacles because its legs are long and skinny. Therefore it has the potential to step over large barriers, gaps, rocks, and steps, yet squeeze through narrow passageways, and through narrow doorways. By being able to walk with one foot directly in front of the other, humanoids also have the potential to walk over narrow "balance beam" style objects and can cross a narrow row of stepping stones. We describe some recent advances in humanoid robots, particularly recovery from disturbances, such as pushes and walking over rough terrain. Our disturbance recovery algorithms are based on the concept of Capture Points. An N-Step Capture Point is a point on the ground in which a legged robot can step to in order to stop in N steps. The N-Step Capture Region is the set of all N-Step Capture Points. In order to walk without falling, a legged robot must step somewhere in the intersection between an N-Step Capture Region and the available footholds on the ground. We present results of push recovery using Capture Points on our humanoid robot M2V2.
On-board SLAM for indoor UAV using a laser range finder
M. Alpen, C. Willrodt, K. Frick, et al.
Here we present a real-time algorithm for on-board SLAM (simultaneous localization and mapping) of a quadrotor using a laser range finder. Based on successfully implemented techniques for ground robots, we developed an algorithm that merges a new scan into the global map without any iteration. This causes some inaccuracy of the global map which leads to an error propagation during the robot's mission. Therefore an optimization algorithm reducing this inaccuracy is essential. Within this optimization lines with the same orientation and an overlapping in one of the two possible coordinates of a 2D-plane are merged if their distance is below a certain threshold value. Due to reduction of the required computing power for SLAM calculation by using orthogonal SLAM a real time SLAM running on a microcontroller becomes possible. Because of the small weight and the low electric power consumption, this controller can be mounted on an industrial quadrotor. Therefore acting autonomously in an unknown indoor environment becomes possible. In this paper we also show the validation of the presented SLAM algorithm. The first step of validation is an offline implementation in Matlab and the second step is the online validation of our algorithm on the industrial quadrotor AR100B of the AirRobot Company.
Optimal powering schemes for legged robotics
Paul Muench, David Bednarz, Gregory P. Czerniak, et al.
Legged Robots have tremendous mobility, but they can also be very inefficient. These inefficiencies can be due to suboptimal control schemes, among other things. If your goal is to get from point A to point B in the least amount of time, your control scheme will be different from if your goal is to get there using the least amount of energy. In this paper, we seek a balance between these extremes by looking at both efficiency and speed. We model a walking robot as a rimless wheel, and, using Pontryagin's Maximum Principle (PMP), we find an "on-off" control for the model, and describe the switching curve between these control extremes.
R-Gator: an unmanned utility vehicle
Stewart J. Moorehead, Carl K. Wellington, Heidi Paulino, et al.
The R-Gator is an unmanned ground vehicle built on the John Deere 6x4 M-Gator utility vehicle chassis. The vehicle is capable of operating in urban and off-road terrain and has a large payload to carry supplies, wounded, or a marsupial robot. The R-Gator has 6 modes of operation: manual driving, teleoperation, waypoint, direction drive, playback and silent sentry. In direction drive the user specifies a direction for the robot. It will continue in that direction, avoiding obstacles, until given a new direction. Playback allows previously recorded paths, from any other mode including manual, to be played back and repeated. Silent sentry allows the engine to be turned off remotely while cameras, computers and comms remain powered by batteries. In this mode the vehicle stays quiet and stationary, collecting valuable surveillance information. The user interface consists of a wearable computer, monocle and standard video game controller. All functions of the R-Gator can be controlled by the handheld game controller, using at most 2 button presses. This easy to use user interface allows even untrained users to control the vehicle. This paper details the systems developed for the R-Gator, focusing on the novel user interface and the obstacle detection system, which supports safeguarded teleoperation as well as full autonomous operation in off-road terrain. The design for a new 4-wheel, independent suspension chassis version of the R-Gator is also presented.
