Proceedings Volume 2969

Second International Conference on Optical Information Processing

Zhores I. Alferov, Yuri V. Gulyaev, Dennis R. Pape
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Proceedings Volume 2969

Second International Conference on Optical Information Processing

Zhores I. Alferov, Yuri V. Gulyaev, Dennis R. Pape
View the digital version of this volume at SPIE Digital Libarary.

Volume Details

Date Published: 27 December 1996
Contents: 15 Sessions, 139 Papers, 0 Presentations
Conference: Second International Conference on Optical Information Processing 1996
Volume Number: 2969

Table of Contents

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Table of Contents

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  • Optical Computing I
  • Optical Computing II
  • Optical Processing Components I
  • Optical Processing Components II
  • Optical Processing Components III
  • Optical Signal Processing I
  • Optical Signal Processing II
  • Optical Signal Processing III
  • Optical Image Processing I
  • Optical Image Processing II
  • Optical Image Processing III
  • Optical Computing: Posters
  • Optical Processing Components: Posters
  • Optical Signal Processing: Posters
  • 0ptical Image Processing: Posters
Optical Computing I
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Spatial light modulator and optical analog computing
Two types of electron tube spatial light modulators and three types of liquid crystal spatial light modulators have been developed. They are applied to various optical analog computing systems, which include a stellar speckle interferometer, a displacement meter and a fingerprint meter and a fingerprint identification system.
Principle and optical architecture of a high-performance optoelectronic switching network
Vyatcheslav B. Fyodorov
The general principle of operation and 3D architecture of N by N high-performance fully connected optoelectronic packet switching networks for m-bit parallel data transmission through connected pairs of optical channels are proposed. The networks enable for self-routing strictly non-blocking conflict-free networking under arbitrary call requests. The possibility of creating such networks from laser and photodetector arrays, smart pixel structures, free-space optics, lenslets or selfoc lens arrays, and electronic control circuits is considered. The main parameters of the networks are discussed.
Optimization steps in a cuneiform inscription characterization process
Nazif Demoli, Uwe Dahms, Hartmut Gruber, et al.
Recently, an investigation of using holographically based techniques for the cuneiform inscription characterization has been reported in several publications. This paper provides an overview of the development of the experimental systems and techniques. Particularly, we describe the main optimization steps as well as the selected correlation results, and the general frame of the future work.
Fibers supporting super-Gaussian beams: cladding effects
We define a matching function that describes the amplitude variations produced over supergaussian beams, by cladding optical fibers that, if uncladded, can sustain this type of beams as Eigenmodes.
Optical Computing II
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Dependence of diffraction efficiency on storage density in digital holographic memory using bacteriorhodopsin
This paper reports preliminary measurements of the dependence of diffraction efficiency for individual holograms stored in bacteriorhodopsin (BR) on the total number of holograms present in the medium. BR is an organically derived photochromic material that is well suited for use in 3D digital holographic memory. Upon the absorption of photons BR shifts from a ground state with a peak absorption in the red to an excited state with a peak absorption in the blue. Thus images may be written and erased in BR by using different wavelength light sources. Recent advances have led to the ability to permanently store volume holograms in BR films with the ability to repeatedly read, write and erase these holograms. One of the critical parameters that will determine the density of information contained in a BR-holographic memory is the decay of the diffraction efficiency, and thus read-out signal to noise ratio, for individual hologram as other holograms are written into the same space. The diffraction efficiency appears to depend exponentially on the number of holograms for low exposures and vary as a slower exponential or the inverse of the number of holograms for large exposures.
Advanced optical network architecture for integrated digital avionics
D. Reed Morgan
For the first time in the history of avionics, the network designer now has a choice in selecting the media that interconnects the sources and sinks of digital data on aircraft. Electrical designs are already giving way to photonics in application areas where the data rate times distance product is large or where special design requirements such as low weight or EMI considerations are critical. Future digital avionic architectures will increasingly favor the use of photonic interconnects as network data rates of one gigabit/second and higher are needed to support real-time operation of high-speed integrated digital processing. As the cost of optical network building blocks is reduced and as temperature-rugged laser sources are matured, metal interconnects will be forced to retreat to applications spanning shorter and shorter distances. Although the trend is already underway, the widespread use of digital optics will first occur at the system level, where gigabit/second, real-time interconnects between sensors, processors, mass memories and displays separated by a least of few meters will be required. The application of photonic interconnects for inter-printed wiring board signalling across the backplane will eventually find application for gigabit/second applications since signal degradation over copper traces occurs before one gigabit/second and 0.5 meters are reached. For the foreseeable future however, metal interconnects will continue to be used to interconnect devices on printed wiring boards since 5 gigabit/second signals can be sent over metal up to around 15 centimeters. Current-day applications of optical interconnects at the system level are described and a projection of how advanced optical interconnect technology will be driven by the use of high speed integrated digital processing on future aircraft is presented. The recommended advanced network for application in the 2010 time frame is a fiber-based system with a signalling speed of around 2-3 gigabits per second. This switch-based unified network will interconnect sensors, displays, mass memory and controls and displays to computer modules within the processing complex. The characteristics of required building blocks needed for the future are described. These building blocks include the fiber, an optical switch, a laser-based transceiver, blind-mate connectors and an optical backplane.
Hybrid hierarchical neural optoelectronic processor based on the vector-matrix multiplier and the preprocessing unit
Nickolay N. Evtikhiev, Boris N. Onyky, Rostislav S. Starikov, et al.
Hierarchical hybrid neural optoelectronic system for pattern recognition based on moments invariant method is considered. The results of such system simulation are presented.
Propagation characteristics of anisotropic chirowaveguides
Katsu Rokushima, Keiji Matsumoto, Jiro Yamakita, et al.
A rigorous analysis of anisotropic chirowaveguides is presented for the case of oblique propagation. The analysis is formulated in a unified matrix form, so that propagation characteristics can be obtained by systematic matrix calculations. The numerical results clarify that not only surface waves but also leaky waves exist owing to the anisotropy and chirality of the medium.
Optoelectronic advancements in analog avionics networking systems
Over the past two decades, the types of networks used in both commercial and military systems to route information throughout a designated platform have essentially remained unchanged. Traditionally, digital networks have been used to route low data rate, low-bandwidth signals usually not exceeding 2 Ghz, amongst a variety of sensors, digital and signal processors and video displays. On the other hand, analog networks have been responsible for routing broad- banded radio-frequency signals, those ranging from 2 Ghz to well beyond 100 Ghz, between a specific antenna aperture and its designated receiver type. Current analog systems use one of either two approaches to transfer this signal information. The first approach uses microwave waveguides. This design is very efficient, albeit bulky, and has typically been used in ground-based systems. HOwever, it does not lend itself very well to airborne platforms where size and weight constraint are of primary concern. The second approach uses coaxial cable, which tends to exhibit excessive loss at higher frequencies and is much heavier than optical fiber. Like its counterpart the microwave waveguide, it too is not ideally suited for airborne platforms. However, up to now it has been the technology of choice for this particular application. This has led to other alternatives to be sought. With recent advancements being made in optoelectronics, optical fiber is becoming a viable alternative to the above mentioned approaches. It is the intent of this paper to identify airborne applications for photonic technology in analog networks and discuss the needed building blocks to implement this particular type of system.
Optical processing and computing based on the four-wave mixing with time delay
Eduard A. Manykin, Sergey M. Zakharov
The principles of digital data processing on the basis of a photon echo phenomenon in a resonant medium are considered. DIfferent schemes of an optical processor for vector-matrix multiplication are proposed: a processor with a pixel structure and a processor holographic type. The using of the digital multiplication by the analog convolution algorithm is suggested.
Novel polarization sensitive optoelectronic switching device for optical information processing
Boris S. Ryvkin, Jan Danckaert, Christel Van de Poel, et al.
An array compatible, fast and high contrast opto-electronic polarization sensitive switch is proposed. The element's electrical configuration is a standard p-i-n heterostructure under reverse bias voltage. Its optical configuration is very similar to an asymmetric Fabry-Perot resonator (AFPR) where an electroabsorptive i-layer is included between the p and n layers, as in a SEED. Both p- and n-layers are Bragg- reflectors. The front mirror of the AFPR is made slightly polarization dependent using a subwavelength grating etched in the top layer of the p-type reflector stack. We calculate the polarization dependent overall absorption and reflection of the device and model the steady state behavior and polarization induced switching properties, for an electroabsorption coefficient that increases linearly with applied voltage. Using a standard load-line analysis we show that changing the input polarization from TE to TM can lead to a dramatic decrease or increase in overall reflectivity.
Application of optoelectronic neural networks to the selection of contour figure features
Victor A. Ivanov, Boris S. Kiselyov, Andrei L. Mikaelian
Homogeneous optical neural networks are used in the filtration and selection of pattern fragments, such as line intersections, line ends, fractures, etc. The approach proposed allows us to develop simple neural nets with virtually any form of receptive fields. The processing method is suggested in which only those simple features survive that have specific relative positions.
Optical Processing Components I
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Limits of the use of polymer thin films for spatial light modulation
Jean-Michel Nunzi, Fabrice Charra, Stephane Delysse, et al.
We present the ultimate limits of use of photochromic polymer films for spatial light modulation. Criteria for the comparison of different modulation principles and materials are given. A figure of merit based on switching efficiency is derived. An application of polymer films for real-time holography is presented. In this respect, the advantages of polymer thin films on other materials appear essential. They indeed permit the use of large viewing angles in order to reduce system size, as well as readout with frequency conversion in order to reduce the effect of scattering. Different aspects of the photochromic process are discussed.
