Proceedings Volume 3358

Sixth International Symposium on Display Holography

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Proceedings Volume 3358

Sixth International Symposium on Display Holography

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Volume Details

Date Published: 1 February 1998
Contents: 17 Sessions, 57 Papers, 0 Presentations
Conference: Sixth International Symposium on Display Holography 1997
Volume Number: 3358

Table of Contents

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Table of Contents

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  • Reports from the Nations
  • Materials and Photochemistry I
  • Materials and Photochemistry II
  • Lippmann Photography Revisited
  • Color Holography
  • Art History and Education I
  • Art History and Education II
  • Digital and Stereo Holography
  • Lasers
  • Art Concepts I
  • Art Concepts II
  • Education
  • Interferometry
  • Technology, Applications and Devices I
  • Technology, Applications and Devices II
  • Technology, Applications and Devices III
  • Business of Holography
Reports from the Nations
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Holography in the United States, 1997
Emmett N. Leith
Holography continues in the United states much as it has for the past decade. Holographic basic research and development has continued at about the same level as in the past 2 decades, while commercial holography seems to have undergone a slow growth. Overall, I think this is a healthy state, although it would be more exiting to report an explosive growth. In any event, holography seems to be a mature and stable activity.
Display holography in the United Kingdom, 1994-1997
This paper reports on developments in display holography in the UK since 1994, covering the activities of individual holographers and artists, small companies and larger commercial concerns. It also includes comments on reactions to the withdrawal of Agfa-Geveart Ltd from the production of silver-halide materials for holography.
Holography in Sweden
Nils H. Abramson
Industrial Metrology at The Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, has during the last years managed to increase the number of lasers so that we now can make our own LW-recordings. We have one YAG-laser for single pulses of some twenty picoseconds and one dye-laser for trains of pulses of about five picoseconds. Further on we have one argon laser and one krypton laser for other holographic work. We also have a large 10 KJ ruby laser for holography.
Holography in Portugal
We present a brief report of the present status and development of holography in Portugal with an overview of holography in education, scientific research and mostly in art/display holography.
Holography in Japan
Toshihiro Kubota
The present state of activities of holography in Japan is reviewed. Electro-holography, holographic 3D printer, recording material have been studying in research organizations, universities, and research institutes. Optical head using hologram has been developed by main electric companies. The market of hologram in security is going to extend. Several private and group exhibitions were opened within a year. HODIC meeting is opened every three months and symposiums on 3D imaging are held every year.
Latvian way to display holography
Janis Harja
Display holography in Latvia goes back to two different sources. First, amorphous films of chalcogenide semiconductors yielding a surface microrelief after exposure and development have been investigated at the Institute of Physics at the Latvian Academy of Sciences in the late 1970's up to now. Second, techniques for making laser- and white-light holograms of various types have been developed at the holographic training laboratory of the University of Latvia in the 1980's. After development the technology for a complete process of mass-production of rainbow holograms in the mid 1990's the two holographer groups combined their efforts in the field of commercial holography. To this purpose the firm `Dardedze holography' Ltd. has been established. There are also `Hologramma' Ltd. in Riga and `Difraks' Ltd. in Daugavpils active in commercial holography.
Holography in Hong Kong
Sidney C. Kan
The holography activities in Hong Kong, including the local market, the industry, the education, and university research are described. The development potential of holography in Hong Kong is discussed.
Reports of the nations: Belgium
Pierre Michel Boone
Materials and Photochemistry I
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BB emulsion series: current standings and future developments
Richard Birenheide
We have developed a new type of fine grained holographic emulsion specially intended for the needs of display holography. A description of the currently available types of this education is given. The special features are discussed. An outlook which new types of emulsions are planned to be developed and on what substrates they will be available is presented.
Holographic materials produced by the "micron" plant at Slavich
Yury A. Sazonov, Petr I. Kumonko
This paper presents a general review of the holographic materials produced by the `Micron' Plant of the Russian company Slavich. Spectral characteristics, grain sizes and other general properties of the materials are discussed in detail. Recommended processing chemistry and recording conditions for these materials are also covered.