Government Programs
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Life after Future Combat System: a family of ground robotic systems
Until recently, the Army Future Combat System (FCS) was the future of Army ground robotics hallmarked by system of systems interoperability for manned and unmanned platforms. New missions, threats, and realities have caused the Army to restructure the Army Future Combat System, but still require unmanned systems interoperability without the FCS system of system interoperability architecture. The result is the Army material developer has no overarching unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) interoperability standards in place equal to the Army unmanned aircraft system (UAS) community. This paper will offer a Life After the FCS vision for an Army family of common ground robotics and payload standards with proposed IEEE, STANAG, SAE, and other standards to potentially achieve common ground robotics interoperability to support the Army and Army Maneuver Support Center of Excellence (MSCoE) Chemical, Engineer, and Military Police mission needs.
Integration of a high degree of freedom robotic manipulator on a large unmanned ground vehicle
Jared Giesbrecht, Blaine Fairbrother, Jack Collier, et al.
The Multi-Agent Tactical Sentry Unmanned Ground Vehicle, developed at Defence R&D Canada - Suffield, has been in service with the Canadian Forces for five years. This tele-operated wheeled vehicle provides a capability for point detection of chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear agents. Based on user experience, it is obvious that a manipulator capability would greatly enhance the vehicle's utility and increase its mobility in urban terrain. This paper details technical components of this development, and describes a number of trials undertaken to perform tasks with a manipulator arm such as picking up objects, opening vehicle and building doors, recording video, and creating 3D models of the environment. The lessons learned from these trials will guide further development of the technology.
An overview of the 2009 Fort Hood Robotics Rodeo
Seth Norberg
The Robotics Rodeo held from 31 August to 3 September 2009 at Fort Hood, Texas, had three stated goals: educate key decision makers and align the robotics industry; educate Soldiers and developers; and perform a live market survey of the current state of technologies to encourage the development of robotic systems to support operational needs. Both events that comprised the Robotics Rodeo, the Extravaganza and the robotic technology observation, demonstration and discussion (RTOD2) addressed these stated goals. The Extravaganza was designed to foster interaction between the vendors and the visitors who included the media, Soldiers, others in the robotics industry and key decision makers. The RTOD2 allowed the vendors a more private and focused interaction with the subject matter experts teams, this was the forum for the vendors to demonstrate their robotic systems that supported the III Corps operational needs statements that are focused on route clearance, convoy operations, persistent stare, and robotic wingman. While the goals of the Rodeo were achieved, the underlying success from the event is the development of a new business model that is focused on collapsing the current model to get technologies into the hands of our warfighters quicker. This new model takes the real time data collection from the Rodeo, the Warfighter Needs from TRADOC, the emerging requirements from our current engagements, and assistance from industry partners to develop a future Army strategy for the rapid fielding of unmanned systems technologies.
Semi-autonomous UAV/UGV for dismounted urban operations
Michael Trentini, Blake Beckman
Dismounted soldiers are clearly at the centre of modern asymmetric conflicts and unmanned systems of the future will play important roles in their support. Moreover, the nature of modern asymmetric conflicts requires dismounted soldiers to operate in urban environments with challenges of communication and limited situational awareness. To improve the situational awareness of dismounted soldiers in complex urban environments, Defence R&D Canada - Suffield (DRDC Suffield) envision Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAV) rotorcraft and Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGV) cooperating in the battlespace. The capabilities provided to the UAV rotorcraft will include high speed maneuvers through urban terrain, overthe- horizon and loss of communications operations, and/or low altitude over-watch of dismounted units. This information is shared with both the dismounted soldiers and UGV. The man-sized, man-mobile UGV operates in close support to dismounted soldiers to provide a payload carrying capacity. Some of the possible payloads include chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) detection, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR), weapons, supplies, etc.. These unmanned systems are intended to increase situational awareness in urban environments and can be used to call upon nearby forces to react swiftly by providing acquired information to concentrate impact where required.
