Proceedings Volume 5066

Lasers for Measurements and Information Transfer 2002

Vadim E. Privalov
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Proceedings Volume 5066

Lasers for Measurements and Information Transfer 2002

Vadim E. Privalov
View the digital version of this volume at SPIE Digital Libarary.

Volume Details

Date Published: 19 June 2003
Contents: 2 Sessions, 47 Papers, 0 Presentations
Conference: Lasers for Measurements and Information Transfer 2002 2002
Volume Number: 5066

Table of Contents

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Table of Contents

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  • Lasers and Measurements
  • Lasers for Information Transfer
Lasers and Measurements
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One-dimensional solutions of quantum hydrodynamic equations for an electron packet in free space and electric field
Andrey L. Sanin, Vera G. Ulianova
Quantum hydrodynamic equations are used to describe motion of single electron. The initial and boundary conditions are formulated from the analytic formula for the electron packet in a free space. The numerical integration of equations for the free packet is performed. Then, we investigated the wave packet propagation through the back-ground positive charge, when the electric field is self-consistent. Moreover, we studied the influence of the external harmonic electric fields on the properties of the motion. The purpose of the present work consists in study of the spatial-temporal processes including packets when the quantum wave effects are essential.
Nonspreading packet-like solutions to quantum hydrodynamic equations for an electron interacting with the background positive charge
Andrey L. Sanin, Elena N. Vahhi
The one-dimensional quantum hydrodynamic equations jointly with the divergent Maxwell equation for the electric field are applied to study the electron motion through the background positive charge. For this purpose the above listed partial differential equations are transformed into the ordinary differential equations by means of the transition to the moving coordinate system and the new generalized coordinate. The numerical integration of transformed equations is performed by standard methods. The spatial oscillations or patterns as functions of the new coordinate and presented on the Figures. Structures of these oscillations can be compared with the patterns of the stationary equations and its solutions investigated early by authors. These spatial oscillations are characterized by the packet-like properties.
Features of the second harmonic generation by tunable radiation of the flashlamp-pumped dye lasers
Victor V. Shevchenko
The specific features of the second harmonic generation (SHG) of tunable radiation of the flashlamp-pumped dye-lasers (FLP DL) were investigated. It was found that the energy density of the focused laser radiation at microsecond pulses of radiation should not exceed 15 - 20 J/cm2 for KDP crystals. The requirements to the main parameters of FLP DL-radiation for effective SHG were determined.
Spatial polarization of the electromagnetic field
Andrey L. Sokolov
The subject studied is the polarization of an electromagnetic field, orthogonal components of which are partly coherent. The characteristics offered to describe it (indicatrixes) give an evident stereometrical image of the space polarization of the field. Examples of fully and partly polarized fields are considered.
Investigation of polarize-frequency gas laser characteristics in longitudinal magnetic field
A. S. Arefiev, A. A. Kondrachin, Elena G. Chulyaeva
There has been presented the results of the investigation of the two-frequency stabilized laser frequency splitting in longitudinal magnetic field. The theoretical calculation of the difference frequency has been conducted. Dependency of the difference frequency on the value of the magnetic field extension and resonator losses have been gotten. Results of the investigation prove that it is possible to get a difference frequency about 4 MHz whereas at present day our industry produces interferometer with difference radiation frequency about 1.5 ÷ 2 MHz.
Peculiarities of dynamics of oscillation of Q-switched Nd:YAG and Nd:KGW minilasers
Nikolai S. Ustimenko, Alexander V. Gulin
We present the experimental results of the investigation of the dynamics of oscillation of the passively Q-switched neodymium-doped aluminum yttrium garnet (Nd:YAG) laser. The model of oscillation that allows explanation of appearance of repeat pulses is discussed. Several methods to eliminate these pulses are presented. In the study of the time characteristics of the SRS neodymium-doped potassium gadolinium tungstate Nd3+:KGd(WO4)2 laser (Nd:KGW), abnormal dynamics of a single pulse due to multimode emission was revealed. The performance and the designs of Nd:YAG and Nd:KGW minilasers are presented.
