Proceedings Volume 6348

Optoelectronic and Electronic Sensors VI

Tadeusz Pisarkiewicz
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Proceedings Volume 6348

Optoelectronic and Electronic Sensors VI

Tadeusz Pisarkiewicz
View the digital version of this volume at SPIE Digital Libarary.

Volume Details

Date Published: 26 October 2006
Contents: 8 Sessions, 30 Papers, 0 Presentations
Conference: Optoelectronic and Electronic Sensors VI 2006
Volume Number: 6348

Table of Contents

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Table of Contents

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  • Physical Concepts of Sensors, Modeling and Simulation
  • New Materials and Technologies
  • Physical Quantity Sensors
  • Chemical Sensors
  • Biosensors
  • Optoelectronic and Fiber Optics Based Sensors
  • Assembly Technologies, Diagnostics, Reliability, and Standardization
  • Sensor Applications
Physical Concepts of Sensors, Modeling and Simulation
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Modeling and analysis of thick-film thermoelectric microgenerators
Piotr Markowski, Andrzej Dziedzic
Thermoelectric generators provide electrical energy from temperature difference. This energy can be used to supply microelectronic circuits or microsystems. In this paper theoretical optimization process of thick-film microgenerators is presented.
Modeling of selected transducer designs for optical pressure sensors using polarization interferometry
Results of Finite Element modeling of selected designs of membranes for interferometric pressure sensors are presented in the paper. Dependence of characteristics on the choice of materials, dimensions and shape of the membrane is discussed. Analysed membranes have somewhat limited displacement range, which may affect the accuracy of pressure sensors in which they are employed. Directions of further research on interferometric pressure sensors are also outlined.
Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography system
In this paper we present construction of an optical coherence tomography system capable to measure birefringeant properties of the materials. Radiation in this measuring system propagates in the free space with polarization state preservation. Balanced detection has been used to improve noise properties of a system. Preliminary measurements are presented.
Measuring system for the investigation upon surface distribution of pyroelectric charge
Mariusz Trybus, Wladyslaw Proszak
Results of design and construction works upon measuring system for surface distribution of pyroelectric charge, in the process of phase transition of TGS-like ferroelectrics, are presented in this paper. Measurements of pyroelectric current for one channel as well as calibration of characteristics for the whole system and measurement results for TGSTe single crystal are also presented.
New Materials and Technologies
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Magnetic field sensor with a nanocrystalline core
Stanislaw Moskowicz
Modern fast-cooled soft magnetic materials are finding ever-widening application in fluxgate-based magnetic field sensors. Nanocrystalline cores feature distinctly better magnetic parameters and supplant permalloy-made cores used to date. The sensor core has a ring form of special design, which makes it possible to magnetize selected core portions, and is made of Finemet type nanocrystalline material. In the paper the design, basic parameters and results of tests carried out on the sensor are presented.
Application of proton-conducting SrCeO3 for construction of potentiometric hydrogen gas sensor
Paweł Pasierb, Anna Biernacka-Such, Stanisław Komornicki, et al.
The purpose of this work was to investigate the performance and working mechanism of potentiometric hydrogen sensors, based on proton-conducting oxide solid electrolytes. The SrCe1-xYxO3-y compounds (0≤×≤0.2) were prepared by solid-state reaction method; different concentrations of yttrium dopant (x) were used. The measurements of Open Cell Voltage (OCV) of constructed cells-sensors as a function of gas concentration and temperature were performed. Studied sensors exhibited short response and recovery times and satisfactory repeatability of the sensor signal. The discussion of the working mechanism within the frame of defect structure and transport properties of proton-conducting solid electrolyte was also presented in this work.
Modified structures of multicrystalline silicon as light detectors
Photovoltaic structures of multicrystalline silicon were modified by the deposition of a-Si:C:H thin films. The films have been deposited by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition at 13.56 MHz in SiH4 +CH4 gaseous mixtures. The structures have been investigated by means of optical and electrical methods. Spectral photosensitivity measurements were done at room temperature in voltage and current modes. The signal was registered in the function of light in the visible and near infrared region from 400 to 1100 nm. Silicon structures covered by a-Si:C:H have higher spectral photosensitivities than uncover ones and the apparent increase in efficiency has been observed.
Rapid temperature processing (RTP) system for selenization of photovoltaic materials
Michał Warzecha, Henryk Jankowski, Lidia Maksymowicz, et al.
