Proceedings Volume 3393

Digitization of the Battlespace III

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Proceedings Volume 3393

Digitization of the Battlespace III

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Volume Details

Date Published: 20 August 1998
Contents: 4 Sessions, 23 Papers, 0 Presentations
Conference: Aerospace/Defense Sensing and Controls 1998
Volume Number: 3393

Table of Contents

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Table of Contents

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  • Keynote Presentations
  • Battlespace Awareness and C2 Systems
  • Communication Systems
  • Battlespace Awareness and C2 Systems
  • Communication Systems
  • Sensors, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance Systems
  • Battlespace Awareness and C2 Systems
  • Sensors, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance Systems
  • Battlespace Awareness and C2 Systems
Keynote Presentations
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Coalition command and control: a Canadian perspective
Robert Charpentier, David Demers, Denis Gouin, et al.
Canada has been, and remains, committed to participating in coalition operations to promote peace and stability in the post-Cold War world. However, coalition operations challenge traditional command and control concepts, from both the technological and the human perspectives. In the short term, Canada is working closely with traditional NATO and ABCA allies to ensure that the next generation of automated C2 information systems are able to exchange information effectively through structured messages, gateways and standardized data models. Canada is also conducting R&D, and participating in collaborative experiments, to evolve the next generation of systems to permit richer, more dynamic information sharing, along the lines of the Internet and World Wide Web. However, information technology alone will not solve the problems of coalition operations. Research needs to be undertaken to understand task assignment and information flow among coalition partners at the process or operational level. Research is also required at the human level, where differences between coalition partners in culture, personal values, military expectations, religions, and societal values are proving to be less tractable than differences in message formats and communication protocols.
Industry perspective on battlespace digitization
James I. Finley
In the modern military environment, the need for high levels of vertical integration, coupled with the expanding technology base enables the development of the next generation of information management tools in support of the Warfighter. The vision of the integrated digitized battlespace, key battlespace factors and technology considerations are described.
Future directions of information systems in the Army After Next
Louis C. Marquet, James A. Ratches
The U.S. Army's concept for the Army After Next (AAN) for the 2020 time frame is presented. The role of systems in the AAN that will gather information, process, store, fuse, and disseminate information and conduct information warfare will be emphasized and developed. New concepts for sensors and information systems are described as well as their relationship to a systems-of-systems for information dominance on the battlefield. The paper finishes with the sensor and information systems requirements for the AAN, specific applications and a new proposed ACTD, called Joint Intelligence, Reconnaissance and Surveillance, that would be the first demonstration of some of the AAN concepts in sensors and information systems.
Programmable modular joint tactical radio in a communications system environment
Richard M. Dyson, Alfred V. Newman, Bruce T. Noll, et al.
The Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS) is a software programmable and modular communications system that will be interoperable with legacy waveforms. It will also be capable of satisfying new communication system requirements for a multitude of military and civilian land, air, and maritime platforms. A Systems Reference Model has been developed to guide a systems architecture design that will use families of common hardware and software configurations to support requirements of different users. The JTRS is a cost-effective approach that allows users to dynamically change capability by reinitializing application software.
Battlespace Awareness and C2 Systems
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Information management for real-time multimedia battlefield information dissemination and processing
Thomas C. Newsome Jr., Dupyo Choi, Michael P. Orr
The warfighter of tomorrow will demand near real time multimedia data access to obtain critical information in rapidly changing battlefield situation. Phase 1 of the Battlefield Awareness and Data Dissemination (BADD) Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration (ACTD) developed a near real time multimedia data access capability to provide the warfighter with sensor and command and control data on an integrated display. The system provides both live and historical display of the multimedia products with the ability to rapidly search spatially and temporally using a powerful graphical user interface. A key development for the system is the implementation of a video server that provides rapid access to stored video that is keyed to a map showing the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) flight path and its sensor coverage. The BADD System managed the multimedia information from field sensors and processors and utilized the Global Broadcast System (GBS) to disseminate the data to remote users. The system provides the capability to disseminate battlefield data based on user defined profiles (Smart Push) and by queries for stored products (Warfighter Pull). The research addressed the multimedia information management architecture required to meet these requirements in a near real time battlefield exercise. The BADD system interfaced with the legacy and emerging systems in Task Force (TF) XXI and Division XXI. The research also addressed the user and system issues necessary for successful field operation. The BADD system was successful in TFXXI and improvements were incorporated in Division XXI.