Acoustic and optical beam with a long interaction length in an anisotropic medium
Vladimir N. Parygin, Alex V. Vershoubskiy
The quasi collinear acoustooptical interaction in which the energy propagation directions of optical and acoustic beams coincide is theoretically investigated. In this case the wave vectors of the acoustic and optical waves perform a closed triangle. The system of two first order equations is deducted that bound amplitudes of transmitted and diffracted light beams and of acoustic beam. This beam is propagating in a media with an acoustic energy walk-off. Simultaneously an acoustic beam anisotropic distortion is considered. The solution of these equations with an appropriate boundary conditions was carried out in the case of strong acoustooptical interaction. Some particular cases of a quasi collinear interaction were analyzed at the different levels of an input acoustic energy density.
Dynamic theory of hologram optical amplification in photopolymer materials
Eugene S. Kovalenko, Sergey N. Sharangovich
The theoretical investigation of the problem about the nonstationary amplification of holograms in photopolymer media has been carried out. Analytical solutions have been found and analyzed with taking into account the radical polymerization process and diffusion processes of all components of photopolymer for symmetrical and asymmetrical geometries of read out. The numerical results showing the kinetics of the hologram amplification, space-time transformation of the holographic gratings field, time evolution of the mismatch sensitivity of the amplification process are represented.
Spatial self-action of light beams in photorefractive optical waveguides
Vladymir M. Shandarov, Stanislav M. Shandarov
The features of intensity shape changes of single focused light beams caused by the photorefractive self-action effect in iron-doped lithium niobate optical waveguides are experimentally investigated and discussed.
Storage capacity of pixelated paraxial diffractive elements
Stephan Teiwes, Heiko Schwarzer, Frank Wyrowski, et al.
Diffractive optics finds attractive applications in the development of optical data storage systems. The performance of these systems is measured by their storage capacity specifying the amount of information that can be stored. In this paper information theory is applied to derive statements on the capacity of optical storage systems that make use of pixelated paraxial diffractive elements. It is motivated that the storage capacity of diffractive elements is directly correlated with the amount of information that can be correctly transmitted via a noisy communication channel consisting of the storage medium, free space, and a detector. Examinations on the storage capacity are restricted to noise effects due to the modulation characteristics of the storage medium. In this context redundant encoding schemes are shown to be useful to optimize the information capacity. Finally, in an experiment the storage capacity of a storage system with phase modulating diffractive elements is derived using the proposed methods.
Modulation characteristics of the Sanyo liquid crystal television
Uwe Dahms, Guenther K.G. Wernicke, Nazif Demoli, et al.
The complex transmittance and selected physical parameters of liquid-crystal displays removed from a commercially available Sanyo video projector are studied. The phase modulating behavior and phase and amplitude coupling are determined as function of the video drive signal and the polarizer/analyzer configuration. The suitability of the LC displays as input modulator in a joint transform correlator setup is shown. Correlation experiments with input signals taken from an original Babylonian cuneiform inscription are carried out.
Design of smart photodetector arrays for page-oriented optical memories
Maureen E. Schaffer, Pericles A. Mitkas
Parallel optical memoirs offer the capability for storage and retrieval of optical data in 2D pages resulting in high throughput data rates. The optical data page can be received by 2D arrays of 'smart' photodetector elements that perform fast parallel data decoding and error control, thereby providing an efficient optoelectronic interface between the memory and the electronic computer. In this paper, ewe consider the design of smart photodetector arrays in terms of hardware complexity, optical power requirements, and electrical power dissipation. Scalability and throughput are discussed with respect to these parameters.
Optical Processing Components II
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Application of the integral equation method to the problem of four-wave interaction in nonlinear media
Vsevolod Yu. Petrun'kin, I. A. Vodovatov, Valery N. Sokolov, et al.
The four-wave interaction in the refractive media by means of the integral equations have been considered.
Laser beam self-channeling in photorefractive waveguides
Erik Raita, Alexei A. Kamshilin, A. V. Khomenko
The self-channeling of a laser beam in Bi12TiO20 waveguide-like crystals has been studied both experimentally and theoretically. Total internal reflections of strong fanning beams and their coupling with the pump beam result in the light intensity redistribution inside the crystal and in the generation of the photorefractive surface wave. A theoretical model of the intensity redistribution is presented considering the light energy flow from the pump beam to the fanning and backwards after the fanning beam reflection. A numerical simulation f the model shows that the total internal reflection off the side surface, towards which the light energy flow is directed, is responsible for the light energy self-channeling. Anomalously fast photorefractive response as well as its acceleration with increasing amplitude of electric field applied to the sample were experimentally demonstrated.
Optical Processing Components III
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Collinear and noncollinear multifrequency acousto-optic interaction in guided-wave Bragg cells
In this work, a generalized model of acoustooptic multifrequency interaction in wave-guiding structures is described. The model, which is based on the generalized coupled model theory, can evaluate the diffraction efficiency in Bragg regime when a multifrequency signal is applied to the interdigitated transducer deposited on the optical waveguide surface. The influence of fabrication parameters of Ti:LiNbO3 waveguides on the diffraction efficiency and on the linear dynamic range of acoustooptic multifrequency Bragg cells has been also considered under monomodal propagation condition. Our results assert that the best performance in terms of linear dynamic range can be obtained on Ti:LiNbO3 waveguides having weak refractive index change and small initial titanium thickness in the medium radiofrequency range. A qualitative comparison has been performed with results obtained by other authors in the case of collinear acoustooptic interaction.
Two-beam coupling in sillenite crystals
Stanislav M. Shandarov, A. Reshet'ko, A. Emelyanov, et al.
We present the results of a study of two-beam mixing and light-induced absorption in sillenite crystals at wavelength (lambda) equals 633 nm. We have employed the single-carrier model of the photorefractive effect with shallow and deep traps to the explanation of the experimental results.
Noise degradation and fault tolerance in annealed binary-phase hologram interconnections
Patrick J. Smith, Sergei Samus, William J. Hossack, et al.
Binary, computer-generated phase holograms can be displayed on a ferroelectric liquid crystal over silicon spatial light modulator to give a high-speed switchable interconnection element. However, these devices are prone to fabrication defects, including non-operational pixels, variations in the liquid crystal cell thickness and warping of the silicon backplane. We investigate the effects of these fabrication faults on hologram efficiency by modelling them in software, and test the ability of the iterative design technique to compensate for such defects. Evidence of back-plane and cell thickness faults in 256 by 256 pixel binary FLC over silicon SLMs is presented and discussed. A projected optical design scheme that removes the requirement for the mapping of defects on a particular SLM is outlined.
Acousto-optical interaction bandwidth of more than 2 GHz
The way of extension of acousto-optical interaction frequency bandwidth to more than one octave is suggested. The main principle used for this aim is to design the electro-acoustical multi-element transducer with variable, along its length, parameters. In such a case to each frequency point inside chosen band exists the region of the transducer's length where, from one hand, the condition for good excitation of sound waves is fulfilled and from the other hand the Bragg condition is also fulfilled because of closed coincidence of real and necessary frequency dependencies of Bragg angle and of the angle of sound wave front inclination. This window moves from one end of the transducer to the other when frequency changes from minimum to maximum one inside the band. The closer real angle frequency dependence follows to necessary one than larger the length of transducer can be done and than more higher the diffraction efficiency can be reached.
High-photosensitive optical information carriers based on the avalanche phenomena of charge carrier in amorphous semiconductor
Yuri A. Cherkasov, N. B. Zakharova, Elena Lvovna Alexandrova
For amorphous analog of trigonal selenium, a avalanche phenomena in strong electric field is investigated. It is shown, that it is perspective for supersensitive optical information carriers and it is problematic for xerographical photoreceptors.
Optical Signal Processing I
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High-accuracy optical computing using motorized optical fractal synthesizer
Jun Tanida, Toshiyuki Maeda, Wataru Watanabe, et al.
As a new type of optical analog computing, an optical fractal synthesizer has been studied. A motorized version of the optical fractal synthesizer is constructed to investigate potential capability of the scheme. High- accuracy optical computing is achieved on the constructed experimental system.
Quantized amplitude-compensated matched filter
Guoguang Mu, Zhaoqi Wang, Rulian Fu
A new spatial filter, the quantized amplitude compensated matched filter is proposed. It is characterized as amplitude modulation only with several discrete grey levels. As compared with the amplitude-compensated matched filter, the Horner efficiency is quite poor. However, the high discrimination is preserved, and an amplitude-modulated spatial light modulator might be accommodated. The circular harmonic version of this filter is also investigated.
Detection, estimation, and prediction of an unknown signal in unknown noise: the correlation filter
There is no question to most that Gauss developed the concept of least-square estimation which was stimulated by his astronomical studies. This concept was discribed in Gausss book, Theoria Mows. This contribution and insight provided by Gauss has inspired many researchers in estimation theory over the past 200 years. These developments include the Weiner Filter, Kalman Filter, Stochastic Estimation, Bayesian Estimation, Maximu m Likehood Estimation, Auto-Regression and the Robust Filtering, just to name a few. However, during the recent decades, the need for detection and estimation of unknown signal in unknown noise background necessitated the development of correlation techniques for detection ( many correlation techniques were developed for identification). The problems in detection of unknown signals in unknown noise are common in anti-submarine warfare (ASW), automatic target recognition (ATR) and in Infrared search ands Tracking (IRST) of IR images and ocean environment. Author's research in target detection in JR images and ocean environments let to his development of the "Correlation Filter". Correlation Filter became a part of his doctoral dissertation on a Generalized Filter where he has shown that all filters, Weiner, Kalman and Correlation Filters, are related through a "Constrained Gain Matrix" and that the Correlation Filter is a special case of the Weiner Filter, reference 2. This paper presents the derivation of the Correlation Filter for detection and estimation of unknown signals in unknown noise backgrounds and some applications. Reference 1 included two algorithms of his classified DoD applications.
