Proceedings Volume 4722

Chemical and Biological Sensing III

Patrick J. Gardner
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Proceedings Volume 4722

Chemical and Biological Sensing III

Patrick J. Gardner
View the digital version of this volume at SPIE Digital Libarary.

Volume Details

Date Published: 24 June 2002
Contents: 5 Sessions, 15 Papers, 0 Presentations
Conference: AeroSense 2002 2002
Volume Number: 4722

Table of Contents

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Table of Contents

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  • Biological Agent Detection and Identification
  • Chemical Agent Detection and Identification I
  • Chemical Agent Detection and Identification II
  • Agent Modeling, Testing, and Reporting
  • Poster Session
Biological Agent Detection and Identification
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Preliminary experiments on dynamic biology of micro-organisms to avoid any specific full-blown syndrome on humans
Sneer Meer
The aim of this paper is to apply an efficient system to detect, identify and quicken suppression of any dangerous micro-organism which threatens the health of the human body in any form. It is well known that some specimens of this kind of possess a specific energy related to their speed of division, toxin emissions and high-powered interaction with human and animal cells which have the capacity to provide certain deadly full-blown syndromes. Many problems relating to the above-mentioned properties have not been clarified to date, and it is vital to find a rapid and valid reply as soon as possible. Inter-disciplinary sciences directed us to start some experiments to solve such problems, considering that the human body is dotted with a multiple interactive system of energy release, a fact which can explain the source of the micro-organism's energy also, for their necessity to manifest their deadly pathology. From practical preliminary experiments with some micro-mechanical systems using light-microscopy, connected to video TV Recorder System, one obtains optical enlarged TV images of certain processes which indicated the right way towards our crucial target; ie: the preparation of safe vaccines and safe medicines. This will constitute a basic system to a void deadly manifestations of dangerous micro-organisms and/or even regular infections on earth and in space, a system which will probably be applied at the ISS Space Station and other future actions in space in long and very long flights. We look forward to applying this system of dynamic biology towards preparation of a real and valid vaccine(s) against HIV virus on AIDS diseases.
Rapid detection of bacteria in water
Rolf A. Deininger, Ji Young Lee
A rapid detection of bacteria in water is essential for a timely response. This applies primarily to drinking water, be it bottled water or water from a public supply system, but is equally important for the analysis of water from swimming pools and beaches, and ballast water from oceangoing ships discharging into coastal or inland waters of the US. There are several methods available today for a rapid test including PCR based methods, flow cytometry, and electro chemiluminescence, to name a few. All of the above methods work, but are complicated and/or require expensive equipment and highly trained analysts in a laboratory. The method described here is based on lysing the bacteria after capture on a membrane filter, and measuring the ATP in a luminometer after the addition of luciferin/luciferase. This bioluminescence test can be done onsite, in less than 5 minutes, with equipment that fits onto a clipboard. It is a fast screening test that indicates if there is enough biologically active material in the same to pose a threat to the consumer. If this is the case, an additional step using immunomagnetic separation may be used to identify the responsible organisms. Tests have been done with E. coli 0157:H7, pseudomonas, and logionella. These tests take about 30 minutes each, and allow a quick determination of bacterial threats in a field situation.
Detection of pathogenic organisms in food, water, and body fluids
William H. Wallace, Michael V. Henley, Gary S. Sayler
The construction of specific bioluminescent bacteriophage for detection of pathogenic organism can be developed to overcome interferences in complex matrices such as food, water and body fluids. Detection and identification of bacteria often require several days and frequently weeks by standard methods of isolation, growth and biochemical test. Immunoassay detection often requires the expression of the bacterial toxin, which can lead to non-detection of cells that may express the toxin under conditions different from testing protocols. Immunoassays require production of a specific antibody to the agent for detection and interference by contaminants frequently affects results. PCR based detection may be inhibited by substances in complex