Measurement of wheel pair parameters of a rolling stock during movement
Anatoli Z. Venediktov, Vladimir N. Demkin, Dmitri S. Dokov, et al.
In work is considered the problem arising at measurement of wheel pairs parameters during the movement of a train, owing to the complex form and a brilliant surface of a rim of a wheel. The submitted device allows to expand essentially a dynamic range of a photo camera with CCD image sensor. Comparative characteristics of gauges with a feedback on intensity are given. The design of the guage and a function chart of measuring system are described on the basis of these gauges. Application of a contactless optical method of a laser triangulation is most perspective for measurement of the geometrical sizes of wheel pairs on the moving train. Its application will allow to reduce time of the control and to raise safety of transportations.
Methods of alternating biased laser gyro resolution and bandwidth increase
Valery I. Gupalov, Andrei V. Mochalov
Application of the laser gyro (LG) with an alternating bias for angular dynamic measurements runs into errors mainly caused by discrete output signal for level and time. We have developed a method of increasing LG resolution, based on formation of additional signals possessing a given phase shift with respect to two initial analog signals of variable frequency. The bandwidth of the LG is usually limited by twice the frequency of the alternating bias. This frequency is increased by further formation of time intervals symmetric with respect to the zeros of the "initial bias function" and representing the "inserted cycles" for determination of the increments of the LG output signal. The measurement error arising from the use of the developed method is estimated.
Small-sized monoblock He-Ne laser for control-measuring devices and systems
Alexander I. Klochko
The article deals with the design and preliminary investigations of small-sized monoblock He-Ne laser, which is intended for work in precision control-measuring devices and systems of industrial-field application. The laser may be adjusted on work in three conditions of generation of laser radiation with different amplitude-polarization-frequency characteristics of radiation (APFC): single-frequency single-mode (mode - TEM00q) condition of generation of linearly polarized radiation, single-frequency high-stable condition of generation of linearly polarized radiation, two-frequency high-stable condition of generation of linearly-orthogonal polarized radiation.
Some features of acousto-optical methods as applied to measurement technology
S. M. Kolomiets
Some features of acousto-optical methods as applied to measurement technology are considered. The intensity of diffraction maxima are modulated at light beam diameter comparable to the acoustic wavelength. Such phenomena take place for light beam diffraction at surface ultrasonic waves (Rayleigh waves), capillary waves on a surface of a fluid as well. The signal modulation frequencies depend not only on the wave frequency, but also on the studied medium velocity. Signal modulation phases depend on wavelength. Therefore such methods may be useful for various problems of measurement technology, as the optical scheme of the measuring device can be very simple: laser -- medium under study (in which one of the indicated waves is excited) -- photodetector.
Laser photoacoustic microscopy of solids with residual stresses
Kyrill L. Muratikov, Alexej L. Glazov
The results of scanning photodeflection and photoacoustic piezoelectric imaging of the Vickers indentation on Al2O3-SiC-TiC ceramic composite are presented. It is demonstrated that external loading influences on the photoacoustic signal behavior near the radial crack tips. The theoretical model of the photoacoustic signal behavior near radial cracks under external loading is proposed. It is shown that the photoacoustic signal modifications near the crack tips are in a good agreement with the proposed theoretical model both for normal and shear external stresses. The obtained results demonstrate that the photoacoustic piezoelectric method is able to provide an important information about stress intensity factors of the crack tips.
Conditions of obtaining simultaneous generation on two wavelengths far separated from each other in an NH3-CO2 laser system
N. G. Leschenko, V. A. Stepanov, A. B. Yastrebkov
The conditions of obtaining of synchronous generation on two far separated frequencies in range 9 - 13 μm by means of the NH3 - CO2 laser system are reviewed. It is shown, that the two-frequency generation can be achieved by three main ways: (1) using the features of diffraction gratings operating in an autocollimation of the high orders; (2) using the effect of saturation of active medium of the converter of NH3 - CO2 laser system; (3) using the raster system of optical pumping of the converter. The advantages and lacks of each way are reviewed at remote sensing of atmosphere in range 9 - 13 μm.