Communication Systems
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Stochastic approximation approach to predictive encoding for bandwidth saving in situation awareness
Rajat K. Saha, Kuo-Chu Chang, K. Lee
Situation awareness systems must process and disseminate position information from widely dispersed maneuvering warfighters using combat net radios in restrictive environments. Such systems are important for effective monitoring, situation assessment, and mission planning. When information about the current location of friendly forces is combined with their identity, maneuver plans, and expected future locations, a complete situation awareness system is obtained. Due to the large volume of situation awareness data transmitted over the tactical communication links, it is essential to conserve bandwidth. This paper describes a bandwidth saving algorithm using the theory of Stochastic Approximation. Analysis of this algorithm is presented and its performance is validated by means of simulation.
Battlespace Awareness and C2 Systems
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Technology evaluation, assessment, modeling, and simulation: the TEAMS capability
Orgal Thomas Holland, Robert L. Stiegler
The United States Marine Corps' Technology Evaluation, Assessment, Modeling and Simulation (TEAMS) capability, located at the Naval Surface Warfare Center in Dahlgren Virginia, provides an environment for detailed test, evaluation, and assessment of live and simulated sensor and sensor-to-shooter systems for the joint warfare community. Frequent use of modeling and simulation allows for cost effective testing, bench-marking, and evaluation of various levels of sensors and sensor-to-shooter engagements. Interconnectivity to live, instrumented equipment operating in real battle space environments and to remote modeling and simulation facilities participating in advanced distributed simulations (ADS) exercises is available to support a wide- range of situational assessment requirements. TEAMS provides a valuable resource for a variety of users. Engineers, analysts, and other technology developers can use TEAMS to evaluate, assess and analyze tactical relevant phenomenological data on tactical situations. Expeditionary warfare and USMC concept developers can use the facility to support and execute advanced warfighting experiments (AWE) to better assess operational maneuver from the sea (OMFTS) concepts, doctrines, and technology developments. Developers can use the facility to support sensor system hardware, software and algorithm development as well as combat development, acquisition, and engineering processes. Test and evaluation specialists can use the facility to plan, assess, and augment their processes. This paper presents an overview of the TEAMS capability and focuses specifically on the technical challenges associated with the integration of live sensor hardware into a synthetic environment and how those challenges are being met. Existing sensors, recent experiments and facility specifications are featured.
Decentralized multiplatform data fusion
Hugh F. Durrant-Whyte, Rob H. Deaves, Phil Greenway
The decentralized data fusion paradigm is the more general case of centralized fusion. Although centralized fusion is currently well understood and applied widely, a decentralized approach offers many (potential) advantages. These include significant improvements in modularity, fault tolerance, and scalability. In particular, decentralized techniques directly support the development of 'plug and play' systems, and can provide valuable insights into the relationship between system level performance and that of sensor sub-systems. There can also be a provable equivalence to optimal centralized algorithms. This paper describes the design of a preliminary, comprehensive demonstration of the concept of fully decentralized, modular sensing technology. The demonstrator will allow for multiple sensor platforms each equipped with one or more range-only, bearings-only, or range and bearing sensors providing limited view, asynchronous measurements of the target environment. This work builds on the latest developments in the information-based representations of the data fusion process, as these make explicit the value (or utility) of each data fusion decision.
Using multiple perspectives to suppress information and complexity
Robert L. Kelsey, Robert B. Webster, Roger T. Hartley
Dissemination of battlespace information involves getting information to particular warfighters that is both useful and in a form that facilitates the tasks of those particular warfighters. There are two issues which motivate this problem of dissemination. The first issue deals with disseminating pertinent information to a particular warfighter. This can be thought of as information suppression. The second issue deals with facilitating the use of the information by tailoring the computer interface to the specific tasks of an individual warfighter. This can be thought of as interface complexity suppression. This paper presents a framework for suppressing information using an object-based knowledge representation methodology. This methodology has the ability to represent knowledge and information in multiple perspectives. Information can be suppressed by creating a perspective specific to an individual warfighter. In this way, only the information pertinent and useful to a warfighter is made available to that warfighter. Information is not removed, lost, or changed, but spread among multiple perspectives. Interface complexity is managed in a similar manner. Rather than have one generalized computer interface to access all information, the computer interface can be divided into interface elements. Interface elements can then be selected and arranged into a perspective-specific interface. This is done in a manner to facilitate completion of tasks contained in that perspective. A basic battlespace domain containing ground and air elements and associated warfighters is used to exercise the methodology.
