Proceedings Volume 3188

Laser Technology V: Applications in Medicine and Ecology

Wieslaw Wolinski, Alfreda Graczyk
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Proceedings Volume 3188

Laser Technology V: Applications in Medicine and Ecology

Wieslaw Wolinski, Alfreda Graczyk
View the digital version of this volume at SPIE Digital Libarary.

Volume Details

Date Published: 23 October 1997
Contents: 5 Sessions, 27 Papers, 0 Presentations
Conference: Laser Technology V 1996
Volume Number: 3188

Table of Contents

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Table of Contents

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  • Introductory Papers on Interaction of Laser Light with Biomatter and use of Lasers for HpD Diagnosis/Therapy
  • Laser Diagnosis: Fluorescence Imaging/Fluorometry and Electrophysiology
  • Laser Therapy and Surgery: Ophthalmology
  • Laser Therapy and Surgery: Oncology, Gynecology, Urology, Dentistry, Otolaryngology, and Dermatology
  • Protection of Health and the Environment
  • Laser Therapy and Surgery: Ophthalmology
Introductory Papers on Interaction of Laser Light with Biomatter and use of Lasers for HpD Diagnosis/Therapy
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Distribution of laser radiation energy in biological absorbing media
The chosen physical models of biological media have been analyzed. Using the selected models of tissues we determined an influence of wavelength of radiation, emitted by laser, on energy distribution in medium. There was evaluated a range of applicability of linear and non-linear models of radiation interaction with a tissue, taking as a criterion a volumetric density of the absorbed power. Temperature distributions in medium, for cw and pulsed interaction of near IR laser beams, for the spatial system were given.
Laser radiation sources applied to HpD diagnosis and therapy
Andrzej Zajac, Zdzislaw Jankiewicz, Marek Skorczakowski, et al.
The paper presents laser sets, including forsterite laser, applicable for the HpD therapy. We describe the laser sets pumped by the Q-switched Nd:YAG laser pulse, generating radiation within a therapeutic range and diagnostic one as well as the set generating within the q-W regime. We discuss the results of investigations carried out with the laser set for diagnosis. The set comprises the KZnF3 laser with a ruby pump. The forsterite laser pumped by the q-CW Nd:YAG laser, at 20 W of a pump power, can generate radiation of average power of about 400 mW at wavelength of (lambda) equals 1270 nm or radiation of average power of 150 mW at wavelength of 630 nm. The tunable range of the set is (lambda) equals +/- 20 nm FH and (Delta) (lambda) equals +/- 10 nm for the SH of forsterite laser. We have also analyzed other laser sets fulfilling requirements of the HpD diagnosis and therapy.
Laser Diagnosis: Fluorescence Imaging/Fluorometry and Electrophysiology
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Fluorometric analysis for neoplasm diagnostics and localization
Miroslaw Kwasny, Zygmunt Mierczyk
The paper presents methods of laser-induced fluorescence with the use of endo- and exogenous dyes for diagnosis of early tumors of aerodigestive tracts, colons, bladder, GYN, and skin, as well as a review of equipment developed during laboratory examination, construction of diagnostic instruments and clinical use of fluorometric methods with application of various devices, from simple fluorometers to sophisticated endoscopic spectra-analyzers.
Localization of porphyrine amino acid derivatives in superficial tumors using laser-induced fluorescence
Miroslaw Kwasny, Zygmunt Mierczyk, Andrzej Gietka, et al.
The results of examinations of accumulation of bis-1(I- alanylo-N)-ethylo-deuteroprotoporfiryne (Ala-PP) in healthy tissues and superficial tumors of 10 patients are presented. Fluorescence imaging was carried out by means of a CCD camera, coupled with an image amplifier. As an excitation source a titanium laser was used. Contrary to healthy tissues, the tumor ones are characterized by the slight decrease in Ala-PP concentration during several days after injection of preparation what enables initial determination of a tissue character and next application of a selective therapeutic irradiation.
Fluorescence spectra of macerated human skull bone
Stefan Kruszewski, Magdalena Wietlicka-Piszcz, Bronislaw Grzegorzewski
The fluorescence of macerated human skull was investigated. The fluorescence spectra excited with argon-ion and He-Ne laser lines are presented. The sources of observed fluorescence are discussed.
Preliminary report on the influence of an argon laser on electrophysiology of cochlea in guinea pigs
Wojciech Michalski, Wojciech Dziewiszek
A small electrical potential generated by cochlear, when the ear is stimulated by sound, has been used to estimate the influence of the argon laser on cochlear activity in guinea pigs. The detected potentials were recorded prior to, during and after laser irradiation of bone of cochlear, Laser pulses of 0.5-1 s duration and peak power of 100-660 mW were used in the experiment. The number of pulses in the series and the time interval between single laser pulses were varied, too. Depending on the laser irradiation parameters the values of CM returned or no to the pre-impact value.
