Proceedings Volume 5944

Smart Imagers and Their Application

Alexander L. Stempkovsky, Victor A. Shilin
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Proceedings Volume 5944

Smart Imagers and Their Application

Alexander L. Stempkovsky, Victor A. Shilin
View the digital version of this volume at SPIE Digital Libarary.

Volume Details

Date Published: 30 June 2005
Contents: 4 Sessions, 26 Papers, 0 Presentations
Conference: Smart Imagers and Their Application 2004
Volume Number: 5944

Table of Contents

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Table of Contents

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  • Smart Imagers
  • Smart Imaging Systems
  • Smart Imagers' Application for Technical Vision
  • Smart Imagers' Application for Testing and Measuring Systems
Smart Imagers
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View and design of basic element for smart imagers with image preprocessing
Victor A. Shilin
This paper is devoted to view of basic elements for smart imagers. We discussed principal of work. CMOS APS imagers with focal plane parallel image preprocessing for smart technical vision and electro-optical systems based on neural implementation. Using analysis of main biological vision features, the desired artificial vision characteristics are defined. Image processing tasks can be implemented by smart focal plane preprocessing CMOS imagers with neural networks are determined. Eventual results are important for medicine, aerospace ecological monitoring, complexity, and ways for CMOS APS neural nets implementation.
Silicon photodetectors for longwave infrared focal plane arrays
Vladimir V. Chernokozhin
Review on peculiarities and tendencies of multielement JR photodetectors development are considered. The place and prospects of extrinsic silicon longwave JR sensors and focal plane arrays (FPAs) are discussed. The achieved results and predicted characteristics show, that these devices are capable to provide the highest photoelectric characteristics and simultaneously cheapness, productivity, high reliability and durability of longwave JR photodetection devices.
SiGe HBT and SiGe MOSFET analysis for high-speed optical networks
Konstantin O. Petrosjanc, Nikita I. Ryabov, Rostislav A. Torgovnikov
This paper provides a TCAD analysis of high performance SiGe heterostructure bipolar and MOSFET transistors fabricated by SiGe BiCMOS technology. The bipolar and MOSFET devices characteristics are presented. High values of operation frequencies, current gains and transconductances of the devices satisfy the requirements in RF mixed-signal IC development for wired optical communication systems.
New contact stacks with platinum silicide layers
Dmitro Kolesnikov
The PtSi layer and PtSi/Al, PtSi/AlCuSi, PtSi / TiW / AlCuSi, Ti /Ni / Ag, Al / Ti / Ni / Ag stacks were tested as the anode contact of high-power P-i-N diode. The forward voltage drop (VF), differential resistance (Rdiff) and crossing point current (IXing) of diodes were evaluated from the forward I-V curves at different temperatures measured in four point arrangement. The lowest magnitude of contact resistivity and poor thermal stability were obtained for the case of diode with PtSi contact. The additional layers have improved the temperature stability of this contact. It has led to the increase of contact resistance, but the PtSi layer is still possible to use as a source of Pt for further local lifetime control operation.
TDI scan sensor with pixel size 7µm x 7µm with exposure control
Evgeniy V. Kostyukov, Alexey M. Maklakov, Olga V. Mikhailichenko, et al.
TDL line scan sensor with pixel size 7μm x 7μm with exposure control technology process and result two-dimensional modeling of cell as reported.
Design of smart imagers with image processing
Evgeniya N. Serova, Yury A. Shiryaev, Anton O. Udovichenko
This paper is devoted to creation of novel CMOS APS imagers with focal plane parallel image preprocessing for smart technical vision and electro-optical systems based on neural implementation. Using analysis of main biological vision features, the desired artificial vision characteristics are defined. Image processing tasks can be implemented by smart focal plane preprocessing CMOS imagers with neural networks are determined. Eventual results are important for medicine, aerospace ecological monitoring, complexity, and ways for CMOS APS neural nets implementation. To reduce real image preprocessing time special methods based on edge detection and neighbored frame subtraction will be considered and simulated. To select optimal methods and mathematical operators for edge detection various medical, technical and aerospace images will be tested. The important research direction will be devoted to analogue implementation of main preprocessing operations (addition, subtraction, neighbored frame subtraction, module, and edge detection of pixel signals) in focal plane of CMOS APS imagers. We present the following results: the algorithm of edge detection for analog realization, and patented focal plane circuits for analog image reprocessing (edge detection and motion detection).
Base technology process for linear CCD
Evgeny V. Kostykov, Alexander A. Skrylev