matrices. Modified methods of the PCR technique, such as magnetic capture-hybridization PCR (MCH-PCR), appear to improve the technique by removing the DNA products away from the inhibitors. However, the techniques required for PCR-based detection are slow and the procedures require skilled personnel working with labile reagents. Our approach is based on transferring bioluminescence (lux) genes into a selected bacteriophage. Bacteriophages are bacterial viruses that are widespread in nature and often are genus and species specific. This specificity eliminates or reduces false positives in a bacteriophage assay. The phage recognizes a specific receptor molecule on the surface of a susceptible bacterium, attaches and then injects the viral nucleic acid into the cell. The injected viral genome is expressed and then replicated, generating numerous exact copies of the viral genetic material including the lux genes, often resulting in an increase in bioluminescence by several hundred fold.
Experimental determination of bacterial aerosol spectral cross section
Craig A. Mitchell, Michael E. Thomas, Suzanne C. Walts, et al.
Our research is aimed at determining the optical characteristics of airborne bacteria, specifically polarization effects and the spectral behavior of the scatter and extinction cross sections. Additionally, we are using various optical techniques to characterize particle dynamics. Detection of airborne bacteria is a problem that has received international attention in recent months. The efforts described herein are intended to explore the various optical scatter features that may allow discrimination of biological pathogens from naturally occurring aerosol constituents such as pollen, dust, etc.
Chemical Agent Detection and Identification I
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Joint Chemical Agent Detector (JCAD): the future of chemical agent detection
Charles E. Laljer, Jeffery L. Owen
The Joint Chemical Agent Detector (JCAD) will provide state of the art chemical warfare agent detection capability to ground vehicle operators. Intelligence sources estimate that over twenty counties have active chemical weapons programs. The spread of chemical weapons to third world nations, coupled with the potential for US involvement in these areas in an operational or support capacity, increases the probability that the Joint Services may encounter chemical agents and toxic industrial materials anywhere in the world. Currently, fielded chemical agent detectors are bulky, labor intensive, and subject to false readings. No legacy detector is sensitive enough to provide detection and warning of the low dose hazards associated with miosis contamination. The JCAD will provide a small, lightweight chemical agent detector for vehicle interiors, aircraft, individual personnel, shipboard, and fixed site locations. The system provides a common detection components across multi-service platforms. This common detector system will allow the Joint Services to use the same operational and support concept for more efficient utilization of resources. The JCAD will detect, identify, quantify, and warn of the presence of chemical agents prior to onset of miosis. Upon detection of chemical agents, the detector will provide local and remote audible and visual alarms to the operators. Advance warning will provide the vehicle crew with the time necessary to protect themselves from the lethal effects of chemical agents. The JCAD will also be capable of being upgraded to protect against future chemical agent threats. The JCAD will provide the vehicle operators with the warning necessary to survive and fight in a chemical warfare agent threat environment.
Laser interrogation of surface agents (LISA) for chemical agent reconnaissance
N. Scott Higdon, Thomas H. Chyba, Dale A. Richter, et al.
Laser Interrogation of Surface Agents (LISA) is a new technique which exploits Raman scattering to provide standoff detection and identification of surface-deposited chemical agents. ITT Industries, Advanced Engineering and Sciences Division is developing the LISA technology under a cost-sharing arrangement with the US Army Soldier and Biological Chemical Command for incorporation on the Army's future reconnaissance vehicles. A field-engineered prototype LISA-Recon system is being designed to demonstrate on-the- move measurements of chemical contaminants. In this article, we will describe the LISA technique, data form proof-of- concept measurements, the LISA-Recon design, and some of the future realizations envisioned for military sensing applications.
Miniaturized sequential injection analyzer for the monitoring and quantitation of chemical weapons degradation compounds
Herbert L. Lancaster III, Timothy A. Postlethwaite, Peng Zhang, et al.