Slavich recording materials for holography: an individual view
Nicholas J. Phillips
With the withdrawal of Agfa-Gevaert from the manufacturing of silver-halide recording materials, there is now a need to consider some of the super fine grain materials such as those made by Slavich in Russia. This paper addresses some of the problems encountered in the initial studies of appropriate chemical processing. It is considered that the most important issue is maintenance of a unique and achromatic Bragg condition over the whole working area of the hologram since such materials will probably have their greatest direct use in the formation of contact copies into polymer in a scan coped regime. Some of the most apparent difficulties of the process methods are discussed in this paper. A second issue of major importance appears to be associated with the current inability of these materials to create uniform developed density when exposed by precision digitally controlled exposure systems. This latter problem poses serious questions over the use of Slavich materials for lithography and digital holography.
Materials and Photochemistry II
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Ultra-fine-grain silver halide emulsions for color holography: preparation and spectral characterization
Masashi Iwasaki, Toshihiro Kubota
Ultra-fine-grain silver halide emulsions for true color reflection holograms were prepared in our laboratory. The emulsions with average grain diameters of about 10 nm were spectrally sensitized with various types of cyanine dyes. The absorption spectra of dyed emulsion sols could be observed directly because the sols showed no observable scattering. The photographic and holographic characteristics of our laboratory-made emulsion plates were evaluated and discussed in connection with the results of absorption spectrum measurements of dyed emulsion sols and dye solutions. Each reconstructed reflectance spectrum of the red, green and blue recorded holographic gratings showed a higher than 50% diffraction efficiency. The possibilities that one can prepare the silver halide emulsion plates for true color reflection holograms in his own dark room were pointed out.
Recipe for dichromated polyvinyl alcohol (DC-PVA)
In holography, DC-PVA it is an alternative real time recording materials useful for phase conjugation experiments and also a stable long term holographic storage medium needing no processing other than heat. To this we add the capability of greatly increasing the versatility of PVA by boosting the index modulation by almost 2 orders of magnitude. Simple two or three step liquid processing is all that is required to make it grow. This paper contains a simple recipe for mixing and using this versatile material. A wide variety of holographic recordings can be easily made in it with blue laser light.
Sensitization of VR-P Russian photoplates for recording pulsed holograms
Sergey P. Vorobyov
A simple and effective method to increase the sensitivity of VR-P Russian holographic photoplates used for recording pulsed holograms by Nd laser is presented. The method is based on strengthening the latent image directly after recording the hologram by a long exposure to weak incoherent light (effect of latensification). We describe the conditions for latensification and experimental results. The recommendation for optimum drying of the holograms are given. Processing the VR-P photoplates according to the method presented leads to a sensitivity very similar to that seen with the well-known Agfa Gevaert 8E56 plates.
Lippmann Photography Revisited
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Old and modern Lippmann photography
At the end of the last century, Gabriel Lippmann was experimenting with color photography. His photographic color recording technique, Lippmann photography, produced very beautiful photographs and the fact that the colors are preserved in the early Lippmann photographs indicates something about their archival properties. Recent progress in color reflection holography has made it possible to take a new look at this one hundred year old photographic technique. Today, high-resolution panchromatic recording materials suitable for Lippmann photography are on the market. In particular, the Slavich panchromatic ultra-high- resolution silver-halide holographic materials have been investigated for modern Lippmann photography. Since the color photographs contain no dyes or pigments their archival stability may be high. In addition, a Lippmann photograph is difficult to copy which makes it a unique color photographic recording. Both of these features must attract a photographer interested in creating beautiful art photographs. It is also shown that Lippmann photographs can be made without the mercury reflector, instead by using the reflection from the gelatin-air interface. This eliminates the complications in dealing with mercury, while still maintaining the high resolution and picture quality at the expense of longer exposure times. Security application is a potential field for Lippmann photographs as well as optical filters. Another advantage is that no expensive equipment, such as lasers, is needed to explore this photographic recording technique; only a modified camera is required.