The base manufacturing techniques of solid-state silicon photodetectors of the visible range - photosensitive devices with charging communication are described by the example of linear CCD. Characteristics of linear photodetectors are resulted.
Numerical simulation of photosensitive pixels
Andrew A. Pugachev
The classification of solid-state electron device models on a basis of its computation process organization structure complications are described. The greatest parts of numerical simulation methodology of photosensitive VLSI pixels are the planning of simulation procedure and numerical modeling results verification procedure. To design the optimal simulation methodology leads to obtain the accurate data for practical design of photosensitive pixels. This paper also gives examples of optimized CCD pixel design using special methodology of simulation.
Smart Imaging Systems
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Unpacked TDI PhCCD designed for large format optoelectronic systems for the Earth remote sensing
Grigory I. Vishnevsky, Mikchail G. Vidrevitch, Vladimir G. Kossov, et al.
For the large format high-performance optoelectronic Earth remote sensing (ERS) system "Resource -DK" specialized PhCCD image sensor "Kruiz" meant for operation in a TDI mode was developed. PhCCD photozone size is 1024(H) x 128(V) active pixels, pixel size is 9 x 9 μm2. Step-by-step electronic adjustment of the PhCCD responsivity is performed by variation of the TDI stages: 128, 64, 32, 16, 8. The device has two readout shift registers and two output amplifiers and this allows to read the data from the photozone twice faster. "Electronic target" input device enables full tests of the optoelectronic converter onboard without illumination of the photozone. Unpacked chip construction allows to assemble large focal plane arrays, which's length of photozone is not limited by the PhCCD format. Here are the main characteristics of the device: full well capacity - 120 000 electrons; dynamic range - 2500; charge transfer efficiency in any direction - more then 0.99998 per transfer; maximum quantum efficiency - 0.33 (at 720 nm).
Research of processes of reception and analysis of dynamic digital medical images in hardware/software complexes used for diagnostics and treatment of cardiovascular diseases
Y. V. Karmazikov, E. M. Fainberg
Work with DICOM compatible equipment integrated into hardware and software systems for medical purposes has been considered. Structures of process of reception and translormation of the data are resulted by the example of digital rentgenography and angiography systems, included in hardware-software complex DIMOL-IK. Algorithms of reception and the analysis of the data are offered. Questions of the further processing and storage of the received data are considered.
Research and optimization of storage method of angiographic films in medical information systems
Evgeniy M. Fainberg, Sergey V. Eranov
The different storage methods of angiographic films are described in this article. There are compared the analogue and digital storage methods of images. It is told about a medical information system DIMOL-1K designed by experts RRC <>. Reasons of format selection for storage angiographic clips in the DIMOL-IK system as AVI animations have been featured. Research outcomes of different compression methods of angiographic clips with more effective storage quality are discussed.
Computational efficient models for quality assessment of compressed video
Radim Javurek
Two models for objective assessment of compressed video quality and results from subjective and objective tests of several low bit-rate video coders are introduced in this paper. First model is based on mathematical measures that describe perception of video distortion by human eye. Second model for quality evaluation is based on human visual system (HVS) characteristics. Obtained quality values from both models have been compared with subjective results. Both models are computationally efficient and produce results that are correlated with subjective results.
Astronomical image data compression
Jaromír Schindler
This paper introduces a new view onto the problems of astronomical image data compression. The idea is to find precise models of real objects from image and describe the image with the help ofthem. This approach should lead to extreme compression ratios but maintain accurate astronomical information and in most cases also visually lossless image quality. Lossless compression is possible at the expense of low compression ratios but these ratios should be still able to compete to recent compression algorithms used in astronomy (HCompress, PMT or FITPRESS). The core ofthis method is very precise astrometry and photometry measurement, the rest of the image, which will not fulfill the expectation of our model, can be coded using wavelet transform with optimized mother function.
Models of optoelectronic devices for IC simulation with SPICE
Konstantin O. Petrosjanc, Lev M. Sambursky
SPICE macromodels for basic optoelectronic devices (photodiode, LED, photocell, diode and transistor optocouple) were developed. All the models were tested in optoelectronic circuits simulation using SPICE and good agreement with experimental data was achieved.
Smart Imagers' Application for Technical Vision
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PCCD - video processor and its application in moving image velocity sensor