Verifying measuring accuracy of the fractional part of interference fringe order by interferometric signal autoconvolution method
Igor P. Gurov, Olga B. Rufanova
New method of determination of fractional part of interference fringe order is proposed and its accuracy is verified. This method is based on the calculation of the interferometric signal autoconvolution that is a version of the matched filtering method in the case the interferometric signal is an even function. The fractional part of interference order is identified by the position of the autoconvolution signal maximum. It is evaluated that measuring accuracy depends on the interference pattern parameters such as its spatial frequencies with reference to the fundamental frequency defined as an inverse value of the image extent. The high noise-immunity of the proposed method was proved experimentally: the fringe order error in typical cases was less than 0.03 when S/N ratio in interference pattern was 10. The errors of FFT algorithm were verified with reference to direct autoconvolution method.
Noise as a way of representing clutter: experimental and simulation results
This paper presents experimental and simulation results from ongoing research on the influence of clutter on OTSDF filter performance. The degrading influence of overlapping clutter can be reduced by including colored noise in the filter construction or by tuning a white noise filter. Simulation results together with experimental results from a van derLugt correlator indicate that tuning of a white noise filter is the most effective for low levels of clutter in the input images whereas inclusion of colored noise is more effective for high levels of clutter. The experimental results are well in line with the simulations.
Optical Signal Processing II
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Garden of joint transform correlators: an account of recent advances
This article reviews the development and recent advances of joint transform correlators. In optical correlation detection, there are two basic architectures; one uses the Fourier-domain matched filter and the other uses the spatial-domain filter. Pros and cons of these types of correlators are addressed. The recent development of joint transform correlators are also stressed.
Influence of preprocessing on correlation filter design: simulated and experimental considerations
This paper reviews some results of an ongoing research program at the Institute of Optical Research that addresses optical correlators dedicated to pattern recognition. A two- class discrimination problem with in-plane distortion is considered. To cope with the loss of information that may occur when input images are directly displayed on experimental binary SLMs in a Vanderlugt correlator, we have implemented several types of preprocessing operators on the original gray scale images. Performance criteria are presented to assess and grade preprocessors that can be implemented in real-time on an electronic frame grabber board. Optical implementation in a VanderLugt correlator is described. Experimental results are provided and emphasize the benefits of preprocessing prior to binarization. Significant improvements are found, both digitally and optically, with classical derivative and rank operators.
Nonlinear effects in multifrequency acousto-optic diffraction
Boris C. Chernov, Katsu Rokushima, Keiji Matsumoto, et al.
A perturbation formulation is developed for the analysis of acoustooptic diffraction with multiple acoustic waves at different frequencies. The rigorous modal theory and perturbation method are used for the quantitative evaluation of nonlinear effects occurring in acoustooptic spectrum analysis and optical information processing. Various multifrequency diffraction effects were investigated by using rigorous modal approach and approximate perturbation approach. Sample calculations are presented for various regimes of diffraction. A comparison of perturbation approach, coupled wave approach, and rigorous modal approach is made.
Adaptive acousto-optical processor for chirps
Nelly A. Esepkina, Alexander P. Lavrov, Sergei I. Ivanov, et al.
The new type adaptive acousto-optical processor for chirps is described. The processor has simple optical scheme similar to that of conventional acousto-optical spectrum analyzer but it uses CCD-line photodetector in the shift and add mode. This processor can be used effectively for compression of chirps of different duration.Processor adaptation is fulfilled by simple control of CCD clock rate. Results of experimental investigation of the laboratory setup with chirps of short duration are presented.
Optical Signal Processing III
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Wideband UHF acousto-optic processor
Andrey N. Rogov, Alexander B. Sergienko, Victor N. Ushakov
This paper summarizes our studies of a time-integrating acousto-optic processor that offers a compact solution to detecting and analyzing wideband spread-spectrum signals for variety of radar, navigation or communication applications. The heart of the processor is a 2D quadrature radio- frequency time-integrating acousto-optic correlator complemented by a subsequent digital processor. Quadrature envelope processing allows the number of delay channels to be significantly reduced. The correlator can have a processing bandwidth up to 500 MHz, and the digital processor is used to perform nonlinear detection and get spectrum information. The theoretical points discussed include sensitivity dynamic range and frequency resolution. Experimental results obtained in the UHF range are also presented.
Optical architecture of a joint transform local correlator
Arne Skov Jensen, Alexander G. Sobolev, Vladimir A. Volkov, et al.
Local correlations are correlations of separate or overlapping small areas from relevant image sources: images pairs from spatial and/or temporal optical flows. The information gained from the local correlation functions is the maximum peak position that can be related to certain flow parameters, viz. velocity and depth. From an optical processing point of view, these data structures have the advantage of being their own reference, which is a considerable simplification compared with the data processing scheme of a conventional Van der Lugt correlator. An optical implementation of a joint transform local correlator can be performed with few and very compact optical elements. Three architectures will be discussed: a set-up with a refractive lens array, a set-up with a diffractive lens array and a set-up based on an acousto- optical time integrating correlator.
Wideband multichannel acousto-optic spectrometer for millimeter and submillimeter wavelength radio astronomy
Dennis R. Pape, James A. Carter III, Tim A. Sunderlin
Radiometer spectrometers are used in millimeter-wave radio astronomy for the spectral measurement of molecular rotational transitions. The spectrum of interest spans 10's of GHz and the measurement time is large in order to obtain useful signal-to-noise ratio. The low power/channel and simplicity of acousto-optic technology has led to the current development of acousto-optic spectrometers (AOS) with 1 GHz bandwidth and 100 channels. Additional AOS bandwidth and channelization is needed to increase spectral coverage, reduce overall data acquisition time, and accommodate multibeam antennas. A multichannel acousto-optic spectrometer (MCAOS) for radio astronomy spectroscopy applications has been developed with 4 channels that can process signals form 4 separate sources simultaneously. The bandwidth of each channel is 1 GHz and the frequency resolution is 1 MHz, providing simultaneous processing over 4,000 1 MHz channels. The design and initial performance of this instrument is described. Design considerations for future wider bandwidth MCAOS's are also presented.
Block scheme of CTDMA radio interface for verification and testing (CTDMA-RISVAT)
Mieczyslaw Szustakowski, Leon Jodlowski, Valery V. Proklov, et al.
New generation of systems cellular communication are strongly interested in systems with spread spectrum. The work on use of solid state elements in mobile communication system came before investigations of such systems. The important part of project system investigation is computer modeling behavior of system in urban situation. Here the concept of radio interface for system CTDMA verification and testing that system was presented. It is specially convenient to study main signal processing part convolver SAW.
Multichannel acousto-optic correlator using coherence modulation of light
Jean-Pierre Goedgebuer, Richard Ferriere
We describe a time integrating acousto-optic correlator that allows several channels to be multiplexed optically be means of a coherence-multiplexed superluminescent laser diode. Parallel channels are generated by birefringent electro- optic modulators set in cascade to induce optical path differences greater than the coherence length of the source. The systems can be combined with most of the other previously reported multichannel techniques used in acousto- optic processors.
Optical Image Processing I
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Recent progress in invariant pattern recognition
Henri H. Arsenault, S. Chang, Philippe Gagne, et al.
We present some recent results in invariant pattern recognition, including methods that are invariant under two or more distortions of position, orientation and scale. There are now a few methods that yield good results under changes of both rotation and scale. Some new methods are introduced. These include locally adaptive nonlinear matched filters, scale-adapted wavelet transforms and invariant filters for disjoint noise. Methods using neural networks will also be discussed, including an optical method that allows simultaneous classification of multiple targets.
Two-beam wavefront reconstruction application for phase object recognition
Simon B. Gurevich, Vladimir B. Konstantinov, Viktor F. Relin, et al.
It is shown that if a hologram is illuminated simultaneously by not only the reference but also object beam, so the wavefronts patterns provide additional information on an object, for example, reflect the correlation between initial and current states of phase object.
Free programmable smart pixel processor element arrays for standard functions
Bernd Kasche, Dietmar Fey
The major problems in the current VLSI design are restrictions of both the number of available pins and the of-chip communication speed. The currently lasting process of increasing integration density of VLSI chips keeps these problems alive and still increases the difficulties respectively. Due to physical reasons the ability of a high speed off-chip communication in the same range of the on- chip communication is very difficult to achieve. Optoelectronic 3D circuits based on smart pixel technologies offer a principle solution for the problems mentioned above. We think for the success of optoelectronic computing it is very important to get flexible usable smart pixel circuits. Hence, we present an architecture design for programmable smart pixels. Our approach combines the functional flexibility of FPGAs with the advantages of optoelectronics providing fast and high dense optical interconnections. Moreover, this combination allows the design of various 3D processor element architectures by changing logical behavior and topology to get routing more simple and offering higher data throughput. After an overview of existing solutions we demonstrate a hardware approach of an ALU, based on a 3D free programmable SPPE array for the fast calculation of standard functions, e.g. exp, sin, cos,...furthermore we specify hardware relevant parameters.