Rapid Temperature Processing (RTP) methodology is widely applied in thin-film photovoltaic materials technology due to high quality of fabricated cells and also perspectives for their mass manufacturing. This paper describes a RTP device structure which contains the graphite reactor for selenization of Cu/In or Cu/In/Se precursors. Strong nonlinearity of radiative energy transfer makes RTP controlling difficult so it still needs to be improved. Using mathematical model of the device, we are proposing the method of process controlling. Experimentally obtained temperature profiles of Rapid Temperature Processes are presented and compared with temperature profile of typical CIS selenization graphite reactor. Presented steering procedure, based on our model, gives improves by decreasing time needed for selenization and simultaneously reducing costs of the process.
Physical Quantity Sensors
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Setups for measurement of thermal time constant of bolometers and resistive layers
Thermal time constant is an important parameter describing temporal behavior of bolometers as well as resistive layers used in these detectors. Measurement of the thermal time constant can yield valuable data for research and quality control. However, due to the influence of 1/f noise, this measurement is difficult to conduct, especially when the thermal time constant is longer than a second. Two setups, capable of performing such measurement in the range from milliseconds to a few seconds, were developed and are presented in the paper. Using these setups, thermal time constant of bolometers and resistive layers made from non-stoichiometric lanthanum-strontium-iron oxides (LSFO) in LTCC technology was measured. Results presented in the paper show that the setups can measure thermal time constant up to several seconds. Directions of further research are discussed.
The structure and phase composition of Co/Cu bilayers: sensing elements for magnetoresistive application
Konstanty Marszałek, Marta Marszałek, Sergey Protsenko, et al.
Experiments were carried out on single films of Co and Cu, and on Co-Cu bilayers evaporated on the NaCl(001) substrates at room temperature. A thickness of single films, measured by interferometry method, has been changed from 3 to 40 nm for Cu and from 5 to 40 nm for Co. The Transmission Electron Microscope studies showed that at annealing temperatures below 600 K the films consist of fcc Cu and hcp Co. After annealing at higher temperatures, besides the presence of phases already observed at lower temperatures, also Co-Cu solid solution together with single phase of hcp Co was observed.
Optimization of working conditions of thick-film LSFO bolometers
Andrzej Łoziński, Paweł Wierzba, Sylwia Rydzewska
The LTCC (low temperature co-fired ceramics) method for the production of bolometers, utilising conducting films from non-stoichiometric, perovskite type lanthanum-strontium iron (LSFO) oxides is described with the measurement of parameters allowing for the choice of optimal operating conditions.
Chemical Sensors
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Preparation and properties of nanoporous alumina-based humidity sensors
Adam Madany, Piotr Jasiński, Grzegorz Jasiński, et al.
In this paper preparation method of nano-porous alumina based humidity sensors is presented. Investigation of relation between technological process parameters, sensor's porous layer structure and electric parameters is main aim of this study. Surface morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. Impedance spectroscopy was used to identify electrical parameters of the sensor.
Investigations of a new humidity sensor with polymer film
Bogdan Chachulski, Daniel Falęta, Jacek Gębicki, et al.
Results of impedance measurements of humidity sensors with epoxy resins containig quarternary ammonium salts are presented in this paper. The humidity sensitive membranes were prepared from polyethyleneimine (PEI). PEI was cross-linked using 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDGE) and glycidyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (GTMAC) was added as a humidity sensitive epoxy monomer.
An application of advanced data processing methods to response analysis of electrocatalytic gas sensor
Grzegorz Jasinski, Piotr Jasinski, Antoni Nowakowski
Electrocatalytic sensors belong to a relatively new group of solid state electrochemical gas sensors. Its working principle is based on electric current acquisition, while voltage ramp is applied to the sensor. The current-voltage plot has unique shape, which depends on surrounding gas type and its concentration. Response of the electrocatalytic gas sensor contains significantly more information in comparison with typical amperometric or potentiometric one. Methods of sensors response analysis, which was employed so far, did not fully utilize this feature. Moreover, shape of sensor response, in case of some gases or mixtures, is hard to be interpreted with traditional techniques. In this work more advanced methods to analyze electrocatalytic gas sensor response, which are based on explorative and confirmative techniques as well as artificial neural network, are presented.
A system allowing for the automatic determination of the characteristic shapes of ion-selective electrodes
Józef Wiora, Alicja Wiora
The plot of ion-selective electrode's potential vs. ion concentration in a solution is non-linear and very complex. In the paper, a set-up is described which allows to determine the plot using multiple dilution method in an automatic way. The set-up is not expensive and the presence of experimenter in the laboratory is not necessary during the test of the electrode. Additionally, the system allows for simultaneous investigation of several electrodes.