A. I. Baklanov
The article considers principles of construction of the CCD array with photosensitive field of special construction for operating in time delay and Integration (TDI) mode, and moving image velocity sensors based on this TDI CCD. Application of specialized photosensitive s moving image velocity sensors, mounted in the same focal plane, allows creating observation system operating in the push broom mode and able to adapt to severe environment with alternating field of speed of movement in the focal plane. Mainly mathernatic simulation of the moving image velocity sensors based on CCD TDI is emphasized.
Estimation of dynamic parameters for CMOS 3T active pixel circuit
Stanislov S. Osochkin
Initial estimation method of the basic dynamic parameters for 3T pixel circuit is described. The results of analytical and numerical (using SPICE) computation were compared.
The portable combined optical devices of IAM SIB RAS
Evgeny A. Tereshin, Peter V. Zhuravlyov, Konstantin P. Shatunov
The review ofthe some combined systems developed in TAM SYB RAS is submitted in the paper.
Smart imagers and their characteristics
The optical transfer function (OTF), as an objective measure of the quality of optical and electro-optical systems, is closely related to the point spread function (PSF) and other derived characteristics, such as the modulation transfer function (MTF) and the phase transfer function (PTF). The main objective of this paper has been to use a generalized OTF, which is primarily dedicated to the description of linear space invariant systems (LSI), for the purpose of sampled structures of image sensors (e.g. CCD, CMOS, CID) including smart ones, and to implement the derived results while utilizing the graphical user interface (GUI) in Matlab programming environment. The model used considers the effects of the detector photo sensitive area, sampling process, as well as other CCD specific parameters, such as the charge transfer efficiency (CTE) or diffusion in order to derive the overall MTF shape. The paper also includes an experimental measurement in the real system and a comparison with the results of modeling.
Measurement and analysis of image sensors
For astronomical applications is necessary to have high precision in sensing and processing the image data. In this time are used the large CCD sensors from the various reasons. For the replacement of CCD sensors with CMOS sensing devices is important to know transfer characteristics of used CCD sensors. In the special applications like the robotic telescopes (fully automatic, without human interactions) seems to be good using of specially designed smart sensors, which have integrated more functions and have more features than CCDs.
Human vision model for image quality evaluation suitable for smart imager implementation
Jaroslav Dusek, Karel Roubík, Martin Bernas
This article deals with image quality evaluation ofthe compressed images especially for compression format JPEG 2000. It shows evaluation of selected test images (scene with: textures, details, text, color of face, etc.) using selected methods: subjective testing as the reference method, objective testing and two designed human vision models. At the end article compares results of these methods.
Smart Imagers' Application for Testing and Measuring Systems
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The outlook of innovative optical-electronic technologies implementation in transportation
Elena V. Shilina, Roman B. Ryabichenko
Information and telecommunication technologies (ITT) are already tool economic development of society and their role will grow. The first task is providing of information security of ITT that is necessary for it distribution in "information" society. The state policy of the leading world countries (USA, France, Japan, Great Britain and China) is focused on investment huge funds in innovative technologies development. Within the next 4-6 years the main fiber-optic transfer lines will have data transfer speed 40 Gbit/s, number of packed channels 60-200 that will provide effective data transfer speed 2,4-8 Tbit/s. Photonic-crystalline fibers will be promising base of new generation fiber-optic transfer lines. The market of information imaging devices and digital photo cameras will be grown in 3-5 times. Powerful lasers based on CO2 and Nd:YAG will be actively used in transport machinery construction when producing aluminum constructions of light rolling-stock. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) will be base for energy saving and safety light sources used for vehicles and indoor lighting. For example, in the USA cost reducing for lighting will be 200 billion dollars. Implementation analysis of optic electronic photonic technologies (OPT) in ground and aerospace systems shows that they provide significant increasing of traffic safety, crew and passengers comfort with help of smart vehicles construction and non-contact dynamic monitoring both transport facilities (for example, wheel flanges) and condition of rail track (road surface), equipping vehicles with night vision equipment. Scientific-technical programs of JSC "RZD" propose application of OPT in new generation systems: axle-box units for coaches and freight cars monitoring when they are moved, track condition analysis, mechanical stress and permanent way irregularity detection, monitoring geometric parameters of aerial contact wire, car truck, rail and wheel pair roll surface, light signals automatic detection from locomotive, video monitoring, gyroscopes based on fiber optic.