Physical and visual state of 100-year-old Lippman color photographs
In 1891 Gabriel Lippmann demonstrated a photographic process which records full color images on black and white emulsions. It is closely related to Denisyuk's reflection holography technique, which he named after Lippmann. After a historical introduction I will speak on the physical state and visual appearance of Lippmann-process color images produced at the turn of the century by Lippmann and a limited number of other practitioners. Images made on albumin, collodion and gelatine will be discussed, based on my examination of more than 400 images held in public and private collections. Examples of old original images (and some new work) will be shown. It is possible to conclude that, if properly excited, such images will be stable in their beautiful rendition of color and extremely high resolution almost indefinitely.
Recent developments in Lippman photography
Jean-Marc R. Fournier, Benjamin R. Alexander, Paul M. Burnett, et al.
Lippmann photography is an effective tool to study holographic materials. Some attempts to take advantage of modern technology to make Lippmann photographs and to investigate their structure are presented. In this paper we specify some processes and techniques used to record, process, and protect such pictures. The techniques we used to product ultra fine grain emulsions and to analyze Lippmann color photographs are also described.
Color Holography
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Progress in color reflection holography
The recording technique of Denisyuk color reflection holograms has been simplified by using `white' laser light. The Slavich red-green-blue (RGB) sensitized ultra-high resolution silver halide emulsion was used for the hologram recording. The employed laser wavelengths were 633 nm, 531 nm, and 476 nm, generated by a helium-neon, a mixed argon- krypton ion, and an argon ion laser, respectively. A beam combination mechanism with dichroic filters enabled a simultaneously RGB exposure, which made the color balance and overall exposure energy easy to control as well as simplifying the recording procedure. Various approaches have been investigated in generating color hologram which have sufficiently high diffraction efficiency combined with improved color saturation. A specially designed test object consisting of the 1931 CIE chromaticity diagram, a rainbow ribbon cable, pure yellow dots, and a cloisonne elephant was used for color recording experiments. In addition, the Macbeth Color Checker chart was used. Both colorimetric evaluation and scattering noise measurements were performed using the PR-650 Photo Research SpectraScan SpectraCalorimeter.
Pulsed color holography
Felix Albe, Yves Lutz, Myriam Bastide, et al.
Using three pulsed lasers we have recorded color holograms and double exposure holograms on silver halide panchromatic PFG03C plates. The first results are shown. Quality of these holograms is less good than the quality of color holograms recorded with CW lasers. But however the obtained results are significant and promising.
Applications of color holography in the investigation of handwritten cultural historic sources
Guenther K.G. Wernicke, Hartmut Gruber, Nazif Demoli, et al.
New holographic materials with high resolution broaden the possibilities of applications of color holography. The color rendering of two of these materials, the Russian silver halide material PFG 03 and DuPonts photopolymer, was investigated and compared. This was done by using the CIELAB color system, taken into account luminance, hue, and chromaticity of a holographic image. Further on results in diffraction efficiency, image resolution, and signal to noise ratio are presented. Taking a good quality color hologram of cultural historic objects is often only the first step of an investigation. Measurements of the microscopic structure or the correlation of holographically stored handwritten signs is sometimes necessary. In the second part of the paper measurements are presented on holographic and coherent optical filtering of cuneiform signs. Results of measurements with originals and holograms are compared.
Art History and Education I
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Poetics of place: female spaces in holography
Sarah Radley Maline
This essay examines the ways in which artists have used the unique space-time properties of holography to create a place or to evoke a sense of place. I will focus here on domestic space and upon qualities of space as place that can be specifically associated with women.
National Holographic Centre, England: proposal report
Andrew T. Pepper
A National Holographic Center has been proposed for construction in England. Its aim is to offer teaching facilities for creative holography to degree level students, the design based holography industry, the local community, school children and members of the public. There are also plans to provide advanced studies and master classes from artists and scientists renowned for their work in the field as well as formal artist-in-residencies. Unlike other teaching and display facilities, this will be a purpose- designed building with labs, gallery space and accommodation for users.