Laser photodissociation in a linear ion trap
M. N. Makhmudov, V. A. Stepanov, M. Yu. Sudakov, et al.
The perspectives of using laser multiphoton dissociation processes for analysis of the polyatomic molecules are considered. It is shown that mass analysis of both the initial molecules and the fragments of dissociation is preferably to be carried out by means of linear ion trap acting in MS regime. New schemes of laser photodissociative spectrometer based on the mode locked NH3-CO2 laser and linear ion trap are proposed for realization of MS regime. Principle parameters of this laser (wavelength region from 9 to 13.5 μm, pulse energy approximately 1 J, pulse duration from 10 ns to 2 μs and pulse repetition from 1 Hz to 1 kHz) allow investigating the large number of the polyatomic molecules. Using of a linear ion trap reduces influencing of a space charge and increases an interaction range of laser radiation with ions as contrasted to three-dimensional trap. Using of non-linear effects of motion of entrapped ions in the linear ion trap will give possibility to interact by laser radiation with ions on an axis Z inside the quadrupole capacitor. This fact essentially increases sensitivity of the analysis. Resonant interaction of laser and radio-frequency fields with ions increases resolution of such method of the analysis too.
Plasma-chemical processes initiated by laser radiation on a surface of vitreous materials
V. A. Stepanov, I. V. Terehin, A. B. Yastrebkov
Here we consider the plasma-chemical precipitation mechanisms of various oxides of metals from a solid phase on a surface of glass by action of IR laser. There defined threshold values of power density of laser radiation at which a change of plasma-chemical reactions occurring on glass surface takes place. A combined (laser and gas-discharge) method of precipitation of oxides of silicon on a surface of glass from a gas phase is offered.
Shape of generation pulses and analytical characteristics of differential absorption lidar based on the NH3-CO2 laser
N. G. Leschenko, V. A. Stepanov, A. B. Yastrebkov
The method of differential absorption with scattering (DAS) for atmosphere probing by means of NH3-CO2 laser system on the two wavelengths of infrared region far separated from each other is reviewed. The most perspective scheme of remote probing of atmosphere by such method is determined. The efficiency of NH3-CO2 lidar in region 9 - 13 μm is shown. There was found, that using of passive synchronization of longitudinal modes does not require corrections, taking into account the differences in the generation pulses shape of NH3 and CO2 lasers, if the analysis of a registered signal will be fulfilled on the front of a scattered radiation. The calculations of the probing sensitivity and remoteness on some components of atmosphere polluting, such as CCI4, NH3 and CFCl3 there carried out with lidar equation helping.
Structure comparison of images of laser emission passing through tissue in vivo and fluoroplastic
Vitalii F. Barybin, A. S. Varavva, Marina U. Gerasimenko, et al.
Optical images of 'laser radiation, passed through a tissue of the rabbit (abdominal front wall and ear) in vivo, and passed through a model medium -- various thickness fluoroplastic disks have been received. New projection method of medical image processing based on signal expansion into series of eigenfunctions of the Fourier transform has been applied. The comparative analysis of results allowed detecting structural features of patterns of laser emission scattering by tissue.
Effect of surface roughness on measuring errors of optical constants estimated from spectral distribution of reflectance
Vladimir Ya. Mendeleev, V. M. Prosvirikov, Sergey N. Skovorod'ko
Relative measuring errors of optical constants calculated from modified Kramers-Kronig relations are estimated for steel and gold surfaces having rms roughness 0.01 μm, 0.02μm, and 0.03μm. Spectral distributions of intensity reflectance used for the calculations are given for two spectral ranges of 0.14-6.4 eV and 1.4-6.4 eV. It is found the measuring errors slightly depend on the spectral range variations and the main contribution to these errors is brought by the surface roughness.
Experimental investigation of the penetration depth of laser light influence on the distribution of backscattered radiation intensity
Vitalii F. Barybin, A. S. Varavva, Marina U. Gerasimenko, et al.