Fractionated multirobotics: a hierarchical approach
Multi-robotics places a potentially large number of independent robotic agents in a given situation where they may interact cooperatively toward a common task. However, by having each of these robotic agents essentially identical, the overall scope of their mission is limited. By fractionating their capabilities with varying degrees of specialization in a hierarchical fashion, the mission capability can be greatly expanded. Test prototype examples are discussed of a large carrier robotic vehicle containing several smaller specialized robotic vehicles, all teleoperated, which can interact cooperatively, both sequentially and in parallel toward a common task.
Navigation
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Human leader and robot follower team: correcting leader's position from follower's heading
Johann Borenstein, David Thomas, Brandon Sights, et al.
In multi-agent scenarios, there can be a disparity in the quality of position estimation amongst the various agents. Here, we consider the case of two agents - a leader and a follower - following the same path, in which the follower has a significantly better estimate of position and heading. This may be applicable to many situations, such as a robotic "mule" following a soldier. Another example is that of a convoy, in which only one vehicle (not necessarily the leading one) is instrumented with precision navigation instruments while all other vehicles use lower-precision instruments. We present an algorithm, called Follower-derived Heading Correction (FDHC), which substantially improves estimates of the leader's heading and, subsequently, position. Specifically, FHDC produces a very accurate estimate of heading errors caused by slow-changing errors (e.g., those caused by drift in gyros) of the leader's navigation system and corrects those errors.
Robotic Mounted Detection System: robotics for route clearance
John Hutchison, Gene Klager, Edward McCoy, et al.
Robotic Mounted Detection System (RMDS) is a government program to enable robotic control of a Husky route clearance vehicle with a mine detection sensor payload. The goal is for the operator to control the Husky and mine detection sensor from another vehicle. This program will provide the user with standard tele-operation control of the vehicle as well as semi-autonomous modes including cruise control, precision waypoint navigation with operator error correction and a visual mode allowing the operator to enter waypoints in the current video feed. The use of autonomy will be tailored to give the operator maximum control of the robotic vehicle's path while minimizing the effort required to maintain the desired route. Autonomous alterations of the path would conflict with the goal of route clearance, so waypoint navigation will allow the operator to supply offsets to counteract location errors. While following a waypoint path, the Husky will be capable of controlling its speed to maintain an operator specified distance from the control vehicle. Obstacle avoidance will be limited to protecting the mine detection sensor, leaving any decision to leave the path up to the operator. Video will be the primary navigational sensor feed to the operator, who will use an augmented steering wheel controller and computer display to control the Husky. A LADAR system will be used to detect obstacles that could damage the mine sensor and to maintain the optimal sensor orientation while the vehicle is moving. Practical issues and lessons learned during integration will be presented.
A visual odometry method based on the SwissRanger SR4000
This paper presents a pose estimation method based on a 3D camera - the SwissRanger SR4000. The proposed method estimates the camera's ego-motion by using intensity and range data produced by the camera. It detects the SIFT (Scale- Invariant Feature Transform) features in one intensity image and match them to that in the next intensity image. The resulting 3D data point pairs are used to compute the least-square rotation and translation matrices, from which the attitude and position changes between the two image frames are determined. The method uses feature descriptors to perform feature matching. It works well with large image motion between two frames without the need of spatial correlation search. Due to the SR4000's consistent accuracy in depth measurement, the proposed method may achieve a better pose estimation accuracy than a stereovision-based approach. Another advantage of the proposed method is that the range data of the SR4000 is complete and therefore can be used for obstacle avoidance/negotiation. This makes it possible to navigate a mobile robot by using a single perception sensor. In this paper, we will validate the idea of the pose estimation method and characterize the method's pose estimation performance.