A Flock of Words: live music performance with holograms and interactive multimedia
Doris K. Vila
This paper describes A Flock of Words, a cross-media music performance realized in collaboration with composer Robert Rowe. An interactive computer system linked large-scale holograms, video projection, animation, robotic lighting effects, and computer music. With a text from Elias Cannetti's Crowds and Power, an artificial-life algorithm animates swarming words. Projected onto the large holograms, the text flies in and out of linear readability, set off by computer music signals. A Flock of Words uses custom computer software to analyze the music being performance by an ensemble of human players and guide the simultaneous projection of real-time animation onto holograms, video, holographic lighting, and computer music. To stage the piece, we created an interactive computer system combining large-scale holograms, video projection, animation, robotic lighting effects, and computer music. The real-time animation was an adaptation of Craig Reynolds's Boids algorithm, which we dubbed `woids', and was used for animating flocking words.
Art History and Education II
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Prehistory of holographic art: a personal view
The history of art contains works by artists that may be seen as `holographic' in their aesthetic, philosophic and formal implications. This paper briefly explores some of these parallels, chosen for their interest as preholographic images. Examples are taken from works of Eastern and Western visionary art, works by individual artists such as Rembrandt and Marcel Duchamp, and from early 20th century art movements.
New goals of the German Association for Holography, DGH
The explosion of the holography display has now to be expressed at the past, but a new generation of people, especially the young one and specialists working in research institutions push the information on holography to be spread. This is why, after a phase of stagnation, and who says stagnation says restriction, the DGH with its new board of directors is ready to answer this new need.
Tunnel of light
When I made the decision to give up science for becoming a painter I could not imagine that I would paint light. In the 2nd year of my fine art studies I had my first contact with holography, thanks to my former tutor, Roddney Murray at the Liverpool School of Art. During the MA course of the RCA in London I knew that the potential of holography was far beyond our present perception. Since I had the opportunity to work in large scale, doing architectural installation, I have got certain that holography and diffraction media would set new trends into the arts and society.
Lightforest and the MIT Museum Holography Education Project
Betsy A. Connors
Lightforest installation is a large-scale holographic work permanently installed at the MIT Museum in Cambridge MA. Organic shapes in the rounded walls and floor of a small room (15 by 11 by 9 feet) frame the approximately 200 white- light transmission holograms of fabricated rainforest plants and light and image projections. Additional projects as a result of the Lightforest installation include the creation of a Holography Teaching Program at the MIT Museum, including a partnership with the WSNS elementary school and the creation of a holographic garden mural in the school combining real plants with reflection copies of Lightforest holograms. The combined Lightforest project makes important connections between art, technology, education, and the environment.
Digital and Stereo Holography
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Holographic stereograms using new geometrical sampling method
Eun-Seok Kim, Yoon-Sun Choi, Nam Kim
Sampling method for making 3D animation using computer animation data is presented. Computer animation data has 3D information and displayed with 2D images on the screen or CRT. We divide these 3D animation data into several aspect of views (2D images) and synthesize onto holographic film. After chemical processing we can see 3D images the same as what they have when they are made. Also, using the TFT LCD (liquid crystal device), holographic stereograms can be made easily. In this paper, geometrical method is used in order to easily calculate the sampling angles and TFT LCD to display the 2D images. Experimental results show that this method is very tolerable to be shown with 17 degree for several people. In addition, with these series of stereograms and holographic screen, the 3D movie will be possible.
Inside-out engineering: characterizing the holographic stereogram printer at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago
The evolution of The School's Stereogram Printer is traced, with individuals' contributions delineated. The optical performance of the machine is characterized through a series of tests, looking at the system's aberrations and resolution.