Intelligence, mapping, and geospatial exploitation system (IMAGES)
Dennis E. Moellman, Joel M. Cain
This paper provides further detail to one facet of the battlespace visualization concept described in last year's paper Battlespace Situation Awareness for Force XXI. It focuses on the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) goal to 'provide customers seamless access to tailorable imagery, imagery intelligence, and geospatial information.' This paper describes Intelligence, Mapping, and Geospatial Exploitation System (IMAGES), an exploitation element capable of CONUS baseplant operations or field deployment to provide NIMA geospatial information collaboratively into a reconnaissance, surveillance, and target acquisition (RSTA) environment through the United States Imagery and Geospatial Information System (USIGS). In a baseplant CONUS setting IMAGES could be used to produce foundation data to support mission planning. In the field it could be directly associated with a tactical sensor receiver or ground station (e.g. UAV or UGV) to provide near real-time and mission specific RSTA to support mission execution. This paper provides IMAGES functional level design; describes the technologies, their interactions and interdependencies; and presents a notional operational scenario to illustrate the system flexibility. Using as a system backbone an intelligent software agent technology, called Open Agent ArchitectureTM (OAATM), IMAGES combines multimodal data entry, natural language understanding, and perceptual and evidential reasoning for system management. Configured to be DII COE compliant, it would utilize, to the extent possible, COTS applications software for data management, processing, fusion, exploitation, and reporting. It would also be modular, scaleable, and reconfigurable. This paper describes how the OAATM achieves data synchronization and enables the necessary level of information to be rapidly available to various command echelons for making informed decisions. The reasoning component will provide for the best information to be developed in the timeline available and it will also provide statistical pedigree data. This pedigree data provides both uncertainties associated with the information and an audit trail cataloging the raw data sources and the processing/exploitation applied to derive the final product. Collaboration provides for a close union between the information producer(s)/exploiter(s) and the information user(s) as well as between local and remote producer(s)/exploiter(s). From a military operational perspective, IMAGES is a step toward further uniting NIMA with its customers and further blurring the dividing line between operational command and control (C2) and its supporting intelligence activities. IMAGES also provides a foundation for reachback to remote data sources, data stores, application software, and computational resources for achieving 'just-in- time' information delivery -- all of which is transparent to the analyst or operator employing the system.
Communication Systems
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EMI/EMC analysis of the Global Hawk for the airborne communication node
Louis R. Jaeger, Steve Carson, Ian Murch, et al.
The EMI/EMC issues associated with implementation of the Airborne Communication Node (ACN) payload on the Global Hawk Unmanned Air Vehicle are explored. Two ACN subsystems are evaluated in greater detail, the Single Channel Ground and Airborne Radio System (SINCGARS) and a commercial based personal communication system. A novel antenna design for SINCGARS is defined. A VHF variant of existing commercial cell and paging technology is described with an appropriate antenna.
Reliable multicast for the digital battlefield
David H. Walters
This paper describes the Reliable DBS Multicast Protocol (RDMP) and an initial set of results analyzing its performance. This protocol has been developed to facilitate the integration of Direct Broadcast Satellites (DBS) into the Digital Battlefield including the interconnection with in place tactical networks. Its key features are: (1) minimal return link traffic such that it can operate over a variety of return links, (2) seamless interconnection with terrestrial networks using Internet Protocols for data ingest and distribution, (3) scalability to accommodate large populations, (4) use of a proxy to provide the interconnection of the DBS link with terrestrial wireless networks, (5) interface with legacy systems that support FTP and TCP, but require reliable multicast services. This paper describes RDMP in terms of its ARQ flow control, synchronization, and recovery capabilities. The goals and requirements for RDMP to support reliable multicast in the Digital Battlefield are presented in Section 1 while its capabilities are described in Section 2. Then the RDMP implementation concept is presented in Section 3 followed by the quantitative performance results in Section 4.