The ability to monitor and detect chemical warfare agents and their degradation compounds continues to be of utmost importance. Remote on-site field analysis of these compounds is also extremely important as it relates to treaty verification for the Chemical Weapons Convention, as well as the minimization and elimination of human exposure. A portable instrument has been developed and miniaturized that allows for the detection of these compounds in the field with better quantitative results and higher reproducibility than traditional field test kits. All sample and reagent manipulations are conducted in a completely automated fashion. Quantitative results may be determined colorimetrically using the molybdenum blue reaction for the final degradation product of phosphonic acid based chemical warfare agents with a detection limit of 0.05 ppm. The instrument is based on the flow analysis technique of sequential injection analysis (SIA). The benefits of this approach are that the method provides rapid response, high reproducibility of results, high sensitivity and minimal waste production.
Development of a high-speed wavelength-agile CO2 local oscillator for heterodyne DIAL measurements
A high repetition rate, wavelength agile CO2 laser has been developed at the Air Force Research Laboratory for use as a local oscillator in a heterodyne detection receiver. Fats wavelength selection is required for measurements of airborne chemical vapors using the differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique. Acousto-optic modulator are used to tune between different wavelengths at high speeds without the need for moving mechanical parts. Other advantages obtained by the use of acousto-optic modulators are laser output power control per wavelength and rugged packaging for field applications. The local oscillator design is described, and the results from laboratory DIAL measurements are presented. The coherent remote optical sensor system is an internal research project being conducted by the Air Force Research Laboratory Directed Energy Directorate, Active Remote Sensing Branch. The objective of the project is to develop a new long-range standoff spectral sensor that takes advantage of the enhanced performance capabilities coherent detection can provide. Emphasis of the development is on a low cost, compact, and rugged active sensor exclusively designed for heterodyne detection using the differential absorption lidar technique. State of the art technologies in waveguide laser construction and acousto- optics make feasible the next generation of lasers capable of supporting coherent lidar system requirements. Issues addressed as part of the development include optoelectronic engineering of a low cost rugged system, and fast data throughput for real time chemical concentration measurements. All hardware used in this sensor are off-the- shelf items, so only minor hardware modifications were required for the system as it stands. This paper describes a high-speed heterodyne detection CO2 DIAL system that employs a wavelength agile, acousto-optically tuned local oscillator in the receiver. Sample experimental data collected in a controlled environment are presented as well. Chemical detection using 12 wavelengths at 200 pulses per second has been demonstrated. Initial progress on experiments to make a direct, simultaneous comparison of heterodyne and direct detection DIAL systems will also be described.
Chemical Agent Detection and Identification II
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Increasing specificity in a low-resolution ion-mobility spectrometer
Novel methodology has been developed that simultaneously improves sensitivity and specificity of a low-resolution ion mobility spectroscopy (IMS) sensor. Wavelet transforms have been applied to IMS spectra in order to de-noise and enhance spectral features. Next, trigger metrics of the spectra were derived using a statistical evaluator (SE) and optimized using a genetic algorithm (GA). The combination of wavelets, SE, and GA has been demonstrated to differentiate between background, analyte, interferent, and a binary mixture of analyte and interferent. This results in an overall increase in resolving power. The new system is less sensitive to false positives due to increased selectivity, shows the ability to yield quantitative data at ultra-low concentrations for low level toxicity, has the ability to detect binary mixtures of compounds, and shows great potential in significantly improving chemical warfare detection capabilities under field conditions.
Detection and classification characteristics of arrays of carbon black/organic polymer composite chemiresistive vapor detectors for the nerve agent simulants Dimethylmethylphosphonate and Diisopropy
Alan R. Hopkins, Nathan Saul Lewis