Use of the Fresnel transform for optical pattern recognition
Andrey E. Krasnov, Igor N. Kompanets, Yu. O. Druzhinin
The optical pattern recognition is performed traditionally on the base of the Fourier transform of images and their following matched filtration. However this recognition is not invariant to the orientation and scale changes of images. This problem can be solved due to the Fresnel transform perhaps.
Optical Image Processing II
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Photorefractive fiber holograms
Recent work on dynamic fiber holographic processes is discussed. Fabrication of single-crystal fibers using a laser-heated pedestal growth system is given. Angular and wavelength selectives are calculated which show that wavelength-multiplexed reflection fiber hologram offers higher and uniform selectivity. Channel cross-talk is also evaluated; we show that the cross-talk noise can be subsided by using narrower spectral light source. Applications of the fiber hologram to fiber-sensing and also to turnable filters are provided.
Characterization of coding domains by optimally implementing optimal trade-off (OT) filters in the joint transform correlator
We propose to characterize various coding domains for the joint transform correlator. To achieve that, optimal trade- off filters have ben computed and then optimally constrained to given coding domains with an algorithm we have developed. Then, these coding domains have been evaluated in relation to the trade-offs they achieve.
Application of parallel-aligned nematic liquid crystal spatial-light modulator (PAL-SLM) to optical joint transform correlator
Tsutomu Hara, Yuji Kobayashi, Haruyoshi Toyoda, et al.
We have developed a compact joint transform correlator by using the parallel aligned nematic liquid crystal spatial light modulator as a real time hologram device, and have applied the correlator to fingerprint identification. The identification performance was evaluated using 2400 data from 600 fellow workers. The test results showed that the false-reject rate was 0.2 percent with 0.2 percent false acceptance. The response time of the system was less than 0.1 seconds as a result of parallel processing in the optical system.
Why is it sensible to use wavelets in matched filtering?
Heiko Schwarzer, Stephan Teiwes, Frank Wyrowski
The application of wavelets in optical pattern recognition has been first proposed by Sheng et al. The concept of a wavelet matched filter has been motivated by its improved discrimination properties compared to the classical matched filter and its improved signal-to-noise ratio compared to the phase-only filter. However, similar features can also be achieved using the approach of fractional power filters. Thus, the question for striking advantages resulting from the composition of wavelet filters and matched filters is still open. In this paper we give a positive answer to this question by discussing the problem of detecting defects on textured surface materials. This problem is of high practical relevance in industrial manufacturing.
Input image spectral density estimation for real-time adaption of correlation filters for optical pattern recognition
Anders Grunnet-Jepsen, Sylvie G. Tonda, Vincent Laude
The problem of image noise estimation for improved noise robustness and discrimination capabilities of optical correlation filters is discussed. Colored noise is often used in the literature as an approximation to the true noise spectral density in the input image of a correlator. This conjecture is verified on different kinds of input images, i.e. their power spectral densities are fitted to a colored noise model. The quality of the resulting approximation is discussed. It is then shown that incorporating this noise estimation into optimal trade-off filters can significantly improve both the discrimination capabilities and the signal to noise ratio of the resulting adaptive correlation filter above that of the classical filters for which the noise parameters are not estimated. Although its performances are in general found to be markedly inferior to those of true nonlinear filtering techniques that are optimal for adaptive image correlation, the proposed adaptive method is attractive in terms of computation time. The optical implementation of the proposed method is also presented.
Optical Image Processing III
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Local anisotropic features method and its application
Igor S. Gibin, Pavel G. Popov
The local anisotropic features method is based on the analysis of anisotropy direction of energy Fourier spectrum of image points local neighborhood. Numbers of discrete anisotropic directions are chosen as features. In the features space the measure of images nearness is set. Thanks to its properties local anisotropic features (LAF) are invariant to a wide class of input images bright transformations. This allows to identify images got by different observing channels, in different spectral ranges, within different external observation conditions. LAF method allows to perform multifunctional images processing: recognition, tracking, compression of data. LAF method may be adapted practically to any image receiver and used for multichannel information processing: channels complexing and scene integral image synthesis. The advantage of LAF method is that all kinds of processing may be realized in one computing device. Another advantage of this method is its high obstacles stability. Using the dynamic nearness measure as a constituent and integral part of the method allows to select dynamic objects and to mark them out against the underlying background. It is convenient to use LAF method in hierarchical and neuro-like structures, this makes it winning to use this method in automatic recognition system. The report considers apparatus realization and gives experimental results of images processing in multichannel optoelectronic systems in real time.
Optical Computing: Posters
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Two-cascade acousto-optic matrix processor for SAR systems
Sergey B. Odinokov, Vadim A. Kvashin, Nickolay N. Evtikhiev, et al.
Recent years were marked by persistent attempts to create a hybrid optoelectronic matrix processor realizing matrix- vector multiplication and having greater throughput than its modern and perspective electronic analogues. An experimental breadboard model of such processor based on the multichannel acoustooptic modulator intended for processing of radar signals is described, results of mathematical simulation and experimental investigations are presented.
High-efficiency vector-matrix multiplier for large-scale optoelectronic neuro-coprocessor
Oleg V. Rozhkov, Nina M. Verenikina, Semen B. Yalov
Designed circuit of the large-scale high-efficiency optoelectronic vector-matrix multiplier and its components are considered in terms of geometrical optics. The results of aberration calculation are given to show the absence of cross distortions in both cascades of the system composed of the commercially available optoelectronic elements.
Single-channel optoelectronic neuro-coprocessor based on a vector-matrix multiplier with an adjustable threshold
Nicolay V. Bezrodnov, Oleg V. Rozhkov, Semen B. Yalov
Single-channel optoelectronic neurocoprocessor on the base of vector-matrix multiplier with column submatrices is designed. Two models with dynamic and constant threshold are proposed for implementation. Results of pattern recognition simulation showed fast and effective convergence to the memory patterns.
Three-dimensional integrated circuits with optical interconnections
Edvard G. Kostsov, S. V. Piskunov
A physical construction principle and design methods for 3D electrooptic VLSI are suggested.
Optical neuron network based on a x(2) hologram recording
Victor I. Kopp, O. N. Alekseyev
Recording of dynamic nonlinear (chi) (2) hologram in glasses, based on the effect of photoinduced second harmonic generation is considered. Application of this phenomenon to generate a matrix of neurons for optical neuron network (NN) is proposed and studied by computer simulation. In the proposed model of NN a main laser radiation serves as a pump, and its second harmonic carries a signal. Modulation of the signal is achieved by both changing the signal amplitude and changing the relative phase between the signal and the pump. Computer simulation demonstrated that application of (chi) (2) hologram recording to create optical NN is possible. Also it was determined a structure of feedback in a NN that is able to the fast pattern recognition and can act as an associative memory.
Optoelectronic mass-parallel OPTOCOM supercomputer
Valery N. Svede-Shvets, L. C. Eisymont
Optically interconnected electronics have been proposed for use in multichip modules-to-multichip modules and board-to- board interconnections. The use of these free-space interconnections is practically attractive as massive parallelism is than possible. This gives a new architectural freedom in partitioning systems to avoid communications bottleneck found in large high-performance computing system. The mass-parallel supercomputer with optical interconnections based on optoelectronic technology has been developed by 'OPTOCOM' Ltd.
Optoelectronic technology and base set of OPTOCOM optoelectronic CMOS VLSI
Valery N. Svede-Shvets
Nowadays it is clear that the role of optics is both computing and switching is t assist in the communication of information between high-perfomance electronics. A continuing trend in the adwanced packaging of electronics is toward the introduction of optical interconnects for large numbers of high bandwIth connections. OPTOCOMW Ltd. is working just in this direction. The technology combining microelectronics with optics and the optoelectronic VLSI basical series with optical interconnections between chips and modules have been developed
Digital fiber optic communication system with 486-Mb/s digit rate
Karinsky Sergei Sergeevich, Prokofieva Larisa Petrovna, Lurie Mihail Natanovich
We consider problems of realizing a digital fiber optic corn munication system (DFOCS) designed for transmitting with digit rate 486 Mbps.
Hologram overlapping and collinear heterodyning as a perspective approach to high-capacity optical memory
Eugeny Ruvimovich Tsvetov, Georgy A. Matevosov
We propose the approach to designing a holographic disk memory with high storage density and high recording-reading rates. The approach consists in the synthesis of 3D memory be overlapping 1D expanded partial hologram on a moving carrier and the use of collinear optical heterodyning for data readout. The general architecture of such a memory is presented. The experimental results on recording and reading of wideband rf signals in the acoustooptical scheme are demonstrated.
Controlled optical fiber processor for matrix/vector multiplication
Vladimir Antonovich Pilipovich, Alexander K. Esman, Igor A. Goncharenko, et al.
The structure of controlled optical fiber processor for operation of matrix/vector multiplication is proposed. Such processor could be used for calculation of large data stream in optical image and information processing. The processor consists of an array of elementary processors. Each elementary processor is a combination of an optical amplifier and coupler. The algorithm of processor operation is discussed.
Method of acceleration of parallel information processing in optoelectronic systems
Vladimir Antonovich Pilipovich, Alexander K. Esman, V. K. Kuleshov, et al.