Expert communication link management: overview and progress
Consider the downsizing of our forces, the increasing complexity of our tactical platforms, and the ever widening array of communication options and the conclusion is inevitable. The need for automated support to reduce communication-related workload is critical to continued task force effectiveness. In a previous era, communication management expertise resided solely in the form of human experts. These experts flew with the pilots, providing the most effective means of communication in real time; they have since been removed from a great number of platforms due to force downsizing and real estate value in the cockpit. This burden has typically been shifted to the pilot, providing another set of tasks in an environment which is already far too taxing. An Expert Communication Link Manger (ECLM) is required -- a trusted, reliable assistant which can determine optimal link, channel, and waveform data for the communication requirements at hand and translate those requirements transparently into communication device control. Technologies are at hand which make ECLM possible; the mixture of these elements in the correct proportions can provide a capable, deployable, and cost effective ECLM in the near term. This paper describes specific applied ECLM research work in progress funded by the USAF under a four year effort. Operational objectives, technical objectives, a reference design, and technical excursions within the broad ECLM scope will be discussed in detail. Results of prototypes built to date in the area of communication inference from speech understanding, dynamic adaptive routing, and packet switching networks in the tactical environment will be presented.
Iterative joint detection and decoding for MA communications using decision feedback
Rachel E. Learned, Andrew C. Singer
Current multiple access communications technology must overcome several key contributors to multi-user interference (MUI) before a fully digital battlefield can be realized. One of the common conditions causing high MUI is the so-called near-far scenario due to interfering transmissions from different users of vastly differing received powers. In current commercial and military systems, MUI is dealt with by choosing user transmission waveforms that are nearly orthogonal (e.g. generous spacing in frequency in an FDMA system) and, often, adaptively controlling transmit powers through receiver control messages back to the users. In times of increased demand, these remedies waste scarce bandwidth that could otherwise be used for information transmission. Additionally, oversaturation, a new idea for increasing channel throughput in which interference is deliberate and heavy, has been made possible by the advent of low complexity joint detection. This paper addresses the ability of a communication system to handle transmissions from different sources during times of increased communication through the development of a low complexity joint detection/decoding algorithm designed to accommodate scenarios of high MUI. The proposed detector carefully integrates decision feedback and error correction decoding in three low complexity stages. The first stage performs user-recursive symbol detection and stripping and the second and third stages perform symbol refinement. Unique to this procedure is the advantageous use of power-ordering and interference-equalization. This scheme results in a consistent and significant performance gain relative to the other low complexity decoding/detection procedures proposed in recent literature. Empirical analysis for various realistic MUI conditions via simulation confirms performance predictions.
NETWARS: toward the definition of a unified framework for modeling and simulation of joint communication systems
Youcef Atamna Sr.
Information superiority is one of the key challenges of a 21st century force and is achieved by digitization of the battlespace which, on the one hand, is expected to provide significant enhanced capabilities in terms of survivability, lethality, and operational tempo and, on the other hand, will require the specification and accommodation of legacy and new communications systems. Accordingly and to substantially reduce the time needed to conduct performance communications analyses for any given Joint Task Force Scenario, a modeling and simulation tool called Network Warfare Simulation (NETWARS) is being developed. This tool will provide to all the services a joint modeling and simulation shared and distributed environment over the DoD's classified internet [the Secret Internet Protocol Router NETwork (SIPRNET)], that allows it to perform communication burden analysis, contingency analysis and emerging technology analysis in the joint arena. It is based on a commercial, off-the-shelf simulation engine called OPNET and is designed to deal with large scale military networks, allow automatic integration at the simulation level of heterogeneous Information Exchange Requirement (IERs) databases, movement, environmental factors and terrain effects. The NETWARS tool is based on a modeling and simulation methodology that will guarantee interoperability and re-usability of current and future communication models.