Response and sensitivity of TiO2-SnO2 semiconducting sensors for reducing gases
TiO2-SnO2 mixed oxide semiconductors are proposed as candidates for hydrogen gas sensors. The sensor responses in terms of the electrical conductance and the sensitivity to hydrogen partial pressure and temperature are analyzed in order to optimize the sensor performance.
Biosensors
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Planar immunosensors with the application of grating couplers: analysis and design
Paweł Karasiński
The paper involves the application of input grating couplers for biochemical measurements. Surface relief grating with 1000 line/mm on planar SiO2:TiO2 waveguides were fabricated by combination of a dip-coating method (sol-gel) with an embossing technique. The paper presents the results of experimental research on the produced grating couplers and the results of theoretical analysis of the sensor structure.
Amperometric sensors as basic structures for enzymatic, enzyme-cofactor mediated assays, and drugs detection
D. G. Pijanowska, M. Maliszewska-Mazur, A. Kossakowska, et al.
In this paper preliminary results related to amperometric sensors fabricated in different technologies including thick- and thin-film technology are presented. The three-electrode sensors were designed as disposable ones and for monitoring. Disposable sensors were made by the screen-printing of the electrode material on polymeric foils, the other ones were made by screen-printing on ceramic or by platinum evaporation onto silicon wafer. Potential applications of the developed amperometric sensors for enzymatic, enzyme-cofactor mediated assays and phenothiazine-based drug detection were demonstrated. It was stated that, the PPy layer deposition on Pt electrode might lead to use of this material to decrease an oxidation potential of NADH in the NAD regeneration process.
Optoelectronic and Fiber Optics Based Sensors
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Optical transducers used to determine the biocomponent content in diesel oil
Jacek Gołębiowski, Tomasz Prohuń
The system which allows to determine the amount of rapeseed oil methyl esters (RME) in diesel is presented and described. The parameters and characteristics of different light sources and photodetectors were tested in order to choose the proper basic elements of the optical device. The spectral characteristics of the elements were analysed in view of the absorption spectrum properties as well. The results of RME content measurements were presented and the usefulness of the designed measuring system was discussed.
Transillumination of peripheral parts of the body with the use of optical radiation
In the paper a result of hand fingers transillumination is presented. During experiments, an robot arm equipped with an optoelectronic system has been used. The object scanning was realized in the rectangular coordinates system. Optical radiation at the wavelength 880 nm was emitted by a high power LED to be supplied in pulse mode while a photodiode PIN was used as the photodetector. Both light source and photodetector were set into the special diaphragms in order to collect all ballistic photons. The signals obtained from the photodiode allowed determining the object optical attenuation occuring in particualr sites of the transilluminated surface in a form of two-dimensional image. Also selected examples of current modern transillumination applications in medical diagnostics are presented.
Verification of multiband system for noncontact emissivity measurements
In recent years an increasing interest in passive multiband systems for temperature and emissivity measurement was noted. However, available literature about passive multiband systems concentrated exclusively on problem of temperature measurements with these systems in situation when these systems can be also used for non-contact emissivity measurements. Modeling of such systems, what is usually the first stage of system designing, requires acceptation of several simplifications and approximations. In this paper an experimental verification of modeling results is performed based on developed measurement setup. Obtained results are in good agreement with results of previously performed computer analyses that shows usefulness of multiband method for emissivity measurements in working conditions.
M(O)EMS-based integrated micro-interferometric system
In the paper idea of integrated waveguide micro-interferometric system is presented. Results of numerical simulation of beam propagation (geometrical and wave depiction) in the measurement interferometric module is presented. Article also briefly presents laboratory setups, which are used to model the interferometers.
Fluorescence measurements for chemical optical fiber sensor of cobalt
Adam Mazikowski, Emil Kaczmarek
Opto-chemical sensors are sensors of quantities (pH level, heavy metal ions concentration), detection of which can be performed optically. These sensors utilize various optical phenomena such as changes of fluorescence in the presence of a certain agent. Many substances available and interesting from the sensor point of view exhibit different properties in solution and after physical and/or chemical mounting on glass slide or optical fiber. Because of this it is necessary to investigate application possibilities of a certain substance in well defined metrological environment. In this paper we described system for measuring fluorescence of sensing materials. We proposed system utilizing emission and absorption spectra separation and phase-sensitive detection. As an example of such system a fluorescence sensor of cobalt was of our interest. We described sample preparation process and measured some properties of chosen chemical substances. Achieved results are the basis for further research.