Lasers
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Design of a family of advanced Nd:YLF/phosphate glass lasers for pulsed holography
Mikhail V. Grichine, David B. Ratcliffe, Alexey M. Rodin
We discuss the design of a family of advanced hybrid Nd:YLF/phosphate glass lasers with output energies of 1, 2, 5 and 8 J at (lambda) equals 526.5 nm that have been optimized for holographic mastering and transfer work. By employing passive Q-switching using a long-life Cr4+:GSGG crystal we have attained an oscillator output of greater than 120 mJ in single transverse and longitudinal mode. This avoids the need to use expensive injection seeding, destabilizing etalons and extra preamplifiers and results in maximal stored-energy depletion of the Nd:Glass/SBS amplifier. This and other techniques has led to a family of compact, reliable and stable lasers with almost perfect parameters for holography.
Integrated pulsed holography system for mastering and transferring onto AGFA or VR-P emulsions
Mikhail V. Grichine, David B. Ratcliffe, Gleb R. Skokov
It has been traditionally accepted that the beam parameters of pulsed lasers permit their use in mastering but are less easily applied to image-transferring. Using an innovative optical scheme and appropriate chemistry we have demonstrated a simple easy-to-use system based on a Nd:YLF/phosphate glass laser that may be used both for mastering and for the production of the final large or small-format white-light viewable (wlv) hologram. We have tested this system on both the AGFA 8E56 and the Russian VR- P plates and films. On both materials we are able to obtain identical qualities in every way equivalent to CW work and with many advantages. In addition we present several color control systems that allow adequate flexibility in the color of the final wlv reflection hologram.
Development of a 2-color laser based on high-efficiency Raman amplification for multi-color holography
Alexey M. Rodin, Alexander S. Dement'ev
The creation of a high-coherence source of frequency- converted laser radiation as needed in multi-colored pulsed- holography requires the use of forward-SRS in the Dicke- narrowed line of hydrogen at low pressures (3 - 4 atm). However, the conversion efficiency of Raman amplifiers is traditionally not sufficient even at high pressure. In this article we report the experimental observation of Stokes pulses having approximately 1 Joule ((lambda) s equals 674 nm, (lambda) PUMP equals 526.5 nm) produced by forward Raman amplification with an energy conversion efficiency of up to 68%, a value close to the theoretical limit of 78%. The results of this study are now being used to produce a simple ultra-high efficiency 2-color Raman laser with parameters suitable for large and small format display holography.
Art Concepts I
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Use of color in creative holography
Artists have always employed color in a personal and expressive way using several different materials. Display holography is being used by artists as an instrument for creation and therefore the study of holography techniques is necessary. In holography, instead of pigments the artist uses pure light. Color in holography based on artistic purposes can not be merely a coincidence but an intentional choice, so it is important for an artist to be able to anticipate a particular final color result. Some color holography techniques will be presented and discussed.
Hologram fluctuating in a kaleidoscope
Masaaki Okamoto, Kumiko Komatsu, Ikuo Nakamura, et al.
This paper is concerned with the hologram fluctuating and spinning in a large kaleidoscope. The authors have been studying many display systems for fluctuating the image of rainbow holograms. In the prior systems the authors fluctuated holograms by using several assistant devices. In the new system holograms are fluctuated only by the intention and the operation of the observer. This simple system without surplus is one of the ideal fluctuation holograms. Two types of kaleidoscopes are introduced in this paper. The one is the prism kaleidoscope that has the popular shape made of three rectangles. It provides the observer many colorful reflected images of a rainbow hologram. The other is the pyramid kaleidoscope that has the unique shape made of three trapezoids. It provides the observer complicate and fantastic images of a rainbow hologram.
Three-dimensional display systems with holographic technologies
Kunio Sakamoto, Hideya Takahashi, Eiji Shimizu, et al.
Holography is a useful technology for 3D images. The authors have researched spatial imaging based on a holographic technology. This paper describes many good results of fundamental study about 3D electronic images--3D TV monitor, 3D fine art, 3D measuring instrument and so on. In addition, this paper presents the latest result of our study about a stereoscopic 3D display system. This system consists of a liquid crystal device and a holographic screen formed of holographic optical elements. This display can construct animated 3D images in real-time by updating LCD pixels.