Laser Therapy and Surgery: Ophthalmology
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Applications of the holmium laser in ophthalmology
Dariusz Kecik, Jan Kasprzak
The role of the holmium laser is gradually changing in contemporary ophthalmology. Although potentially applicable to the treatment of numerous ophthalmology disorders, it has not been yet widely used in clinical practice. However, intensive experimental studies are being conducted and the clinical effects are being evaluated.
Effect of holmium and erbium laser action on the human lens: an in-vitro study
Jan Kasprzak, Dariusz Kecik
We investigated the holmium and erbium lasers operating at the medium IR range, used for cataract surgery. The main advantage of these lasers action on biological structures is total absorption of radiation by superficial layers. During the study of the lens emulsification process we found that the mechanical properties of the lens nucleus were of crucial importance for the rate of emulsification. The soft lenses were fragmented and emulsified after 200-700 pulses, while the hard lens required 5000 or more pulses while complete emulsification was not achieved. The results are promising and show that the holmium and erbium lasers can be used for human lens emulsification during ECCE. For clinical purposes, however, it is necessary to construct a suitable fiberoptic tip to be used in cataract removal. It seems that lasers whose beam is in the medium IR range could be used in many ophthalmic operations.
Histological evaluation of coagulation foci produced in the human lens with a holmium laser
Dariusz Kecik, Tadeusz Kecik, Antoni Pratnicki, et al.
We present the results of histological evaluation of human lenses treated with the holmium laser. The lenses, extracted at the time of extracapsular surgery for cataract, were placed in containers filled with Ringer's solution. After treatment with laser-emitted radiation they were histologically evaluated. The formation of crater-like defects was found in the material studied.
Simultaneous use of argon and Nd:YAG lasers in selected clinical situations
Dariusz Kecik
The author presents indications for the simultaneous use of the argon and Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers to perform iridectoctomy, corepraxy, incision through anterior adhesion, closure of pathological corneal vessels and vitreotomy.
Efficacy of laser stimulation of the lacrimal gland and collagen punctual occlusion in the treatment of dry-eye syndrome
Iwona Switka-Wieclawska, Tadeusz Kecik, Joanna Ciszewska
In this study we would like to monitor the tear secretion during a 7 day period of temporary intracanalicular occlusion and laser stimulation of lacrimal gland in a small group of female suffering of dry eye syndrome.
Comparison of PMMA and silicone intraocular lens damage due to YAG:Nd laser Q-switch exposition
Miroslaw Zydecki, Tadeusz Kecik, Iwona Switka-Wieclawska, et al.
The opacification of the lens posterior bag after cataract removal with IOL implantation is still the common postoperative complication. The only way of visual acuity improvement in such cases is laser Nd:YAG posterior capsulotomy. Sometimes the accidental damage of PMMA or silicone intraocular lenses occurs. The damage sites in silicone IOL appears smaller than in PMMA IOL.
Does Nd:YAG laser beam damage to artificial intraocular lenses cause depolymerization of PMMA?
Joanna Ciszewska, Tadeusz Kecik, Elzbieta Legec, et al.
The polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA) widely used in intraocular lenses production is a polymer of methylmetacrylate. The mechanical damage of safe PMMA including laser energy leads to release of toxic monomer MMA to surrounding environment.
Use of the Q-switch Nd:YAG laser in the treatment of cataracts
Dariusz Kecik
The most frequent uses of the Nd:YAG laser in the surgical treatment for cataract are presented. Preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative applications are discussed together with the most frequency complications.
Laser Therapy and Surgery: Oncology, Gynecology, Urology, Dentistry, Otolaryngology, and Dermatology
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Photodynamic method used for the treatment of malignant melanoma and Merkel cell carcinoma
Janusz Domaniecki, Edward Stanowski M.D., Alfreda Graczyk, et al.