Poster Session
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Device capable small arms ammunition for unmanned systems
Noah P. Bergeron, John W. Sweeney, Chester G. Wilson
The design of current small arms ammunition requires the use of radial and lateral accelerations to permit the inclusion of current Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS). Research at Louisiana Tech's Institute for Micromanufacturing into equipping small arms with MEMS technology has led to the development of a new type of small arms system. This ammunition is able to accelerate outside of its barrel, thereby decreasing the required acceleration for a specified maximum velocity. Additionally, the design of this ammunition eliminates the lateral accelerations typically required to stabilize current small arms ammunition, and permits the inclusion of non-metallic barrels and other components. A review of the current design and performance standards of this ammunition is presented, along with the current MEMS technology being tested for inclusion into this ammunition. A review of new armament systems, capabilities, and applications as a result of these advances is also presented.
Pressurized structures-based hybrid unmanned aerial vehicles
Harris L. Edge, Ainsmar Brown, Jason Collins
This paper describes the initial results of an investigation into building unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) with pressurized structures-based (PSB) technologies. Basically, the UAV will be constructed in such a way that a considerable percentage of its weight will be supported by or composed of inflatable structures containing air or helium. PSB technologies can be employed in any number of UAV designs. The goals of this research are to ascertain feasibility of UAV construction using PSB technology and finding methods and designs employing PSB technology to increase vehicle performance for missions of interest to the military.
A reusable robotic grasping creator
Ying Li, Justin Keesling, Chalongrath Pholsiri, et al.
To make robotic grasping accessible to all roboticists, Energid Technologies is developing a Graphical User Interface (GUI) tool and algorithms embodied in a reusable software toolkit to quickly and easily create grasps. The method is generic and works with all types of robotic hands, manipulators, and mobile platforms. Vision, position control, force control, and collision avoidance algorithms are integrated naturally into the process, and successful grasp parameters are stored in a database for later real-time application. This article describes how the grasps are created in the Energid system using convenient human interfaces, novel ways to constrain the robotic hand, and real-time simulation of the grasping process. Special emphasis is given to the integration of force control with the grasp scripting process. The force control system accommodates a variety of established algorithms and allows new user-defined algorithms, which can apply to many types of force/torque sensors. Special emphasis is also given to vision-based tracking, with the vision system providing object identification and automatic selection of an appropriate grasp from the database. The vision system also provides 3D tracking to guide the grasp process. Simulation and hardware study results are presented based on the Schunk SDH hand and LWA arm.
Heuristics-enhanced dead-reckoning (HEDR) for accurate position tracking of tele-operated UGVs
Johann Borenstein, Adam Borrell, Russell Miller, et al.
This paper introduces a new approach for precision indoor tracking of tele-operated robots, called "Heuristics-Enhanced Dead-reckoning" (HEDR). HEDR does not rely on GPS, or external references; it uses odometry and a low-cost MEMS-based gyro. Our method corrects heading errors incurred by the high drift rate of the gyro by exploiting the structured nature of most indoor environments, but without having to directly measure features of the environment. The only operator feedback offered by most tele-operated robots is the view from a low to the ground onboard camera. Live video lets the operator observe the robot's immediate surroundings, but does not establish the orientation or whereabouts of the robot in its environment. Mentally keeping track of the robot's trajectory is difficult, and operators easily become disoriented. Our goal is to provide the tele-operator with a map view of the robot's current location and heading, as well as its previous trajectory, similar to the information provided by an automotive GPS navigation system. This frees tele-operators to focus on controlling the robot and achieving other mission goals, and provides the precise location of the robot if it becomes disabled and needs to be recovered.
Monocular panoramic 3D reconstruction based on a particle filter
This paper adresses the issue of generating a panoramic view and a panoramic depth maps using only a single camera. The proposed approach first estimates the egomotion of the camera. Based on this information, a particle filter approximates the 3D structure of the scene. Hence, 3D scene points are modeled probabilistically. These points are accumulated in a cylindric coordinate system. The probabilistic representation of 3D points is used to handle the problem of visualizing occluding and occluded scene points in a noisy environment to get a stable data visualization. This approach can be easily extended to calibrated multi-camera applications (even with non-overlapping field of views).