Arrays of conducting polymer composite vapor detectors have been evaluated for performance in the presence of the nerve agent simulants dimethylmethylphosphonate (DMMP) and diisopropylmethylphosponate (DIMP). Limits of detection for DMMP on unoptimized carbon black-organic polymer composite vapor detectors in laboratory air were estimated to be 0.047-0.24 mg m-3. These values are lower than the EC50 value for the nerve agents sarin (methylphosphonofluoridic acid, (1-methylethyl) ester) and soman, which have been established as equals 0.8 mg m-3. Arrays of these vapor detectors were easily able to resolve signatures due to exposures to DMMP from those due to DIMP or due to a variety of other test analytes in a laboratory air background. In addition, DMMP at 27 mg m-3 could be detected and differentiated from the signatures of the other test analytes in the presence of backgrounds of potential interferents in the background ambient, including water, methanol, benzene, toluene, diesel fuel, lighter fluid, vinegar and tetrahydrofuran, even when these interferents were present in much higher concentrations than that of the DMMP or DIMP being detected.
Comparisons between hyperspectral passive and multispectral active sensor measurements
Bernard R. Foy, Roger R. Petrin, Charles Robert Quick Jr., et al.
We conducted experiments with side-by-side active and passive sensors in the 8-12 micron region in order to study similarities and differences in the spectral signatures detected by the two sensors. The active instrument was a frequency-agile CO2 lidar system operating on 44 wavelengths and at a total pulse repetition rate of 5 kHz. The passive system was an Aerospace Corp. dispersive imaging spectrometer with 128 spectral channels from 750-1250 cm-l. The sensors viewed both natural scenes and man-made objects typical of industrial scenes at ranges of 1-3 km along horizontal paths. Scenes were viewed under various ambient conditions in order to evaluate the effects of radiance contrast for the passive images at different times of a day. Both imaging and 'staring' experiments were conducted on the background scenes with a significant level of 'clutter'. Preliminary analysis shows that reflectance data (from an active sensor) does not necessarily have a simple relationship to passive data, which is influenced by ground emissivity, atmospheric radiance, and temperature differences.
Agent Modeling, Testing, and Reporting
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LEADERS: Lightweight Epidemiology Advanced Detection and Emergency Response System
Technological advancements in molecular biology now offer a wide-range of applications for bio-warfare defense, medical surveillance, agricultural surveillance and pure research. Idaho Technology has designed and produced the world's fastest DNA-based identifiers. The R.A.P.I.D. TM (Ruggedized Advanced Pathogen Identification Device) provides several options for using sensitive and specific molecular biology-based technology One of the key features of the RAPID is a software package called Detector*. Detector* allows Minimally Trained Care Providers (MTCP) to operate the instrument by automating the steps of running PCR and automatically analyzing the sample data. Pathogen identification is carried out automatically using positive and negative controls to protect against false positive and false negative results. As part of the LEADER system, the Remote RAPID Viewer (RRV) component allows for real-time remote monitoring of PCR reactions run on the RAPID, thus giving the Subject Matter Expert (SME) the ability to request specific tests when triggered by the auto-analysis system. In addition the RRV component facilitates in result verification of tests run by MTCP, assists in tracking outbreaks, and helps coordinate large scale real-time crisis management. The system will allow access to epidemiological data from thin client (i.e. web browser), thus allowing the SME to connect from anywhere with an internet connection. In addition the LEADER system will automatically contact and alert SME when threshold criteria are met, helping reduce the time to first response.
Field detection and identification of a bioaerosol suite by pyrolysis-gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry
A. Peter Snyder, Ashish Tripathi, Waleed M. Maswadeh, et al.
Improvements were made to a pyrolysis-gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry stand-alone biodetector to provide more pyrolyzate compound information to the IMS detector module. Air carrier gas flowing continuously through the pyrolysis tube, the rate of air flow, and pyrolysis rate were found to improve the relative quality and quantity of pyrolyzate compounds detected by the IMS detector compare to earlier work. These improvements allowed a greater degree of confidence in the correlation of biological aerosols obtain in outdoor testing scenarios to a standard GC-IMS biological aerosol dataset. The airflow improvement allowed more biomarker compounds to be observed in the GC-IMS data domain for aerosols of Gram-negative Erwinia herbicola (EH) and ovalbumin protein as compared to previous studies. Minimal differences were observed for Gram-positive spores of Bacillus subtilis var. globigii (BG) from that of earlier