Sensors, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance Systems
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Moving target exploitation
Bruce L. Johnson, Timothy P. Grayson
The understanding of maneuvering forces is invaluable to the warfighter, as it enhances understanding of enemy force structure and disposition, provides cues to potential enemy actions, and expedites targeting of time critical targets. Airborne ground moving target indicator (GMTI) radars are a class of highly-effective, all-weather, wide-area senors that aid in the surveillance of these moving ground vehicles. Unfortunately conventional GMTI radars are incapable of identifying individual vehicles, and techniques for exploiting information imbedded within GMTI radar reports are limited. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Moving Target Exploitation (MTE) program is working to mitigate these deficiencies by developing, integrating, and evaluating a suite of automated and semi-automated technologies to classify moving targets and units, and to provide indications of their activities. These techniques include: aid in the interpretation of GMTI data to provide moving force structure analysis, automatic tracking of thousands of moving ground vehicles, 1-D target classification based upon high-range- resolution (HRR) radar profiles, and 2-D target classification based upon moving target imaging (MTIm) synthetic aperture radar (SAR). This paper shall present the MTE concept and motivation and provide an overview of results to date.
Internetting tactical security sensor systems
Douglas W. Gage, W. Dale Bryan, Hoa G. Nguyen
The Multipurpose Surveillance and Security Mission Platform (MSSMP) is a distributed network of remote sensing packages and control stations, designed to provide a rapidly deployable, extended-range surveillance capability for a wide variety of military security operations and other tactical missions. The baseline MSSMP sensor suite consists of a pan/tilt unit with video and FLIR cameras and laser rangefinder. With an additional radio transceiver, MSSMP can also function as a gateway between existing security/surveillance sensor systems such as TASS, TRSS, and IREMBASS, and IP-based networks, to support the timely distribution of both threat detection and threat assessment information. The MSSMP system makes maximum use of Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) components for sensing, processing, and communications, and of both established and emerging standard communications networking protocols and system integration techniques. Its use of IP-based protocols allows it to freely interoperate with the Internet -- providing geographic transparency, facilitating development, and allowing fully distributed demonstration capability -- and prepares it for integration with the IP-based tactical radio networks that will evolve in the next decade. Unfortunately, the Internet's standard Transport layer protocol, TCP, is poorly matched to the requirements of security sensors and other quasi- autonomous systems in being oriented to conveying a continuous data stream, rather than discrete messages. Also, its canonical 'socket' interface both conceals short losses of communications connectivity and simply gives up and forces the Application layer software to deal with longer losses. For MSSMP, a software applique is being developed that will run on top of User Datagram Protocol (UDP) to provide a reliable message-based Transport service. In addition, a Session layer protocol is being developed to support the effective transfer of control of multiple platforms among multiple control stations.
Environmental sensors and algorithms for ground-based passive acoustic sensors
David C. Swanson, Karl M. Reichard
Passive acoustic detection of ground targets is governed by both local and regional weather conditions such as wind and temperature. The wind speed generally increases with height and can also change direction, making accurate assessment of detection coverage a real challenge. In the absence of wind, the temperature profile, or variation with height, changes the refractive index such that sound will tend to refract towards the cooler air (the sound speed is slower there). A new ground sensor technology has been developed under DARPA's IUGS program which integrates temperature, temperature gradient, humidity, barometric pressure, wind speed and direction, and insolation (solar radiation/reflection) from a ground sensor measurement site with upper level wind and temperature data from weather databases. This data is used to model the sound velocity profile from the surface to a height approximately one-tenth the propagation range of interest. A parabolic equation sound propagation model then creates a table for the sound transmission loss variability with range, frequency, and direction. For a given target and background noise, one can then reasonably predict detection range for a specific sensor design. When the ground sensor has 'environmental intelligence,' it can alter its integration and detection algorithms for improved performance in a dynamic weather environment.
THRIFTI: tomographic hyperspectral remote imaging Fourier transform interferometer
William J. Slough, Bruce Rafert, Charles A. Rohde, et al.
Hyperspectral imaging spectrometers (HSIs) utilizing Sagnac interferometer are throughput-limited if a slit is employed in their designs. This paper describes the Tomographic Hyperspectral Remote Imaging Fourier Transform Interferometer (THRIFTI) optical design. THRIFTI is capable of producing spectral autocorrelation fringe modulation over an image plane defined by a two-dimensional CCD array without the throughput disadvantage encountered by the Sagnac-based imaging spectrometers that incorporate a slit. This approach is utilized to recapture the full spatial-spectral characteristics of an image hypercube via tomography or linear deconvolution. In addition to its large throughput, THRIFTI is robust and simple to construct. The optical design of THRIFTI is discussed and the first experimental results are presented.