Art Concepts II
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Artists in conference: an international perspective
Douglas E. Tyler, Andrew T. Pepper
Two meetings specifically for the art of holography and funded mainly by the American Shearwater Foundation took place in 1990 and 1996 in the USA and UK. These meetings brought together respected artists and critics to discuss the state of this creative medium. It has now been possible to analyze the discussions which took place and to view them in a critical, academic and global context. Here we discuss some of the mechanisms involved, learning processes, pitfalls and results of possible interest to others thinking of organizing such meetings. Are these events of value, considering the cost of mounting them, should they be regular, topic specific, art meetings or is there scope for similar discussions to take place through other channels, such as SPIE, Lake Forest or the Internet?
Holography as a new art form
Jesus Lopez
Holography display--is it science, technology, fiction, technoart? Nobody knows. Holography is not considered an art form or an accepted form of expression. This `twenty-third century' art form is evoking a violent and hostile reaction among many fine art museums across the nation, in my own experience.
Playmates to primates
Bernadette L. Olson, Ron B. Olson
We report on the progress of our studio work in imaging living subjects using a Q-switched Nd:YAG/Nd:Glass laser system of our own design. We discuss the results and differences in recording transmission masters and image plane reflections using different commercially available emulsions in format sizes to 14' X 30'. We finish with a summary of the markets that we perceive for holographics using live subject images.
Beyond the spatial paradigm: time and cinematic form in holographic art
Eduardo Kac
The author discusses holographic art from the point of view of the temporal properties of the medium, using examples from some of the artists who have consistently worked with film, video, digital imaging and holographic animation proper. He suggests that any consideration of this new art form must take into account its dynamic, and not only spatial, qualities. The paper is also complemented with a survey of recent and current research towards holographic film and video, evoking the unique creative potential of these emergent technologies.
Education
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Holographic experimentation from the student perspective
Johnathan G. Niemczura
Conical holograms were produced in a garage, with homemade and surplus equipment, in attempt to capture a 3D image, which includes the top of the objects holographed. They were made from Agfa 8E75 T3 HD NAH film. Developer, bleach and post-treatment were based on Photographers' Formulary JD-3 Holography Processing chemicals. The observation area studied were objects with heights ranging from 24 to 57 mm, with diameters of 25 to 82 mm, and positioned away from the film 13, 17, 20, and 48 mm. Exposure times varied from 6 to 60 seconds. The variables were important to achieving 3D images in the conical holograms.
Ten-year perspective on display holography in the middle school classroom
Frank Tomaszkiewicz
Glen Ellyn School District 41 students in grades six, seven and eight first began making reflection holograms in September, 1987. At that time they were the only students anywhere their age who had that type of experience in science and art. After ten years not much has changed. If one were to try to find a middle level school that makes display holography available, one would have to seek out science programs in an area high school. There are a number of reasons why display holography has not caught-on in public schools. This article will touch on some of them. This article also includes some laser applications that have been incorporated into the Art Technology program for Hadley JHS students at all grade levels.
Interferometry
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Holodiagram and light-in-flight
Nils H. Abramson
Using three pulsed lasers we have recorded color holgrams and double exposure holograms on silver halide panchromatic PFGO3C plates. The first results are shown. Quality of these holograms is less good than the quality of color holograms recorded with CW lasers. But however the obtained results are significant and promising.
Analysis of vibration of holographic setups using the theory of time average interferometry
Gerhard K. Ackermann, Juergen P. Eichler
In this paper it is demonstrated, that the vibration of holographic tables can be described using Time Average Interferometry. The vibration amplitudes of vibrating optical elements are summarized in an effective displacement vector at the holographic plate. The calculations show, that the visibility is given by the Besselfunction J0. For very small amplitudes of displacement amplitudes this result is in accordance with earlier findings, where the visibility was a square function of displacement amplitude.