In this work the research of influence of the laser radiation penetration depth in fluoroplastic on distribution of backscattered radiation intensity is carried out. The comparison of results received at intensity measurement of backscattered low intensive laser radiation in photometer and the geometrical sizes of the images of distribution of backscattered radiation intensity, registered CCD-camera is carried out. The well adjusted dependences are received. They show, that with growth of scatterer thickness the intensity of backscattered radiation increases, and the geometrical sizes of backscattered beam increases. On thickness, which depends on fluoroplastic optical characteristics and characteristics of initial radiation, the growth of the fixed characteristics ceases.
Raman lidar spectrum reconstruction of methane and deuterium containing methane mixture
Valery G. Shemanin, Eleonora N. Grishina, Elina I. Voronina
The lidar Raman spectrum of methane molecules CH4,CH3D and CH2D2 transformation at copper vapor laser radiation wavelengths and ranging distances from 0.1 up to 6.0 km can be used for accuracy concentration measurements and lidar potential predictions. The studied gaseous mixture of different contents Raman spectra computer reconstruction have been made on the basis of back scattered vibrational Raman lidar equation computer simulation for these molecules with copper vapor laser radiation wavelengths and Raman bands half-width which were by shock theory for according experimental conditions in the free atmosphere.
Increasing dust-absorbing equipment operation efficiency using the automatic laser instrument for solid particle concentration measurement
Vadim V. Privalov, Valery G. Shemanin, Pavel V. Charty
The technological process of cement production, which side effect is dust generating and its exhausting to atmosphere, is not stopped as a rule when some faults were origin in dust-absorbing equipment (DAE). The analysis in reference one shows that longtime conducting of the technological process at DAE refusal or fault leads to its working efficiency reduction, which reveals itself in significant excess of nominal values of the dust output concentrations. The number of the most typical refusals and damages and algorithms of their searching were analyzed in work in reference 2 for the most wide-spread dust-absorber types: blanch and electrostatic filters. This work goal are the estimation of DAE working efficiency and choosing of the optimum way of its increasing with using of the automatic laser instrument for aerosol particles concentration measuring in the dust-air flows.
Methods for analysis of optical parameters of waveguide resonator with local inhomogeneity
Vladimir A. Saetchnikov, Elina A. Tcherniavskaia, Gerhard Schiffner
Results of theoretical and experimental investigation of optical parameters of slab guide resonators used in industrial lasers of the middle IR rang with radio-frequency pumping and output power from 200 W up to 4.5 kW are given. The measurements were carried out with the help of the automated system on the basis of scanning interferometer of the middle IR range supplied by high precision positioning system. Significant (two, three times and more) variation of optical losses in the resonator under small (down to several micrometers) change of its geometry has been found out experimentally. Replacement of a material or use of dielectric covering of the electrode surfaces has been followed not only the change of an average level of optical losses due to complex index of refraction, but also rather complex variation of their dependence on geometry of the resonator. It was shown experimentally that absolute value and character of dependence of optical losses on resonator geometry can change drastically with variation of the roughness of electrode surface. For example nearly smooth surfaces (with the deepness of the roughness of some nm) are not optimum for minimal optical losses. The best results can be obtained for a structure of a surface of electrodes representing periodic or random structure (depending on electrode material or its dielectric covering) with depth of around a radiation wavelength.
Estimation of BOFDA method measurement time
Vladimir A. Saetchnikov, Elina A. Tcherniavskaia, Tatjana P. Yanukovich
Large amounts of optic fiber sensors are developed now for measurement of different physics parameters, for example temperature and strain. Use of big length optical fibers allows developing distributed sensors. This work is dedicated to theoretical study of distributed sensor of temperature and strain using method of Brillouin Optical Frequency Domain Analysis (BOFDA). Theoretical description of Brillouin dispersion in optical fiber is based on three-wave interaction model: pump laser wsve, Stockes wave and acoustic wave. Two-wave interaction model is used in assumption of small modulation depth; acoustic wave doesn't change. Stationary solve of three-wave model is used for measurement result modeling. In the result of numerical model pulse response is calculated as a function of coordinate and frequency. The method for temperature and strain magnitude determination and their distribution is proposed. The methods accuracy estimation was made. To estimate time of measurement the numerical solve of three-wave model is used. Stationary interaction in optical fiber is settled at 6*10-6 sec for 200 m long fiber. This figure is dependent on length of the sensor fiber. Time delay is due to light velocity in optical fiber and settlement of stationary acoustic wave.