A photodynamic method is successfully applied for tumor diagnosis treatment. We used such a method for a dozen or so patients with primary and metastatic skin tumors. As photosensitizers HpD (Arg)2 and PP(Ala)2(Arg)2 were used in concentration of 1 mg/ml. The photosensitizers wee administered directly into tumors with a does of 0.1 divided by 0.2 ml. As a result of tumor irradiation by means of the He-Cd laser, a tumor intensively luminates what makes it possible to determine accurately its size and shape. Next, we applied a series of irradiation by means of He-Ne laser during the successive three days and patients received full dose of 150 J/cm2 per tumor surface. For extensive tumors such an irradiation series was repeated after 7 days. The patients were divided into three groups depending on tumor size. The first group of patients with tumors of 0.5 cm of diameter showed very good treatment results just after the first series of irradiation. The second group of patients with tumors of 0.5-1.5 cm showed very good treatment results after two series of irradiation. The third group of patients with tumors of diameter over 1.0 cm showed acceptable treatment results after two series of irradiations, determined as sufficient ones. The patients from the third group wee operated on after 7 divided by 10 days from the time of the completed irradiation. The photodynamic method can be used as a method for tumor diagnosis and skin tumor treatment as well as a supplementary method for surgical intervention.
Laser surgery in the treatment of vaginal cysts
Jakub Wozniak, Piotr Dydowicz, Tomasz Opala, et al.
The authors described the results of treatment of vaginal cysts with CO2 laser under colposcopic control in 12 women. In five of them the recurrent Bartholin's, in another five the Gartner's and in tow the endometrial cysts were diagnosed. All laser surgeries were done in the Department of Reproduction, Institute of Gynecology, Karol Marcinkowski School of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland between September 1995 and September 1996. In the authors' opinion the use of CO2 laser is the efficient method of treatment of vaginal cysts. The most of laser procedures are doing as the one-day surgery. There are no serious postoperative complications after laser surgery.
Nd-YAG laser with a fibertom system in the treatment of intrauterine lesions
Maciej Wilczak, Jakub Wozniak, Stefan Sajdak, et al.
The results of 31 Nd:YAG hysteroscopic laser surgeries done in the Department of Reproduction, Institute of Gynecology and obstetrics, Karon Marcinkowski School of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland were describe. In nine patients the uterine septa and in 22 women the intrauterine adhesion were recognized. Hysteroscopy is a very useful and reliable method in diagnosis and treatment of intrauterine lesions reducing fertility. The laser resection of intrauterine lesions in women with malreproduction is an efficient and safe method. The fertility and parity after laser surgery are highly improved.
Comparison between a CO2 and a Nd-YAG laser with fibertom system in the treatment of frenulum breve
Jakub Wozniak, Piotr Dydowicz, Piotr Jedrzejczak, et al.
The study showed the treatment of frenulum breve in 24 patients. Nine of them were treated with CO2 and eight ones with Nd:YAG lasers. In seven males the classical surgical procedures were done. All patients were treated in Department of Reproduction, Institute of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Karol Marcinkowski School of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland between March 1995 and September 1996. All procedures were collected successful and no serious complications were observed. The all males are still under control in our department. The use of lasersurgery is the safe and efficient method in treatment of frenulum breve. Lasersurgery may be conducting as the out-patient procedure or one-day surgery because of possibility of NLA and local anesthesia. The use of CO2 seems to be the better method than Nd:YAG laser with fibertom system in treatment of frenulum breve because of shorter time of healing. There are no differences between hemostasis achieved by CO2 and Nd:YAG lasers. The incision effect is the same, when CO2 and Nd:YAG laser with fibertom system are used.
Influence of laser radiation on acceleration of postextraction wound healing
Grazyna Grzesiak-Janas, Jozef Kobos
The investigations included 50 patients who were subjected to extraction of two adjacent teeth because of chronic periodontal ligament inflammation using 2 percent lignocaine as an anaesthetic agent. One postextraction wound was irradiated with laser light, whereas the second one was left to be healed in a natural way. The use of laser beam accelerates postextraction wound healing on the basis of clinical and cytologic evaluation.
Use of semiconducting laser in drug-induced chronic bilateral inflammation of parotid glands
Grazyna Grzesiak-Janas
A case of chronic bilateral inflammation of parotid glands in a patient as a results of complication induced by the drug Ospolot in the treatment of epilepsy was presented. Apart from conventional methods a semiconducting laser was used. The laser beam had beneficial effect on elimination of pain and increase in the parotid gland secretion activity.
Clinical application of the Nd-YAG and Ho-YAG lasers in otolaryngology: head and neck surgery
Andrzej Kukwa M.D., Marek P. Tulibacki M.D., Katarzyna Dudziec, et al.