The method of coding of input binary data based on their transformation to binary-sign-bit notation data by special algorithm is proposed. The method enables to eliminate through carries and reduce difference in times of fulfillment of various arithmetic operations thereby increasing considerably the speed of calculations in optoelectronics digital computing systems.
Neural network for invariant recognition
Alexandr N. Oparin, Irina V. Plekhanova, Nickolay G. Soloviov
The method of neural network image recognition with forming of feature vector on base second order histograms is considered. Simulation results of process recognition are presented for binary contour images, and images represented in codes of local anisotropic features.
Optical Processing Components: Posters
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Multilayer three-dimensional optical recording
Ilya Sh. Steinberg, Ju. A. Shepetkin
This paper describes the experimentally tested method of multilayer recording of binary information which permits to increase the density of recording by more than an order. An estimation of the influence of the linear absorption on the ultimate number of layers possible is given. The paper presents and analyzes the schemes of recording, using two- photon and two-step absorption.
Coupled injection microlasers with saturable absorber as optical model of a neuron
Adolf Timofeevic Reutov, Yiuriy Ignatievic Voloschenko
A laser structure consisting of several coupled injection lasers with saturable absorber, running in a hard mode of turn on, is discussed as optical model of a neuron. The essential properties of two principal neuron components, axon and soma, may be simulated by such a structure. The vertical cavity surface emitting lasers with two parallel p- n junctions are considered s the most convenient active elements for this structure.
Influence of thermal parameters and exposure duration on the possible resolving power of SLMs with phase transition
Alfonsas M. Peckus, Simon B. Gurevich
The possibilities and conditions of high spatial frequencies transition are evaluated in the present work for the photothermic spatial light modulators (SLMs) in which the recording is carried out to the peritectic semiconductor compositions such as thallium telluride under the action of laser irradiation short pulses. Such photothermic SLMs may store recording at room temperature which is a distinguishing peculiarity this SLM among the others realizing recording due to the phase transition of the second of the second kind. It shown that high resolving power is achieved with short pulses, and optical recording is performed both at expense of the absorption variation and at expense of variation of the recording medium films polarization properties.
Electromechanical coupling coefficients of Ba2NaNb5O15 crystals
Nikolay I. Burimov, Stanislav M. Shandarov, A. Titorenko
The results of the calculations of KD for Ba2NaNb5O15 crystal and experimental results of generation acoustic waves in this crystal.
Laser direct writing system for fabrication of smooth-relief micro-optical elements
V. B. Svetovoy, Ildar I. Amirov, Yu. E. Babanov
A direct writing system based on a pulsed N2 laser is presented. It allows to create continuous relief in a number of polymeric materials. Polymers are etched in air directly under the laser beam action. It is possible to make a computer controlling smooth relief with a depth more than 40 micrometers . High speed cylindrical lens has been fabricated in polyamide film to demonstrate the abilities of the system.
Effect of proton exchange on electro-optic intensity modulation in LiNbO3 waveguides with leaky modes
Vladymir M. Shandarov, Alexander I. Bashkirov
The electrooptic modulation of the light intensity at excitation of leaky modes in annealed proton-exchanged optical waveguides in lithium niobate are experimentally investigated. The decreasing of a modulation efficiency due to the electrooptic coefficients reduction is observed and the possibility of such modulation method even for the axial light propagation is underlined.
Optical suppression of a double-phase conjugation in a photorefractive Bi12TiO20 waveguide
Erik Raita, Alexei A. Kamshilin, Raimo Veil Johannes Silvennoinen, et al.
Optical suppression of a double phase conjugation has been demonstrated in a photorefractive Bi12TiO20 waveguide-like crystal. A dynamic phase conjugation mirror was recorded by two mutually coherent He-Ne laser beams coming from the one side of the samples and the beam of an independent laser from the opposite side. In the absence of any one of coherent input beams the other one generates the phase-conjugate of the third beam. The situation changes when both coherent beams are simultaneously present. The phase conjugated beam, which was produced by one of the coherent pumps, could either be enhanced or almost completely suppressed by introducing the second pump beam into a system. The final intensity of a phase conjugated beam depends on the polarization angle of the second beam compared with the first one. Almost total suppression is observed when the input beams were orthogonally polarized.
Cs:KTiOAsO4 optical ion-exchanged waveguides
Victor V. Atuchin, A. E. Plotnikov, C. C. Ziling, et al.
Optical waveguide layers Cs:KTiOAsO4 are realized by ion-exchange method. The doping level as 21 mol. percent Cs is achieved. The function of refractive indices increase profiles is identified as erfc-type. The absence of dispersion of indices increase over visible region is detected. The coefficients between indices increase and Cs concentration are obtained.
Hybrid optical bistability by two-wave-mixing photorefractive crystal with alternating electric field
M. N. Frolova, Stanislav M. Shandarov, A. Reshet'ko
We present a hybrid optical bistable device configuration with the using of two-wave mixing in a cubic photorefractive crystal by applying the square-wave electric field. The applied field amplitude is linear depending on the intensity of signal beam, provided the feedback.
Optical memory device based on vanadium dioxide film and a fast thermocooler
V. L. Gal'perin, I. A. Khakhaev, F. A. Chudnovskii, et al.
The design and operating modes of optical memory device on the base of vanadium dioxide film and fast thermocooler are discussed. The parameters of VO2-based work layer and fast cooler were optimized for best operation. Main rules to obtain the effective light modulation with fast operation speed are shown.
Self-developed dichromated gelatin films for holography
Sergey P. Konop, Anna G. Konstantinova, Alexander N. Malov
The hologram recording mechanism in the dichromated gelatin- glycerol layers are discussed. The holographic grating with the spatial frequency 1500 lines per mm on this type media with light sensitivity near 200 mJ/cm2 at wavelength of 0,44 mkm was recorded experimentally.
Influence of photoconductor parameters on characteristics of spatial-light-modulators based on photoconductor-liquid crystal structures
Fiodor L. Vladimirov, Ivan E. Morichev, N. I. Pletnyova
The Spatial Light Modulator (SLM) based on photoconductor - liquid crystal structure is one of the key components in optical data processing systems. The performance characteristics of the SLMs often determine the main properties of the input devices and the optical data processing system as a whole including the speed of data processing, volume of input information. Frequently the effectiveness of a data processing system is not determined by the input device speed but by the device resolution and availability of gray scale of input iniages.
Investigation of the light filtering and control of acousto-optical device information-dynamic and power characteristics
Vladimir Sokolov, Sergei V. Andreyev, Andrey V. Belyaev, et al.
Light intensity distribution along the diffracted beam aperture is investigated in acoustooptical Bragg cells. Its dependence on sound intensity spatial distribution in the active aperture of the cell is established on the basis of an acoustic active aperture physical model containing elementary volumes of interaction. The experimental results are interpreted from the point of view of light information transmission theory.
Gray-scale FLC for SLM and displays
A new principle of continuous gray scale for passively addressed FLC displays and SLM matrices is proposed. It is based on the multistability effect in C*FLC. Conditions of its exhibition are defined. Experimental results for FLC cells and the laser beam intensity attenuator are given.
Plural partial associations
The idea of the Plural Partial Associations is proposed to designate the case of associatability having the prototypes in ordinary life, but not described by the Associative Memory principle. The method based on computation of the correlation functions of the input vector with the back of the reference vectors is discussed as a one of the possible way to realize Plural Partial Associations and neural network model to implement this way is discussed. The possibility of this NN model implementation by two-layered bidirectional optical neural network used the Van der Lught correlator is discussed by the published before theoretical and experimental results.
Pulsing record of the images and holograms on an optically addressed spatial-light modulator with highly sensitive layer of amorphous hydrogenated silicon
Aleksander N. Chaika, Nataliya L. Ivanova, Arkady P. Onokhov
Spatial light modulator using an amorphous silicon semiconductor in a p-i-n diode configuration are fabricated with nematic liquid crystal. The performance characteristics of the device was measured for two cases: for continuous write light and for pulse write light.
Peculiarities of application of multimode semiconductor lasers for recording deep holograms
Mikhail I. Nemenov, Evgenii A. Avrutin
An analysis of the applicability of multimode laser diodes (LDs) in holography is presented. Coherence properties of the two most probable regimes of multimode operation, free- running and phase locked, are analyzed. Prospectives of the use of multimode LDs in recording deep holograms are estimated theoretically and experimentally.
Multichannel light-modulating structures based on electro-optical crystals
Vladimir Antonovich Pilipovich, Vladimir I. Polyakov
Some implementation examples are given to make 2D discrete light-modulating structures based on electro-optical crystals. Such multifunctional, in principle, structures can form the basis for developing methods for arbitrary switching of light fluxes with a time 10ns and less.
Investigation of recording density increase using a multilayered holographic carrier
D. M. Abakoumov, Nariman A. Ashurbekov, A. V. Burgomistrov, et al.
The multi-layered structure of the data storage is proposed for the holographic carrier recording density increase. The noises arousing from the diffraction of both the reconstructing beam and the reconstructed signals on the holograms of the neighboring layers are taken into consideration during the assessment of the resulting signal- to-noise ratio. It is concluded that with an appropriate diaphragm and layers geometry, as well as with sufficiently low holograms diffraction efficiency in layers, it is possible to increase the carrier information capacity in several times without essential deterioration of the read- out quality.
Investigation of wideband acousto-optical modulators based on a tellurium dioxide single crystal
Vladimir Sokolov, Sergei V. Andreyev, Andrey V. Belyaev, et al.