Exploiting uncalibrated stereo on a UAV platform
Michele Banish, Mike Rodgers, Brian Hyatt, et al.
Uncalibrated stereo imagery experimental and analytical results are presented for path planning and navigation. An Army Research and Development Engineering Command micro-size UAV was outfitted with two commercial cameras and flown over varied landscapes. Polaris Sensor Technologies processed the data post flight with an image correspondence algorithm of their own design. Stereo disparity (depth) was computed despite a quick assembly, image blur, intensity saturation, noise and barrel distortion. No camera calibration occurred. Disparity maps were computed at a processing rate of approximately 5 seconds per frame to improve perception. Disparity edges (treeline to ground, voids and plateaus) were successfully observed and confirmed to be properly identified. Despite the success of localizing this disparity edges sensitivity to saturated pixels, lens distortion and defocus were strong enough to overwhelm more subtle features such as the contours of the trees, which should be possible to extract using this algorithm. These factors are being addressed. The stereo data is displayed on a flat panel 3D display well suited for a human machine interface in field applications. Future work will entail extraction of intelligence from acquired data and the overlay of such data on the 3D image as displayed.
Cooperative energy harvesting for long-endurance autonomous vehicle teams
S. F. Page, J. D. Rogers, K. May, et al.
This paper considers the exploitation of energy harvesting technologies for teams of Autonomous Vehicles (AVs). Traditionally, the optimisation of information gathering tasks such as searching for and tracking new objects, and platform level power management, are only integrated at a mission-management level. In order to truly exploit new energy harvesting technologies which are emerging in both the commercial and military domains (for example the 'EATR' robot and next-generation solar panels), the sensor management and power management processes must be directly coupled. This paper presents a novel non-myopic sensor management framework which addresses this issue through the use of a predictive platform energy model. Energy harvesting opportunities are modelled using a dynamic spatial-temporal energy map and sensor and platform actions are optimised according to global team utility. The framework allows the assessment of a variety of different energy harvesting technologies and perceptive tasks. In this paper, two representative scenarios are used to parameterise the model with specific efficiency and energy abundance figures. Simulation results indicate that the integration of intelligent power management with traditional sensor management processes can significantly increase operational endurance and, in some cases, simultaneously improve surveillance or tracking performance. Furthermore, the framework is used to assess the potential impact of energy harvesting technologies at various efficiency levels. This provides important insight into the potential benefits that intelligent power management can offer in relation to improving system performance and reducing the dependency on fossil fuels and logistical support.
On the reliability of collaboration and coordination of unmanned vehicle network
There has been increasing interest during the last several years in the development of unmanned vehicles. A large number of such vehicles are soon going to play a major role in defense and security in a battlefield environment. The objective of the present paper is to ascertain the overall reliability of a large number of unmanned vehicles in the battlefield. The problem is broken up into two parts, collaboration and coordination of unmanned vehicle network. Collaboration is the communication between a set of unmanned vehicles which are likely to move in a group. Coordination is the movement of one group of unmanned vehicle from one source node to another destination node keeping in view the obstacles and the difficulties in the movement of path. This paper utilizes the existing well known techniques in the literature for finding the node and terminal reliabilities. These can further be used to obtain the system reliability of unmanned vehicle network. Fuzzy rules based on experience from past are suggested for the implementations. A simulation of ground vehicle network having node, branch and terminal simulations is given. It is hoped that the technique proposed here will prove useful in developing future approaches for ascertaining overall reliability of unmanned ground networks.
Multichannel, agile, computationally enhanced camera based on the PANOPTES architecture
Predrag Milojkovic, John Gill, Daniel Frattin, et al.
A multi-channel, agile, computationally enhanced camera based on the PANOPTES architecture is presented. Details of camera operational concepts are outlined. Preliminary image acquisition results and an example of super-resolution enhancement of captured data are given.