Development, design, and accuracy analysis of electro-optical systems
Olga S. Smoleva
Non-contact electro-optical systems for geometrical parameters measurements of moving objects are the novel systems, which is required for industry and transportation. The electro-optical systems based on lasers, photosensitive cameras, control electronics and computers have been considered. Analysis of principles and existing methods for optical and electro-optical profile measurements was shown. Methods and mathematical models for evaluation of electro-optical measurement accuracy have been developed. Rail track inspection systems in the world and our developments have been considered.
Evaluation techniques of accuracy characteristics for non-contact photonic track inspection system
Dmitry V. Popov, Roman B. Ryabichenko, Elena A. Krivosheina
The most important task in Moscow metro is increasing safety of railway traffic. For safety purposes six track parameters are measured in Moscow Metro with help of track measurement car. Equipment mounted on this car works only in contact mode and doesn't provide modem requirements for accuracy. Also important task is measurement at high speeds, but contact technology limits speed of movement up to 25mph on rail switches. Current system can't measure in real-time mode. For decision of these field of tasks non-contact photonic measurement system (KSIR) is constructed. The KSIR works at speeds up to 70 mph and measure seven track parameters. The KSIR contains four subsystems: rail wear, height and track gauge measurement (BFSM); rail slump measurement (FTP); contact rail measurement (FKR); speed, level and car locating (USI). KSIR contains five CCD matrix cameras, four line CCD cameras, five infrared stripe lasers and four spot infrared lasers. Laser forms shape on the rail. CCD-camera acquires rail image and transfers it into the digital signal processor which produces preliminary calculation ofrail shape. Then image is transferred into the central computer to calculate values of rail characteristics. Angles between photonic unit and rail bring distortions in images from cameras. Additional distortions are caused by short-focus optics and small distance between camera and track. This distance is limited by structure clearance. The transformation algorithms for distortions elimination are applied. It's based on surfaces spline-approximation. As a result the KSIR calculates coefficients of approximating polynomials. The calibration is performed for checking accuracy of measurement in BFSM, FTP and FKR units. Evaluation techniques of accuracy characteristics are considered.
Computational unit for non-contact photonic system
Alexander V. Kochetov, Pavel A. Skrylev
Requirements to the unified computational unit for non-contact photonic system have been formulated. Estimation of central processing unit performance and required memory size are calculated. Specialized microcontroller optimal to use as central processing unit has been selected. Memory chip types are determinated for system. The computational unit consists of central processing unit based on selected microcontroller, NVRAM memory, receiving circuit, SDRAM memory, control and power circuits. It functions, as performing unit that calculates required parameters ofrail track.
Non-contact velocity sensor simulator
Michael E. Fainberg, Pavel A. Skrylev
The most important feature of means of transportation including rolling-stock is the velocity. Non-contact velocity sensor development for rail measurement car on rail transportation has been developed. Specialized sensor organization is described. Mathematical model of specialized TDI PhCCD has been developed. Simulation software based on the model has been written to carry out the imitative simulation of OVS. Simulation ofthe velocity sensor with some various testing images has been performed. The motion velocity of rolling-stock and calculation accuracy dependencies have been described. Maximum calculation accuracy position at specified areas having good luminosity has been determined where the imager acquires most contrasting and clear images. Images like that may be acquired at open areas. The less luminous areas like at stations, near stations, and at tunnel will have worse accuracy. The calculation accuracy dependence from luminosity has been calculated.
Calculation of the digitization errors for the images captured by an array image sensor in a television detection system
A. M. Dahin
The dependence of the digitization errors values in a television system of the low-sized objects detection against complex background under the restriction of the optical signal spectrum by a lens has been obtained. The error value depends upon the ratio of the blur circle to the pitch ofthe array image sensor decomposition elements. It is shown that to achieve the value of the root mean square of the digitization error about 1%, it is necessary that the blur circle diameter is 2.5 of the digitization interval value along each coordinate.