Real-time high-speed holographic interferometric study of a fuel injection system
Tung H. Jeong, Louis M. Spoto
A holographic system using a helium-neon laser is set up to study the phase information in the region of space where a plume of fuel is ejected from an Impulse nail gun. A transmission hologram is recorded in which the object is a trans-illuminated 8 X 10 piece of round glass. While observing the virtual image of the hologram, fuel is injected into the region of space immediately upstream from the ground glass. The interference between the reconstructed virtual image and the phase modulated light from the ground glass is observed. This information is recorded at a rate of 1000 frames per second using a high speed video system.
Technology, Applications and Devices I
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Recent developments of anti-counterfeiting techniques in China
Dahsiung Hsu, Wen Pei, Shou Liu, et al.
In this paper the current anti-counterfeiting techniques in China (up to 1997) are reported.
Anti-counterfeiting holograms and government anti-piracy activities in China
In this paper the demand for anti-counterfeiting holograms, the case examples of brand authentication and the role of China government in anti-piracy efforts are reported.
Embossed holographic label photographed with Fourier security point
Wei Ben Yuan, Xiu Hua Zhang
In this article, a new concept--`limit resolution' is proposed. Limit resolution refers to maximizing the recording resolution of a Fourier holographic point adding to the holographic label to the ultimate limit value of the resolution of the recording materials. After this treatment, the holographic label could not be reproduced, because resolution of the characters, images or security encode matrix stored in a holographic point have reached the ultimate value of the resolution of the material. When the master holographic label is copied, the reconstruction images of the point on the copied sub-holographic label becomes blurred.
Technology, Applications and Devices II
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Silver halide masters for transfer into large format dichromated gelatin (DCG) holograms
Fred D. Unterseher, August Muth, Rebecca E. Deem
Techniques used to create several large format, 50 X 60 cm, silver halide masters for transfer into a large format, 45 X 54 cm, DCG hologram are discussed. The subject, a fossilized dinosaur egg, is one of the largest such artifacts ever found. In order to present all facets of the subject, the outer egg shell, the articulated embryo bones and a model of an artist's concept of the embryo inside the shell, several masters were produced to create in the end a double exposure, multichannel transfer image. An emphasis is placed on a practical approach to the production of the holograms.
Reduced-image full aperture achromatic phase amplitude hologram
Fred D. Unterseher, Rebecca E. Deem
A well known two step technique produces a full aperture achromatic transmission hologram however this hologram is known for its limitation in depth and chromatic aberration. A reduced image technique where the projected image is compressed into the achromate's narrow viewing zone makes the production of full aperture achromates worth reconsidering. The reduced image technique is particularly suited to the open aperture achromate method and can be very visually striking. The authors will discuss both techniques and how they compliment each other and will mention how they offer applications for the production of embossed and DCG holograms. Emphasis is placed on a practical approach.
Holographic screens and their applications
Jung-Young Son, Vadim V. Smirnov, Joohwan Chun, et al.
The holographic screen is an unique image projecting screen for 3D image display. It can be made to display full color images by several different techniques. It is also possible to make the holographic screen having size more than 1 m by mosaicking small size screens. The full color holographic screen is highly transparent. This characteristic can lead the holographic screen to be used in art and the head up displays for cars.
High-resolution H1-H2 single-beam reflection holography using DuPont photopolymer holographic recording film
David W. Rush, Miranda Schatten, Julius Goldhar, et al.
We report an experimental study of the use of DuPont photopolymer Holographic Recording Film to record high resolution reflection holograms of an integrated circuit chip with an initial film-to-object separation of 1.5 millimeters. A two-step H1-H2 recording sequence is used to transfer H1 images to the H2 film plane. Because of emulsion shrinkage, the optimum H2 recording wavelength is approximately 10 nm shorter than the H1 recording wavelength. The H2 reflection holograms, which are incoherently illuminated and viewed through a conventional microscope, reconstruct high resolution images with clearly resolved micron sized features.