The results of application of a new original method of the acousto-optical Bragg cells manufacturing are considered. It is found that this method allows to achieve parameters of bandwidth which are close to the limit.
Multichannel small-size Bragg cell based on a tellurium dioxide single crystal
Vladimir Sokolov, Sergei V. Andreyev, Andrey V. Belyaev, et al.
A multichannel acousto-optical device of information flows control which may be used as a device of spatial addressing, input, recording, and readout of optical information is elaborated, manufactured, and studied.
Possibility of a 34-channel avalanche photodiode array based on metal-resist-semiconductor use for processing of signals read from a holographic disc
Nariman A. Ashurbekov
Use of a multichannel avalanche photodiode array based on metal-resist-semiconductor structure in the disk memory systems based on the method of information storage in the form of 1D holograms is promising because a large capacity and high rate of information readout from the holographic disk is to a large degree determined by the speed and sensitivity of the photodetector. The data on nonlinearity, dynamic range, noise is demanded particularly for multilevel signal recording and digital signal processing. The results of theoretical and experimental studies of the metrological characteristics of the 34-channel avalanche photodiode array based on metal-resist-semiconductor structure are given.
Dynamics of fast switching of STLM valves operating on the basis of twist effect in liquid crystals
Anatoliy A. Kovalev, Yuri V. Razvin, Vladimir A. Potachitz
Prototypes of matrix multichannel spatial-temporal light modulators (STLM) based on liquid crystals (LC) developed so far do not match the operating capacity of optical computing systems by their characteristics. One of the ways to increase the speed of response of STLM is to realize the modulation mode that arises under deformation of near- electrode LC layers. This paper presents the results of investigation of the modulation characteristics of the STLM light valves based on twist-effect under conditions of initial distortion of LC-layer director that is caused by contact of the liquid crystal with the periodic structure of the modulator electrodes.
Coaxial liquid crystal modulator for fiber commutation channels in optical memory systems
Yuri V. Razvin, Vladimir A. Potachitz
The results of the development and investigation of the modulation characteristics of a coaxial liquid crystal modulator are presented. The active part of the modulator under investigation is implemented on the basis of a 'cylindrical geometry'. Specific design solutions of such a coaxial modulator are considered. It is shown that in the case under study the modulation depth increases 2 or 3-fold as compared with conventional LC modulators and exceeds 50 percent, noise level becoming lower.
X-ray images input into a coherent optical processing system using a liquid crystal spatial-light modulator
Boris S. Gurevich, Yuri Muzalevski
The possibility of real time x-ray images conversion into images carried by visible coherent light is considered. The converting component which represents a spatial light modulator based on liquid crystal photoconductor structure is proposed. The possibilities of the coherent optical processing using such a conversion are considered relatively to nondestructive testing and material science applications.
Dynamics of hologram recording in photopolymer materials
Eugene S. Kovalenko, Sergey N. Sharangovich, Tatyana E. Zelenskaya
The theoretical investigation of the problem about the nonstationary recording of holograms in photopolymer media has been carried out. Analytical solutions have been found and analyzed with taking into account the radical polymerization process and diffusion processes of all components of photopolymer. The numerical results showing the kinetics of contributions of polymerization and diffusion processes at various grating periods are represented.It is shown that the kinetics of these contributions are characteristically different and depending from the grating period.
New photothermoplastic information carriers having intrinsic raster for low-contrast grey-level image recording
Yuri A. Cherkasov, Mikhail Vasiliy Smirnov, Alexandr I. Rumjantsev, et al.
A new type of the photothermoplastic information carrier having an intrinsic raster of 400 mm-1 is created. It is able to record a low-contrast, high-resolved grey level images. It is shown, that developed photothermoplastic carrier is perspective for real-time structural analysis of aero-space images, for coherent-optical processing systems.
High-sensitivity detector based on CCPD for spectroscopy
Gennadii A. Gavrilov, Yu. G. Pomiguev, Galina Yu. Sotnikova, et al.
This report presents the results of the development of the image detector based on FPZS-10L for registering spectral information with time resolution equal to 300 mcsec. The presence of the lag signal can be a restriction CCPD-type sensors in spectroscopy applications. We suggest several methods to decrease the influence of the lag charge.
Optical Signal Processing: Posters
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Acousto-optic interaction as a basis for unified description of spectral measurements
Oleg D. Moskaletz
In the context of unified point of view analog spectral measurements are considered over whole electro-magnetic range. The basis of this consideration is acoustooptic interaction.
Optoelectronic generator with multistability of amplitude
Vladimir N. Parygin, Vladimir V. Nikishin
A paper presents an optoelectronic generator (OEG) including interferometric Mach-Zender modulator. The OEG under certain conditions becomes multistable, i.e. it has a number of stable states with different amplitude values. Soft and hard exciting oscillations regimes are described. Characteristics of the device under various kinds of external action are shown. A possibility of optimization of generator controlling is investigated.
Noncoherent correlator with reflective volume holographic filter
Yuri A. Bykovsky, Anatoly A. Markilov, Vladislav Gennadyevich Rodin, et al.
Experimental setup of the correlator with polychromatic spatially incoherent illumination is created. The functions of memory element and spectral selector are executed by the reflective volume Fourier-hologram. The correlation analysis of the test objects was performed. The experimental results of the correlation analysis were obtained both in quasi- monochromatic spatially incoherent and in polychromatic light. Estimations of space bandwidth product of the correlator and its power efficiency depending on parameters of the reflective volume holographic filter were obtained.
Quadrature space-integrating acousto-optic correlator for phase-shift keyed signal processing
Dmitry O. Moskaletz, Victor N. Ushakov
The principle of quadrature signal processing was implemented in a space-integrating acousto-optic correlator (SIAOC). A new SIAOC structure for quadrature filtering of phase-shift keyed signals is developed. Performance analysis for this architecture is described.
Interference space-time-integrating acousto-optic spectrum analyzer
Sergey A. Grachev, Pavel S. Kamochkin, Andrey N. Rogov
This article contains the results of researches of homodyne acousto-optic spectrum analyzer (AOSA) using interferention. AOSA contains two-channel acousto-optic cell. The spectrum of processed signal is registered by CCD-matrix. The formulas describing the dependencies between dynamic range of AOSA and optic systems parameters are presented. The results show that optimal hardware and reference signal are allow increasing the dynamic range up to 80 dB.
Optical signals with the minimum dispersion broadening in fibers
B. A. Berdnikov, Danil A. Kirsanov, Sergei A. Kozlov
The duration of an optical signal is defined as the time interval in which a certain part of its energy is contained. It has been proved that under such definition the form of a signal with a given duration and maximum length of dispersion broadening is not Gaussian. Time profile of such signals has been obtained as a superposition of orthogonal symmetric Hermitean modes. Such signals have also been shown to be smooth functions of time. Furthermore, it has been shown that the expansion converges rapidly and is considerably well represented by the first 5 modes.
Acousto-optical radio signal classifier
Sergei E. Kondakov, Vladimir Lopatin, Michael I. Chumakov, et al.
Acousto-optical radiosignal classifier based on multichannel Bragg cell spectrum analyzer is considered in this paper. The algorithm of acousto-optical classifier operation is elaborated which ensures both detection and separation of interfering signals according to their spectral bands on the narrow-band signals and broad-band signals. This classification is accomplished with reference to spectral band of the correspondent spread spectrum signal. The decision-making rule is proposed which permits to determine the values of narrow-band signal frequencies and broad-band signal arrival angles. The procedure of interference correct classification probability calculation considering the particularities of 2D acousto-optical signal processing in this device is brought. The functional scheme of the acousto-optical radiosignal classifier discussed in this paper is elaborated.
Signal transmission by optical solitons with a short light-field oscillation duration
Sergei A. Kozlov, Rouslan T. Khamidoulline
We have shown that the rate of information transmission by optical solitons in fibers is limited to about 1014 bits per second.
Temporal complexity and efficiency of hybrid acousto-optic systems for signal detection
Vladimir Yu. Pelevin, Ruslan P. Filimonov
Structure distinguishes of hybrid systems for unknown signals detection will lead us to the differences in efficiency and time it takes to process unknown signals detection. Because of this it is important to develop an approach, that allows to compare fast processing system's properties designated for a fixed value of detection's dependability. This is the subject under consideration in this paper.
Acousto-optical semiconductor laser power spectrum analyzer of RF signals with expanded dynamic range
Anatolii I. Averyanov, Alexander F. Buchenskii, Emmanuil I. Krupitskii, et al.
An investigation of power acousto-optical Fourier processor of radio signals based on semiconductor laser is reported. Its peculiarity is expanded dynamic range. A description is given of practical acousto-optical processor with an analysis band 100 MHz wide a resolution 220 KHz and dynamic range 45 dB.
One possible approach to the hybrid systems design expert system project
Vladimir Yu. Pelevin
In view of the fact that great knowledge amount about optical analogue processors for signal and image processing one could conclude, that search for fitting hybrid system to solve fixed information processing task becomes more and more vital. In this paper we propose one possible approach for computer aided hybrid systems design elaboration.
Fast processing algorithm of hybrid acousto-optic systems for signal band detection
Vladimir Yu. Pelevin
One can decrease the hybrid system temporal complexity by algorithmic changes or only due to the redistribution of computations in hybrid system. Second way is paralleling of sweeping data processing. Here is proposed the way, that is connected with improvement of detection algorithm temporal complexity itself.