Radiation thermometer configured for GaAs molecular beam epitaxy
S. E. Aleksandrov, Gennadii A. Gavrilov, A. A. Kapralov, et al.
The optical pyrometer configured for precision temperature control of GaAs wafer surface during the MBE growth is presented. The calibration technique for absolute surface temperature measurements based on RHEED observation directly before and during epitaxial growth, allows to minimize an for absolute temperature determination and practically invalidates the influence of pyrometers window coating by growth materials.
Slow discrete velocity components of solitonic wave of change in reflection and conduction excited by CO2 laser pulse in Plexiglas and copper foil: experiments with thermocouple as detector
The experimental researches on excitation in Plexiglas of slow components of a solitonic-type Wave of change of reflection and conductivity (WCRC) are continued. Such discrete velocity excitations by a pulse of the CO2 laser (as first for ceramic HT SC samples) were found out by us in 1992. The results of soliton study in experiments with the various real condensed materials represent fundamental interest. We undertook the experiments with the use of the thermocouple as the detector with the purpose of increase of reliability of results received earlier by other methods, especially in relation to the sign of parameter variation in WCRC. Thus the assumption proves to be true stated by us before, that the arrival of a studied in Plexiglas results in local decreasing of temperature. The records of thermal processes in a copper foil sample for times in hundreds seconds after a stimulating pulse have allowed to register repeated passage through the foil several WCRC components with velocity of the order of μ/s. It is 104 times slower speed than in the first experiments of 1992.
Laser's calibration of an AOTF-based spectral colorimeter
Sergey P. Emelianov, Vladimir N. Khrustalev, Leonid B. Kochin, et al.
The paper is devoted to expedients of AOTF spectral colorimeters calibration. The spectrometer method of color values measuring with reference to spectral colorimeters on AOTF surveyed. The theoretical exposition of spectrometer data processing expedients is offered. The justified source of radiation choice, suitable for calibration of spectral colorimeters is carried out. The experimental results for different acousto-optical mediums and modes of interaction are submitted.
Color perception investigation by means of lasers
Vladimir N. Khrustalev, Leonid B. Kochin
The quantitative evaluation of color perceptional distinction performance is one of main problems in colorimetry. The standard colorimetric systems have essential disadvantages and not allow doing the numerical estimation of some color perception effects. At the same time, preceding experiments testify of the light sources performance significant affects to results of color measuring. Non-conventional laser usage for estimation of color perception represents great interest in this case. The known non-linear color perception effects, such as Bezold-Brucke and Bezold-Abney effects, explored experimentally at the beginning of the last century, have not found an explanation within the traditional colorimetry limits. The data on light source spectral distribution is absent in the literature. We are representing the mathematical model of this effects based on the original non-linear transformation of color intensities system. This way allows to receive precise quantitative assessments using the monochromatic light sources. The cases of using of two and three monochromatic light sources have been researched. The basic theoretical relies are experimentally checked; HeNe (λ=633 nm) and HeCd (λ=440 nm) lasers were used as light sources. The obtained results allow to improve the series of the important standings at the color perception theory as a whole.
Using of the holographic interferometry for measuring dissolubility of the gases in liquids
Veronika A. Babenko, Vladimir B. Konstantinov, Alexander F. Malyi
Influence soluble in liquids gases on changing a refraction coefficient of mixture under its compression was considered. Registration of was realized with holographic interferometer, allowing measure compressibility of liquid and dissolubility of gas under small pressures (near four atm). Distilled water and nitrogen were used because they are mostly explored on necessary characteristics materials. The method of getting of qualitative and quantitative data about the dissolution of gases in liquids is presented.