Three-dimensional holographic display using a photorefractive crystal
Christy A. Heid, Brian P. Ketchel, Gary L. Wood, et al.
We report on a definitive demonstration of a 3D holographic display utilizing a photorefractive crystal. The resultant holographic image is viewed in real-time over a wide perspective, which can be extended by a mosaic of crystals. The image is also free from system-induced aberrations and has a uniform high quality over the entire range of FOV angles. The enhanced image quality results from the use of a phase-conjugate read beam generated from a second photorefractive crystal acting as a double-pumped phase- conjugate mirror. Multiple 3D images have been stored in the crystal via wavelength and angle multiplexing.
Technology, Applications and Devices III
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Large-format holography
David Ratcliffe
A review of the techniques and systems used and developed at Australian Holographics to make large format CW reflection (to 1.1. m X 1.1 m) and rainbow (to 1.1 m X 2.2 m) holograms will be given. Topics such as film holding, optical table design, optical schemes and geometries, the construction of large mirror towers, laser choice and installation, object choice and design, the use of unstable curtains, chemistry, drying and final product mounting will be covered. Pulsed holography as used by Australian Holographics will be briefly mentioned and its relative advantages and disadvantages compared to CW.
Holography under adverse conditions
Patrick P. Naulleau, David S. Dilworth, Brian G. Hoover, et al.
3D images have been formed through a pair of single mode fibers, using monochromatic light of reduced spatial coherence. Two fibers are required: one carries the object beam, the other the reference beam. Light comes out of the exiting end of the two fibers, interferes to form a hologram, which then forms a fully 3D image. Also, we have pursued the problem of imaging through highly scattering media, such as biological tissue. We recover both the amplitude and the phase of the uncorrupted wavefield from the scattered light. This is accomplished with considerable effort; we record up to 8000 electronic holograms and read them all into a computer; the resulting computer processing is quite intensive, requiring many hours of computing. With the phase thus recovered, we can get significantly improved image resolution.
Holography and space research
Pal Greguss
After reviewing how holographic techniques opened new vistas in space flight and research we discuss the influence of Centric Minded Imaging on holography related metrology, and propose for the first time an omnidirectional holographic Fourier spectrometer that could be a good candidate to study specific chemical reactions, such as the natural destruction of ozone in the upper atmosphere, and especially those phenomena that may cause the so-called Red Sprites and Blue Jets. A new concept, called `holographic exoscopy', will also be introduced. At the end the possibilities inherent in range imaging, that can be considered as a quasi-holographic technique, will also be discussed.
Portable device for in-situ recording of reflection holograms with diode lasers
Ventseslav Christov Sainov, Tsveta Petrova, Aneta Dimitrova, et al.
A technique and device for recording and copying reflection holograms (Denisyuk's holograms) with a semiconductor laser, emitting in the visible spectral range ((lambda) equals 672 mm), are described. Superfine-grain silver halide Bulgarian materials HP-650 are utilized, ensuring high values of diffraction efficiency without bleaching after development. The major operating characteristics are determined and the possibility of holographic recording of real objects with vertical and horizontal positioning is demonstrated. The technique and device can find application in the realization of replicas of museum items, unique and rare specimens in the premises where they are stored, or archeological excavation findings during excavation, without the need of transporting the objects to the holographic laboratory.
Business of Holography
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Holography industry market survey and industry report: 1997
Lewis T. Kontnik
We report on a definitive demonstration of a three-dimensional holographic display utilizing a photorefractive crystal. The resultant holographic image is viewed in real-time over a wide perspective, which can be extended by a mosaic of crystals. The image is also free from system-induced aberrations and has a uniform high quality over the entire range ofFOV angles. The enhanced image quality results from the use of a phase-conjugate read beam generated from a second photorefractive crystal acting as a double-pumped phase-conjugate mirror. Multiple three-dimensional images have been stored in the crystal via wavelength and angle multiplexing. Keywords: hologram, three-dimensional display, photorefractive crystal, phase-conjugate mirror, field-ofview, storage, multiplexing, mosaic