Rough estimation of stochastic effects influencing the parameters of acousto-optic power spectrum analyzers with semiconductor lasers
Vladimir Yu. Pelevin
Acousto optic power spectrum analyzer experimental researches have been made in demonstrate, that its stable function heavy depends form thermal stabilization as light source, so Bragg cell one. Possible way for rough estimation thermal drift influence upon the resolution of spectrum analyzer and its temporal stable is under consideration in the paper.
Acousto-optic spectrum analyzers for RATAN-600 radiotelescope
Nelly A. Esepkina, Igor I. Saenko, Sergey K. Kruglov, et al.
The main features and measured performances of acousto-optic spectrum analyzer (AOS) modules for RATAN-600 spectrometer backend are considered, special attention having been paid to frequency and amplitude stability which is of great importance while faint radio sources observations. AOS based RATAN-600 spectrometric complex performance was tested during observations of mesospheric water vapor thermal radiation at 22.2 GHz. Preliminary results of spectral measurements obtainable with AOS module allowed the vertical profile of water vapor concentration for altitude region from 55 km to 80 km to be reconstructed.
Experimental waveguide acousto-optical correlator
Arne Skov Jensen, Alexander G. Sobolev, Evgueni N. Epikhin, et al.
Two types of the waveguide acousto optical correlators have been designed, developed, fabricated and experimentally tested. The processing possibility of signal with 30 microsecond(s) has been shown.
Experimental and computer simulation investigation of the time-integrating planar acousto-optical correlator in regime of a delay time increase
Arne Skov Jensen, Karl-Ludwig Paap, Bernhard Klaassen, et al.
Three types of time-integrating acousto optical correlator with delay time increasing have been designed developed and investigated. They based upon: 1) registration photoreceiver array is placed in lens focal plane; 2) diffracted optical bemas are separated by optical elements placed in a focal region; 3) photoreceiver array is placed in a plane situated between focal and image planes. The main idea of them is dividing the long signal into some portions and changed the carrier frequencies for every portion in order to prolongate the correlation process.
Acoustic-optical scanning by radiation: probabilistic analysis
Andrey N. Pokidyshev
The probabilistic analysis peculiarities of optical beam of 2D scanner are considered. The analytic research results and the results of simulation of a spatial beam control mistakes are shown.
Information structure of optical radiation
Vitaly I. Khimenko
Properties of a coherence of radiations are considered and new outcomes under the probability analysis of performances as 'of intersections of levels' for intensity of an optical radiation are shown. These outcomes are useful at a solution of inverse of problems of optics, when on measurements of intensity of an optical field it is necessary to execute a detection, discernment or classification of signals.
Signal processing with acousto-optical separation of channels: possibilities and potential restrictions
Vitaly I. Khimenko, Dmitry V. Tigin, Leonid N. Preslenev
Standard structure of non-coherent optical handling of signals with acousto-optical separation of channels is considered. Singularities of the equivalent scheme of such processors are shown. The probability analysis of potential possibilities of the processor is given by its work in a condition of the radiometer. Algorithm of postdetectoral signals processing is used at a detection of weak electro- magnetic radiations.
Acousto-optical radiometer spectrum analyzer of radio signals using a fiber optic delay line
A. N. Lavrentev, Leonid N. Preslenev, I. L. Tarnarutsky, et al.
Opportunity of optical distribution sampling at the FOurier plane of acousto-optical radiometer-spectrum analyzer with the help of multitaps optical fiber delay line is investigated; advantages and lacks of the specified device are marked; results of an experimental research of a laboratory breadboard model of the device are resulted.
Combined signal processing foundation of spectrum estimation
V. A. Grigoryev
The situations when there are many dissimilar signals at the input spectrum analyzer simultaneously are investigated. In this case a significant limitation for polarization and spatial regions is a number of degrees of freedom, and for frequency region the spectrum analysis of a low-power signals against the background of spread-band interferences has been made impossible. The harnessing of combined signal processing is one way to overcome this limitation. In this paper the basic expressions permitting to estimate the faithfulness of spectrum analyzer construction is considered.
Acousto-optic processors of combined signal processing
V. A. Grigoryev, Alexander V. Kuzichkin, Sergey A. Kuzichkin, et al.
In this paper we present the information about classification and realization of the combined signal processing algorithms. The short analysis of algorithms performances are implemented.
High-frequency resolution acousto-optical spectrum analyzer with semiconductor laser for radioastronomy
Nelly A. Esepkina, Sergey K. Kruglov, Alexander P. Lavrov, et al.
The acousto-optical spectrum analyzer for radio-astronomy with high frequency resolution designed on the base of semiconductor laser is described in the article. The investigation results of main spectrum analyzer characteristics are presented. The operation of hybrid opto- digital processor which includes the acousto-optical spectrum analyzer is described. The spectrum analyzer has bandwidth of 115 MHz and frequency resolution of 200 kHz. Its dimensions are equal to 245 by 150 by 50 mm3. The possible acousto-optical spectrum analyzer applications for radio-astronomy are suggested.
Physical and constructive optimization of a wideband acousto-optical deflector for radio signal processing based on planar multielement traveling wave transducers
B. Guryev, Yuri A. Zyuryukin, V. Colosov, et al.
Besides a choice of acousto-optical material and interaction type there is an election of the kind MPTWT, or punctually, micromodification of a slow system as its base at the design and the creation of Bragg cell for acousto-optic spectrum analyzers in the microwave frequency range. This election was done by authors in profit so called 'strip comb'. It shown that this system allows to achieve wide pass-band, good matching as in meaning of small radiosignal reflection from transducer, so an d in plan satisfaction of Bragg condition of diffraction laser beam on definite acoustic lobe in a wide band. Authors suggest convenient way to intensification this lobe variable phase delay on extend of everyone elementary transducer.
Acousto-optic spectrometer for a weak optical signal processor
Alexei K. Zajtsev
The problem discussed in the paper is devoted to developing of acousto-optic spectrometers. In contrast to other types of spectral devices they are very compact due to dynamic nature of scanning. Furthermore they may have large angular apertures. For this purpose, the fitter anisotropic interaction type close to collinear is most preferable. The electronic nature of scanning allows us to achieve the maximum possible analyzing speed, to change analyzing time and to process nonstationary spectrums. In the paper there are presented some characteristics of a laboratory prototype of acousto-optic spectrometer operating in the filter regime of quasi-collinear diffraction in TeO2 crystal. In the analyzing bandwidth (Delta) (lambda) equals 0.6-1.2 mm the resolution is from (delta) (lambda) equals 1.2 nm to (delta) (lambda) equals 5.8 nm. In the regime of the lowest analyzing speed, the threshold sensitivity is 1.3* 10-10 W. It is found that the extension of analyzing time by 10 allows the threshold sensitive power be less by 5 dB. There are presented some experimentally measured radiating spectrums of several sources and the absorption characteristics of some substances.
Spatial dispersion effects in acousto-optic interaction in paratellurite single crystals
Sergei V. Akimov, V. M. Gorbenko, V. V. Savchenko
The effect of the spatial dispersion in paratellurite single crystals were studied. It was obtained new effects in the acousto optics of the paratellurite. We explain it in the terms of the Nelson-LAx theory. There are the diffraction of light on a slow transverse sound without polarization reversal and the splitting but not the intersection of the lines of the reverse phase velocities of the fast transverse and longitudinal waves. Also we obtained that the anisotropic diffraction was power then the isotropic one when the light propagated near the optic axis.
Optical and acoustical study of quartz twinning under uniaxial stress
R. J. Besson, J. J. Boy, P. L. Guzzo, et al.
The ferrobielastic twinning in quartz has been investigated optically and acoustically. A suitable mechanical stress is used to alternate Dauphine twin domains in X- and AT-cut samples of synthetic quartz. The propagation of twin boundaries is observed by polarized light. For X-cut samples, stripe-sharped patterns are parallel to the optic axis whereas rather irregular domains expand in AT-cut samples. The acoustic wave propagation in the stressed media have ben also investigated using the previously developed composite resonator spectroscopy. Al-ZnO-Al layers are deposited on one of the X-faces of quartz samples forming composite resonator structures. It is observed that the resonance frequency for longitudinal waves increases with the increase of the compressive stress. The ferrobielastic switching is characterized by an abrupt decrease of peaks frequency but the linear dependence between the sound velocity and the compressive stress is not modified. The quantitative and qualitative explanation of the observed data are given.
0ptical Image Processing: Posters
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Parallel-consecutive pattern recognition method based on a combination of optical correlation and digital structural analysis
Oleg I. Potaturkin, Sergei M. Borzov, Victor I. Kozik
Parallel-consecutive pattern recognition method, combines the elements of the correlation and structural analysis and admitting conveyor organization of computing process is suggested. Results of its modeling under real objects images recognition are adduced. Optical systems for the proposed method realization are submitted. It is shown, that in comparison with 2D correlation function of recognized and reference images the proposed attributes system has more flexibility and provides increased discrimination properties.
Experimental verification of phase contrast image synthesis system
Jesper Glueckstad, Haruyoshi Toyoda, Narihiro Yoshida, et al.
A new method is presented for synthesizing arbitrary grey level intensity patterns based on phase contrast imaging. The concept is grounded on an extension of the Zernike phase contrast method into the domain of full range phase modulation. By controlling the average value of the input phase function and by choosing appropriate phase retardation at the phase contrast filter, a pure phase to intensity imaging is accomplished. The method presented is also directly applicable in dark field image synthesis. Preliminary experimental results are demonstrated for binary-only phase modulation.