work. Prior outdoor aerosol challenges dealt with the detection of one organism, either EH or BG. Biological aerosols were disseminated in a Western Canadian prairie and the Py-GC-IMS was tested for its ability to detect the biological aerosols. The current series of outdoor trials consisted of three different biological aerosol challenges. Forty-two trials were conducted and a simple area calculation of the GC-IMS data domain biomarker peaks correlated with the correct bioaerosol challenge in 30 trials. In another 7 trials, the status of an aerosol was determined to be biological in origin. Two additional trials had no discernible, unambiguous GC-IMS biological response, because they were black water sprays. Reproducible limits of detection were at a concentration of less than 0.5 bacterial analyte-containing particles per liter of air (ACPLA). In order to realize this low concentration, an aerosol concentrator was used to concentrate 2000 liters of air in 2.2 minutes. Previous outdoor aerosol trials have shown the Py-GC-IMS device to be a credible detector with response to determining the presence of a biological aerosol. The current series of outdoor trials has provided a platform to show that the Py-PC-IMS can provide information more specific than a biological or non-biological analysis to an aerosol when the time of dissemination is unknown to the operator. The Py-GC-IMS is shown to be able to discriminate between aerosols of a Gram-positive spore, a Gram-negative bacterium and a protein.
Empirical testing procedure to determine chemical pollutant detection limits for a new thermal imaging Fourier transform spectrometer
Tim Bubner, Mark Burridge, Shaun Frost
The DSTO is currently developing an imaging Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer for a variety of thermal signature measurements, passive remote sensing and spectroscopic applications. The proposed system is based on a commercial FTIR spectrometer and employs an 8x8 Cadmium Mercury Telluride (CMT) detector array and customised imaging optics. With this system expected to fulfil surveillance roles including passive pollution and target detection activities, an empirical procedure to determine the sensitivity and limits of such detections is required. This paper presents experimental measurements conducted at DSTO aimed at identifying these detection limits. A Bomem MR254 FTIR spectrometer fitted with a single element CMT detector was employed for these studies with the results feeding into the development phase of the imaging system. The approach outlined employs a polymer film and a common industrial solvent as reference materials. Both polymer and solvent exhibit strong infrared absorption features useful for diagnostic purposes. A simple Target to Clutter Ratio Square (TCR 2 ), 'likelihood ratio detection' and Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was employed to test the detection performance achievable for selected horizontal path ranges and temperature differentials. From this, indicative guidelines can be deduced for the limits of detection of the reference materials, for the system.
Poster Session
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Remote laser analyzer for methane sensing in the air of subterranean spaces
Yuri N. Frolov, Sergey D. Velikanov, Victor I. Lazarenko, et al.
The paper concerns with calculative and experimental development of a remote electric-discharge DF-laser analyzer for subterranean methane monitoring up to its explosive concentrations. The analyzer is built according to lidar scheme when the probing emission is reflected by artificial or natural objects located on a subterranean measurement path. Methane records in the air are made using the differential absorption technique. The required metrological parameters of the analyzer are reached with the multi- frequency laser atmospheric control. The experimental factors of methane absorption in a spectral range from 3.6 to 3.8 micrometers and DF laser energy performance per line in a spectral range from 3.5 to 4.0 micrometers generated with a tunable selective resonator are performed. An excess of a factor 2 to 30 per the per line probing energy of the lidar operating with selective resonator over that with non- selective one is demonstrated. The probing energy of the lidar operating with selective resonator over that with non- selective one is demonstrated. The performed theoretical calculations determine the required power of providing radiation, optical on/off - line combinations of the laser, and measurement accuracy attained on measurement paths from 10 to 100 m long with the allowance for measurement- interfering factors under the conditions of detection of diffusively reflected lidar return form artificial and natural objects. A block diagram of the methane analyzer is given and procedures for multi-frequency probing of the mine medium are performed for a spectral range from 3.6 to 3.8 micrometers .