Atmospheric and hydrospheric laser interferometers
G. I. Dolgikh, I. V. Batyushina, D. I. Valentin, et al.
The paper presents the description and estimation of the sensitivity of laser nanobarograph, laser strainmeter, and laser meter of the hydrosphere pressure variations that have been developed on the basis of modern laser-interference methods using frequency-stabilized lasers. These sets are designed for study of the laws of generation, dynamics, and transformation of oscillations and waves of low-frequency and super low-frequency ranges on the boundary of the "atmosphere-hydrosphere-lithosphere" system. Some experimental results of the study of the atmospheric process influence on the lithospheric ones are given. A significant correlation between the atmosphere pressure variations and changes of the earth crust microdeformation level on tide frequencies and their harmonics has been revealed.
Study of thermo-induced changes resulting in optical properties of fat tissue
Andrei V. Belikov, Constantin V. Prikhodko, O. A. Smolyanskaya
The problem of a superfluous weight is extremely exciting for a modern cosmetology. The solution of the problem by application of light sources is quite difficult if no optical characteristic of a fat tissue is known. This paper studies a temperature dynamics of full, collimated and diffuse and scattering flows of non-coherent polychromatic light came through an in vitro lard sample. On experimenting the authors found a sharp degradation of in vitro lard sample scattering properties at a temperature of 25±1°C.
Lasers for Information Transfer
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Physical signal theory as a part of quantum laser theory
Oleg D. Moskaletz
Quantum model of electromagnetic (EM) signals of lasers was suggested and the properties of this model were established. Transfer from quantum model of EM signal to its classical approximation was fulfilled. Strict classical and quantum descriptions of spectral apparatus operation were given and a link between them was established for classical spectrum analyzer (SA). It was shown that this SA transforms time statistics of photons into statistics of their space distribution onto SA output plane, i.e. the link between quantum object (laser signals) and interacting with it SA was established.
Application of Wigner's time-frequency distribution for close signal recognition
Igor A. Vodovatov, Micael G. Visotzki, Sergei A. Rogov, et al.
In the up-to-date optical processing of information the special attention is paid to the procession of non-stationary signals. Time-frequency distribution are widely applied for analysis of such signals lately. The possibility of using cross-Wigner's distribution (CWD) was used theoretically. The experiment verification of the possibility of the affined signal recognition by the moments method was carried out taking into account that the CWD section corresponding to ω = ω0 in case of the symmetrical envelope of the reference signal coincides with the cross-correlation function.
Mode competition in semilinear generator geometry
Ivan V. Murashko, Ph. N. Nikiforov, Vsevolod Yu. Petrun'kin, et al.
Self-diffraction in the semilinear generator geometry is investigated using statistical approach for multimode model. The system of equation that describes wave conjugation for multimode model is obtained. Comparison of the numerical modeling results and physical experiments in the geometry of semilinear generator with BSO crystals shows good qualitative concordance.
Performance of a microwave radiometer with an acousto-optical spectrum analyzer for ozone measurements
Nelli A. Esepkina, Sergey K. Kruglov, V. N. Leonov, et al.
Continuous observations of the ozone layer and key constituents of ozone destruction are of primary importance for objective evaluation and forecasting the regional and global ozone layer depletion. Measurements of trace gas contents in the atmosphere require the use of highly sensitive and precise techniques and instruments. Millimeter-wave heterodyne spectroscopy is successfully used for ground based measuring of the atmospheric ozone at altitudes from about 15 to 80 km. Main features of the advanced system, based on a heterodyne receiver for the 142.2 GHz ozone spectral line measurements and 500-MHz acousto-optical spectrometer (AOS) are described. Key parts of the radiometer front-end, including input optics, low-noise Schottky diode mixer, and AOS are considered, as well as structure and performance of the data acquisition system. The characteristics and capabilities of this setup have been studied. Some performance characteristics of the acousto-optical spectrometer for the millimeter-wave radiometer are discussed. The main attention is given to the long-term stability of the AOS's parameters. Long-term amplitude stability estimations are based on the Allan variance method. Some initial results of ozone observations are presented.