The authors present their clinical experience regarding the possibilities of application of Nd:YAG and Ho:YAG lasers for the treatment of disorders in the area of the upper respiratory tract sinuses and ears. This technique makes it possible to perform a number of procedures in local anesthesia which considerably improves the economic effectiveness of the treatment. In case of the Nd:YAG laser they have also utilized the effect of deep coagulation of the soft tissues, whereas the Ho:YAG laser energy was applied for the surgery of bone tissue. The surgeries performed using laser beam enabled very good effect of treatment. They are competitive compared wit the methods used by traditional surgery.
Surgical lasers in dermatology
Jacek Szymanczyk, Wlodzimierz Nowakowski, Aleksandra Golebiowska, et al.
Almost every laser for medical applications was first tried in dermatology. The efficiency of YAG, CO2, and Argon lasers on this area and their potential advantages over conventional methods were mostly evaluated by cosmetic effect of laser therapy. The indications for different laser treatment in such dermatological cases as: angiomas, telangiectasias, pigmented lesions, nevus flammeus congenitus, deep cavernous angiomas, skin neoplasms and condylomata acuminata are discussed in this paper and the results of the laser therapy are also presented.
Protection of Health and the Environment
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Lidar monitoring of the atmosphere
Stanislaw Chudzynski, Krzysztof Ernst, Tadeusz Stacewicz, et al.
The complexity of processes occurring in the atmosphere requires a continuous improvement of methods used for better understanding and predicting various atmospheric phenomena. The paper is dedicated to the atmospheric pollution, the important environmental problem on both global and local scale. Measurement techniques dealing with emission and emission processes as well as with creation, migration and distribution of pollutants are described. Because of high dynamics of these processes, conventional monitoring methods, even if performed in many local stations, are not able to satisfy the needs. Laser remote sensing, allowing to measure atmospheric contaminations spatially resolved over distances and altitudes of several kilometers, has recently become one of the leading techniques in environmental studies. We review the conventional as well as LIDAR techniques of atmosphere monitoring indicating their advantages and limitations. We concentrate on the DIAL method explaining its principle of operation, describing its features and showing examples of applications.
Mobile lidar laboratory
Stanislaw Chudzynski, Krzysztof Ernst, Tadeusz Stacewicz, et al.
We describe a mobile LIDAR laboratory designed to detect and to determine the concentration distribution of several pollutants, such as NO2, SO2, O3, toluene and benzene, as well as dust and aerosol. We present the principles of its operation and the basics of the construction. FInally we give the operational characteristics and the main parameters of the system.
Lidar measurements of air pollution in the Black Triangle
Stanislaw Chudzynski, Krzysztof Ernst, Tadeusz Stacewicz, et al.
Selected results obtained during LIDAR measurements in Karkonosze Mountains are presented. Short description of the environment situation in the area of the 'Black Triangle' is given.
Examination of the energy distribution of a laser beam scattered on dust particles at angles, limited by meter discrimination, included in scattering indicatrix
Jozef Kirkiewicz
It has been pointed out that the shape of indicatrix of scattering laser beam on dust particles, assumed to be spherical, depends on grain size. This results from the fact that the angel of scattering is proportional to changes in interfering potential The device based on the above assumption can be measure granularity of particles with diameters scattering light at angles limited by the discrimination of the system. The measurement results presented graphically are repeatable and comparable with results obtained by professional instruments. Sericite dusts were used for reference in the investigation to be compared with dusts from most common types of cargoes carried by ships of the Polish merchant fleet.
Laser Therapy and Surgery: Ophthalmology
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Current trends in laser applications to opthalmology
Tadeusz Kecik
The ophthalmology is such a medical branch where the lasers were introduced almost in the moment of its construction. The early experiences in the field of photocoagulation, the special structure of the eye globe and the ophthalmologist knowledge of radiation and optics created the especially good conditions for practical use of lasers. Now, in many other medical specialisations the laser radiation is used for therapy, but still in the ophthalmology we notice the biggest progress, the widest lasers application and the most advanced scientific works in this field. There are many thousand of working coagulators in the world and about 50 in Poland. If we include also the diagnostic and scientific lasers, statistically almost each ophthalmologic patient knows the laser radiation.