Modeling of polarimetric sensors using LabVIEW environment
An application for modeling of polarimetric sensors is presented. Written using industry-standard LabVIEW platform, this application calculates response of a non-ideal sensor using a monochromatic source to force acting on the modulator. Problems existing when creating a modeling application in a graphic programming environment are discussed. Selected results of optical fiber sensors modeling are presented.
Assembly Technologies, Diagnostics, Reliability, and Standardization
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Bonding technique of polymer layer with ceramic elements of analytical microsystems
Michał Chudy, Karol Malecha, Leszek Golonka, et al.
The possibilities of the construction of microsystems using ceramics and polymers are presented in the paper. The technology of irreversible and reversible bonding of ceramic and polymer microsystems' layers was developed. The irreversible bonding is required only for microfluidic structures, in which samples and reagents are introduced into the system using pressure methods. For the systems with an electroosmotic reagents dosing adhesion forces between particular layers are enough to seal the microchannels. In both cases a glaze layer was screen-printed on ceramic plates to eliminate their surface roughness.
Influence of gas microsensor mounting technique on its temperature time constant
Wojciech Maziarz, Tadeusz Pisarkiewicz
Metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors with modulated working temperature should reveal small thermal time constant in comparison to the time constants of chemical reactions between gas atmosphere and sensitive layer. In such case analyzed sensor response is dominated with specific phenomena originated from these reactions. A way the sensors are mounted has big influence on the sensor thermal time constants. In experiments authors used gas sensors with ceramic and micromachined silicon substrates glued to the case or suspended on thin wires. Although mechanical stability and durability of glued sensors are better, the lower power consumption and lower time constants are possible with sensors mounted using thin wires.
Automatic system for determination of dielectric hysteresis loop parameters
Wladyslaw Proszak
Research works were focused on design and implementation of based on Sawyer-Tower measurement set, computer system, capable to record parameters of dielectric hysteresis loop of non-linear dielectrics. This measurement system makes possible automation and simplification of measurements process and preliminary data processing. Exemplary measurements of temperature characteristics of coercive field and spontaneous polarization of ferroelectric single crystals are also presented in the paper.
Sensor Applications
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Magnetic tunnel junctions and their applications
Magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) consists of at least two ferromagnetic layers, separated by an insulating tunnel barrier of amorphous aluminum oxide Al-O or monocrystalline (100)MgO. The magnetization direction of the free ferromagnetic layer (top electrode) is used for information storage. The tunnel resistance of the memory bit cell is either low or high, depending on the relative orientation of magnetizations (parallel or antiparallel) of the free layer with respect to the fixed layer (bottom electrode). The sense current flows perpendicular to the film plane of MTJ for the random access memory (MRAM) cell or reprogrammable magnetic logic (RML) system. The MRAM or RML bit cell is programmed by the magnetic field, generated by current flowing through conductors.
RFID reader design for identification of industrial metallic objects
M. Szczurkowski, H. Jankowski, C. Worek, et al.
An electronic circuit design of the RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) reader was the aim of our research. This device is designed for identification of transponders, which are present on the surface of metal elements or inside machine elements made of metal. In order to achieve that, we optimized the antenna reader circuit, that works in near field (magnetic coupling), by means of field flux lines analysis (using finite elements method) and experimental data collecting. Finally, one obtaines a specific shaped magnetic field around the reader.
Comparative study of acceleration transducers for biomedical applications
Dariusz Buchczik, Roman Wyżgolik, Stanisław Pietraszek
The results of comparative studies of the metrological parameters of acceleration transducers constructed in Institute of Electronics, Silesian University of Technology is presented in this article. The construction of the transducers is based on commercially available monolithic accelerometers and optimized for biomedical applications. The parameters determined during the tests are similar to the parameters of the monolithic accelerometers declared by their manufacturers. It proofs that both the mechanical and the electronic construction of the transducers are correct.