Optoelectronic processor with scanning CCD photodetector for weak radio signal detection
Nelli A. Esepkina, Aleksandr P. Lavrov, Sergey I. Ivanov, et al.
The new type acousto-optical processor for observation weak radioemission from cosmic sources -- pulsars is developed. The processor is conveyor type one. It works like 600-channel filter bank receiver with noncoherent (after detection) dispersion compensation in real time. Experimental results are discussed. The processor was used for the first time at Russian radio telescope THA-1500 (Kalyasin, Moscow region).
Optical-structural machine analysis as a basis of forming constructional strength of details
Eduard I. Ulianov, D. P. Svetlichny, Alexey A. Lavrov, et al.
The constructional strength of details provided during whole complex technological process of manufacturing. Under the research, the possibility of structural-parametrical optimization of the system "material-technology-product" on the basis of the optical-structural machine analysis and developed methods of microstructural measurements and structural-phenomenological criteria of damage was shown.
Investigation of optical pulse stretching and recompression schemes for fiber optic communications systems
V. I. Makkaveev
In the last years, one of the tremendous progresses has been made in the development of all-optical networks. One of the tools to improvement the budget of low- and moderate bit-rate fiber-optic communication systems is the stretching transmitter's pulse at the input of the link and recompressing after. This stretching circumvents limits imposed by disruptive nonlinear effects occurring in link at high pulse peak power. The final pulse quality and the budget improvement are governed by the quality of the pulse stretching and recompression process. The design of the stretching/recompression schemes is discussed. The performances of these schemes are evaluated.
Modified adaptive acousto-optic interference canceller and its mathematical modeling
K. B. Kostin, Vladimir K. Sokolov
The analysis of operation of modified adaptive acousto-optic interference canceller is discussed. Based on the analysis, the mathematical model and algorithm of operation of the canceller is developed.
Real-time optoelectronic image correlators based on semiconductor structures
Peter G. Kasherininov, A. N. Lodygin, Vladimir K. Sokolov
A possibility of a new class of optoelectronic image correlator design on the base of the novel light controlled photodetector is discussed. The light controlled photodetector was proposed earlier. The correlator operates in quasi-real time, i.e. with the speed of the input images to be processed. The distinguished feature of the correlator is the parallel calculation of the two-dimensional mutual correlation function of the analyzed image directly in the structure of the light controlled photodetector. Owing to this, the high operation speed is provided. Experimental results confirming the possibility of proposed image correlator realization are presented. The possibility of designing the correlator with image input on the base of LC SLM with electronic addressing and on the base of light emission diode matrix is proposed. In the latter case the correlator can be realized as a chip. The proposed correlator can be used in the intelligence systems of technical vision.
Technique of direct calculation of noise immunity of the multiposition-keyed radio signal optimal coherent reception
A. S. Popov, M. E. Kraplin
Usually, in the tutorials and monographers devoted to an optimum reception of the discrete messages, the rules for a general case of multiposition-keyed radio signal are discussed. At the same time, the derivation of the formulae for calculation of a potential noise immunity is performed only for signals with two positions. Although the calculation according to the formulae is considered to be a straight methodic, the solution to these integrals in the accessible literature is not present. This is especially true for the reception of non-orthogonal signals. The presented material below fills the indicated gap in the theory of potential noise immunity.
Real-time waveguide acousto-optical units for processing of bandwidth optical signals
Nikolay V. Masalsky
The design and development of the mathematical models of the waveguide acousto-optical units for spectrum and correlation analysis of bandwidth optical signals in a real time have been done. Based upon the computer simulation two base devices: the integrated spectrum analyzer and the time integrating correlator were developed. These devices have been passed experimental evaluation. The theoretical results and experimental data have satisfactory correlation.
Matter-information processes of interactions in downlink discrete space-times and their logic
V. G. Dubro
The development of natural sciences began to restrain by that it is constructed on the base, which is no in the nature (homogeneous and isotropic space, inertial reference systems, isolated systems, physical skew fields with the zero geometrical dimensions, strictly straight-line and headways, reversibility of time etc.). The development of computer science began to restrain by that it is constructed on two-place logic and generally without the physical base. Introduction physical: the information, its quality and bound time-space coordinate systems -- allow aggregating different directions of natural sciences among themselves and with computer science in the unified approach. He is capable to describe (to study) composite processes of self-organization in the nature (in dead, alive and thinking substance) by a unified mode.