Uncooled IR applications for the battlefield: ground-based sensors at Alliant Techsystems
Roger A. Lubke, John E. Overland, David Scott Willits
Uncooled IR has been predicted to dominate commercial IR design within five years. The military market is moving in the same direction but with unique requirements. Alliant Techsystems is currently designing and field testing uncooled IR sensors for dual mode seekers, aerial surveillance, fire control systems, and RSTA applications. This paper will review the tradeoffs for several of our ground based program applications. Performance models are given for several microbolometer sensor approaches.
Battlespace Awareness and C2 Systems
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Comparison of two command and control reference models
David Demers, Valdur Pille
The primary goal of Command and Control (C2) reference modeling is to facilitate interoperability between Armed Force systems by proposing a framework model to define the interfaces between interacting C2 entities. Applying C2 reference models should help to define the information and intelligence exchange needs at each Canadian Forces' command level, thus facilitating external interoperability within coalition deployments. Two candidate C2 reference models were compared: the U.S. Command and Control Reference Model (C2RM) and the UK Methods for Command, Control, Communication and Intelligence Interoperability Reference Model (MCI RM). The C2RM is used to specify information needs and data flows from the individual soldier up to the operational and strategic command levels and is aimed primarily at long-term force interoperability. The MCI RM is used to develop a high-level object-oriented model of the system/command in question. High- level information flow requirements are precisely what is needed to develop operating procedures for short lead-time coalition deployments. Thus, a C2 entity's UK MCI RM representation is more suited to the fulfillment of short-term interoperability goals typical of coalition force deployments when compared to the U.S. C2RM's representation. The UK MCI RM corresponds better to Canadian Forces' coalition force interoperability needs.
Sensors, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance Systems
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Replacing 16-mm airborne film cameras with commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) digital imaging
Kris S. Balch
For many years 16 mm film cameras have been used in severe environments. These film cameras are used on Hy-G automotive sleds, airborne weapon testing, range tracking, an other hazardous environments. The companies and government agencies using these cameras are in need of replacing them with a more cost-effective solution. Film-based cameras still produce the best resolving capability. However, film development time, chemical disposal, non-optimal lighting conditions, recurring media cost, and faster digital analysis are factors influencing the desire for a 16 mm film camera replacement. This paper will describe a new imager from Kodak that has been designed to replace 16 mm high-speed film cameras. Also included is a detailed configuration, operational scenario, and cost analysis of Kodak's imager for airborne applications. The KODAK EKTAPRO Imager RO Imager is a high-resolution color or monochrome CCD Camera especially designed for replacement of rugged high-speed film cameras. The RO Imager is a record only camera. It features a high-resolution [512 X 384], light-sensitive CCD sensor with an electronic shutter. This shutter provides blooming protection that prevents 'smearing' of bright light sources, e.g., camera looking into a bright sun reflection. The RO Imager is a very rugged camera packaged in a highly integrated housing. This imager operates off +28 VDC. The RO Imager has a similar interface and form factor is that of high-speed film cameras, e.g., Photonics 1B. The RO Imager is designed to replace 16 mm film cameras that support rugged testing applications.
Battlespace Awareness and C2 Systems
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Making information overload work: the Dragon software system on a virtual reality responsive workbench
Jim Durbin, Simon J. Julier, Brad Colbert, et al.
Gaining a detailed and thorough understanding of the modern battle space is vital to the success of any military operation. Military commanders have access to significant quantities of information which originates from disparate and occasionally conflicting sources and systems. Combining this information into a single, coherent view of the environment can be extremely difficult, error prone and time consuming. In this paper we describe the Naval Research Laboratory's Virtual Reality Responsive Workbench (VRRWB) and Dragon software system which together address the problem of battle space visualization. The VRRWB is a stereoscopic 3D interactive graphics system which allows multiple participants to interact in a shared virtual environment and physical space. A graphical representation of the battle space, including the terrain and military assets which lie on it, is displayed on a projection table. Using a six degree of freedom tracked joystick, the user navigates through the environment and interacts, via selection and querying, with the represented assets and the terrain. The system has been successfully deployed in the Hunter Warrior Advanced Warfighting Exercise and the Joint Countermine ACTD Demonstration One. In this paper we describe the system and its capabilities in detail, discuss its performance in these two operations, and describe the lessons which have been learned.