Incoherent holographic bipolar correlator for recognition of non-edge-enhanced images
Yuri A. Bykovsky, Anatoly A. Markilov, Vladislav Gennadyevich Rodin, et al.
The incoherent holographic correlator for image recognition without edge-enhancement preprocessing is described. The method of forming positive and negative parts of impulse response of holographic filter that provides a peak-to- clutter ratio and signal spatial localization as in the case of recognition of edge-enhanced images is discussed. Experimental scheme of investigated bipolar holographic correlator with spatially incoherent monochromatic illumination and the method of forming bipolar reference pattern are described. Also the results on recognition of test non-edge-enhanced images by using the developed holographic filters are presented.
Image formation in an optical-electronic system with spatial coherent transformation of light field
Yuri A. Bykovsky, Anatoly A. Markilov, Vladislav Gennadyevich Rodin, et al.
A possibility of creation of optical-electronic system with no lines for image formation based on light field spatial coherence transform and of detecting nonstationary wave fronts with the help of wide-aperture photodetectors is considered. Methods of useful signal independent time modulation implementation are considered. Experimental results on image formation of 1D objects are shown.
Application of coherent optical methods for papillary design analysis
Irina A. Apollonova, Ilya V. Karasyov, Vladimir G. Solonichenko, et al.
It is shown the possibility of the coherent optical methods application for inborn diseases diagnostics. Possibilities of laser dermatoglyphical diagnostics of inborn diseases are demonstrated by the optical scheme and results of investigations.
Blood cell properties determination by coherent optical methods
Larisa P. Safonova, Igor N. Spiridonov
A coherent optical method of blood cell parameters research was considered. It is shown theoretically that average statistical parameters and from features of the cells and its nuclei can be determined from spatial-frequency spectrum analysis. The experimental results of hemoglobin concentration definition and cell count by a laser blood analyzer model is given.
Laser infrared introscopy of biological tissues
Nina M. Verenikina, A. G. Levandovskiy, O. L. Solovyev, et al.
Biological tissue introscopy using the non-ionizing radiations is an actual problem. It was determined that the extinction spectrum of tooth sections is similar to the spectrum of a grey body within a wave range from 3.45 to 1.2 mkm. According to the experimental research results of optical properties of soft and hard biological tissue it is advisable to use the IR range of radiation for the non- ionizing introscopy. The base designing principles of the laser diaphanoscopy apparatuses was formulated. A model equipment for the IR introscopy of an oral cavity and rectum was constructed.
Color photometry by optical image processing
Lev L. Polosin
It has been proposed the color photometry, which is based upon the metric vector color space, the nonlinear transformation of color responses in the visual system and multistage opponent-colors theory. The model of color vision system are given. The fundamental light and color units of color photometry are determined simply: color luminance, color amplitude, light, hue, saturation, and others. The mathematical formula of their interaction are represented. The color photometry involves taking into account all three of the photoreceptors responses by day light and their vector addition, which is a fundamental property of the visual system.
Adaptive correlation image processing by collinear optical heterodyning
Eugeny Ruvimovich Tsvetov
An optical heterodyne correlator, in which the functions of overlapping and scanning by reference image relatively signal image are realized with the hologram lens scanner in the plane of joint FOurier transform is described. An adaptive filtration of spatial frequency signs of input images may be implemented by matrix of rf photodetectors with summarized rf outputs and tunable sensitivity or by computer controlled spatial light modulator placed in images FOurier plane in front of photocathode.
Optical-structural machine analysis of materials microstructure for forming strength reliability of articles
Eduard I. Ulianov, A. V. Liasnikov, Konstantin M. Ivanov, et al.
To high reiab1e artces of engineerIng the stringent requirements not onty on the geometrical sizes , but also on rnechanica( properties are presented reasonab'y. It causes necessity of finding soIuton of forecasting mechancaI properties, formed as a result of processing. Frequentiy the manufacture of detas has complex character. i.e. is executed by a combination ofvarious processes.
Beta distribution and image correlation
Eugene I. Shubnikov
Beta distribution application for the probability model of signal statistic at image correlation systems is proposed. The probability model admission was checked for a temporary changes of the images of real scenes. The image processing came true ont he holographic correlator.
Mathematical model of retina
S. K. Cendrowski
The paper presented describes the mathematical model of light stimulus transforming by the neural layers of eye retina. The model contains the descriptions of photoreceptors, horizontal and bipolar cells which belong to outer plexiform layer of retina. There were physical mechanisms of neurons exciting which were in the base of model. The model allows to predict the set of well-known visual phenomena, for example, the Broca-Sulzer temporal and spatial effects, the Mach's bands effect. The quantitative validation of the model have been made. The model may be taken as a principle of designing sensory layer of networks.
State changing of neural networks based on image correlation
Eugene I. Shubnikov
The question of state changing for phase space and correlation space of neural networks based on image correlation is considered. The phase space is used for investigation of network behavior and stable. The network behavior is considered as mutual effect of excitation and inhibition of hypothesizes. The model of network behavior and phase portrait of two competitional hypothesis is presented. If a relative excitation and inhibition are linear functions the system is stable and solution is single. The correlation space is connected a network characteristics with pattern images, i.e. with learning process. The energy relief structure of correlation space for image simulation as random field is considered. The top values of absolute and relative depth of energy relief in true attractor point is calculated.
Automation of research optical monitoring systems with resonant jump
K. M. Schepakin
The well-known analytic graphical and grapho-analytic methods for designing of nonlinear optical angular measuring system with resonant jumps are very complex. The numerical method presented by the authors allows the developer to greatly simplify the choice of nonlinearity for such system and simultaneously decrease the time of development.
Analytical calculation methods for eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of Karhunen-Loeve transformations
Y. A. Pokrovsky, E. A. Makaretsky, A. V. Polynkin
The analytical calculation methods for Karhunen-Loeve transformation eigenfunctions and eigenvalues with various forms of covariance image or noise-disturbance functions are developed on the basis of physical and mathematical models of resonant angular filtering theory. Eigenfunctions and eigenvalues are designed for some instances. The comparative analysis of derived solutions and known ones is carried out, on the basis of which is judged about eigenfunctions mathematical model incorrectness comprised in certain works.
Optoelectronic methods of image processing based on local anisotropy features analysis
Igor S. Gibin, Pavel G. Popov, Alexandr N. Potapov, et al.
The paper presents opto-electronic realization of local anisotropy features method. The method is based on the image local neighborhoods Fourier spectrum analyses and their classification. In present realization spectrum is calculated by optical way. The information input into optical systems is made with the help of multichannel acousto-optical modulator. To classify Fourier spectrum kinds, it is convenient to use multisector photoelectric cell.
Optics of very near fields: theory and applications
John B. Goodell, E. Kaminski, D. Farnsworth, et al.
Diffraction fields very close to the source are shown to have spatial resolution well beyond Rayleigh limits, and other important features. Increased resolution implies higher spatial bandwidths, which is important to optical communication and information processing. THese aspects are reviewed and a metrological application is described.
Infrared criminalistic devices
Igor S. Gibin, E. V. Savkov, Pavel G. Popov
We are presenting the devices of near-IR spectral range in this report. The devices may be used in criminalistics, in bank business, in restoration works, etc. the action principle of these devices is describing briefly.
Shaping of optical pulses with acousto-optically controlled velocity of propagation
Alexandre S. Shcherbakov, Ilya B. Pozdnov
We present an unconventional technique of shaping the optical pulses via collinear acousto-optical interaction. To this purpose strongly coupled acousto-optical states are used because their velocity of propagation depends on the intensities of interacting waves and, consequently, it can be controlled electronically or all-optically. During the analysis, the method of phase trajectories is applied and developed. A new device capable of controlling the time- delay of digital data flow entering into a high-bit-rate optical information processing systems, is proposed and discussed.
Storage of picosecond soliton digital trains using additive active mode-locking in semiconductor laser
Alexandre S. Shcherbakov, Alexey Y. Kosarsky, Vladimor N. Zvegintsev, et al.
A novel technique for the dynamic storage of multibit binary words, including picosecond optical pulses, is developed. A special feature ofproposed method is the use ofadditive active mode-locking in the powerfi.il single-mode semiconductor laser with an extremely long external single-mode fiber cavity where the propagation of optical bit pulses as guidingcenter solitons is maintained. This technique provides the non-stop circulation of picosecond soliton digital trains with the opportunity ofboth electronical and all-optical access to the memory at the high bit rate. Key words: optical memory, additive active mode-locking, guiding-center soliton
Acoustic field generated by a small aperture SAW transducer
Pavel N. Petrov
The paper presents a calculation method describing a generated field of a small aperture SAW interdigital transducer (IDT) in light modulators using a SAW transducer array and an anisotropic medium. This calculation is made using a modified Green's function taking into account substrate anisotropy, aperture dimensions, and the number and the width of IDT elements.
Acousto-optic ambiguity function processor
Vladimir Pankratov, Vadim Grigor'ev, Serge Venevtsev, et al.
It has been demonstrated that in modern radar systems an application of 2D acousto-optic time-integrating correlators designed as ambiguity function processors should be efficient in cross-correlation processing of broad-band long-term signals. The experimental model of the processor is performed and also the data on 2D processing of noise signals of frequency broad-band 36 MHz and duration 20ms.