Comparison of calculated and measured metrology characteristics of steel and alloy composition determination by portable x-ray spectrometers
Boris D. Kalinin, Robert I. Plotnikov, Sergey K. Savelyev
The area of possible application of portable X-ray spectrometers for determination of chemical composition of steels and alloys is outlined. There is presented the method of numerical estimation of spectrometer analytical characteristics and its efficiency is analyzed by comparison with experimental data.
Analysis of substance phase and element composition by means of the atomic and molecular resonance under x-ray and laser excitation
E. Y. Kaminsky, M. Y. Matveev, G. A. Pshenichny, et al.
Resonance of x-ray radiation is realized in the situation when coincide of the energy of the primary quant and the energy of the x-ray level of the excited atom is taking place. As the beam of primary quant as well as atom electron shell has some energy width in the resulting spectra in addition to the resonance fluorescence spectra appears the fluorescence emission and Raman scattered spectra. Additionally in the resulting spectra are present the lines of coherent and incoherent scattered primary radiation.
Application of light emitting diodes (LEDs) in optical measurements
Vladimir E. Sabinin, Sergey K. Savelyev, Sergey V. Solk
At current moment the Light Emitting Diodes (LED) have found a great amount of applications in different areas -- for location and communication systems, optical information systems, in architecture light decoration and advertising, traffic signals, etc. In current work we are making attempt to analyze some new possible fields of LED application. Among these may be build in systems of photometry control. Many different optic and optoelectronic systems are in need of such devices, able to operate for a long time in an autonomous regime. LED's and especially optocouples on their base can provide required time stability and spectral characteristics. The main drawback of such elements is the particularity of the emission diagram. In many case it has unpredictable form, but high reliability and very simple design may compensate many of LED's drawbacks. Below are analyzed the optical schemes enabling transformation of the semiconductor crystal in visible and IR ranges into the beams with angular divergence of 2 degrees. From one crystal, having diameter less than 1 mm was gained the axial light power exceeding 1000 cd and it is possible to form the light sources providing light power up to 50 - 100 W/str. If to take into account that LED have narrow spectral band and high stability of this spectral band, their small dimensions, rather high efficiency, a possibility of intensity modulation by supply current it is very promising to apply these devices for system of buid in control. Such possibility was not realized in full up till now.
Analytical signal formation in an atomic-absorption spectrometer with double-stage thermal electric atomizer in atomic-absorption spectrometer
V. V. Makarov, Sergey K. Savelyev
The paper presents the model enabling investigation of the process of signal formation in double stage thermal electric atomizer of the atomic-absorption spectrometer (AAS). The model enables determination of the time dependency of the analytical signal via spectrometer main parameters and on the type of the analyzed substance.
Light elements quantitative determination with an x-ray mini diffractometer
A. V. Varlamov, Boris D. Kalinin
Possibility of complete element composition determination of steel and fertilizers (including carbon and light elements) with SPECTROSCAN analytical complex (spectrometer and diffractometer) was studied in the paper. It was shown that due to the fact that the phase is unambiguously determined by the chemical composition, the quantitative elemental analysis can be run together with phase analysis with x-ray mini diffractometer. Examples of calibration curves for carbon determination in low alloy steels and nitrogen in fertilizers were obtained with mini diffractometer.
Spectroscan maks: compound analyzers
Y. S. Kreknin, E. N. Majorova
Analytical parameters of wavelength dispersive X-ray sequential bench top SPECTROSCAN-MAKS spectrometers for X-ray spectral fluorescent analysis were shown. It was shown that in spite of rather small size (all spectrometers are bench top ones) energy resolution and minimum value of determined concentrations the instruments are competitive with WDX spectrometers produced by other companies. Brief description of the software and developed analytical procedures for the instruments are given. Basic fields of applications are listed.