Proceedings Volume 10031

Photonics Applications in Astronomy, Communications, Industry, and High-Energy Physics Experiments 2016

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Proceedings Volume 10031

Photonics Applications in Astronomy, Communications, Industry, and High-Energy Physics Experiments 2016

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Volume Details

Date Published: 6 October 2016
Contents: 8 Sessions, 195 Papers, 0 Presentations
Conference: Photonics Applications in Astronomy, Communications, Industry, and High-Energy Physics Experiments 2016 2016
Volume Number: 10031

Table of Contents

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Table of Contents

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  • Front Matter: Volume 10031
  • Conference Overview
  • Material Engineering
  • Photonics
  • Sensors and Measurements
  • Biomedical
  • Research Experiments
  • High Performance Computing
Front Matter: Volume 10031
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Front Matter: Volume 10031
This PDF file contains the front matter associated with SPIE Proceedings Volume 10031, including the Title Page, Copyright information, Table of Contents, Introduction, and Conference Committee listing.
Conference Overview
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Photonics applications and web engineering: WILGA Winter 2016
Since twenty years, young researchers form the Institute of Electronic Systems, Warsaw University of Technology, organize two times a year, under only a marginal supervision of the senior faculty members, under the patronage of WEiTI PW, KEiT PAN, SPIE, IEEE, PKOpto SEP and PSF, the WILGA Symposium on advanced, integrated functional electronic, photonic and mechatronic systems [1-5]. All aspects are considered like: research and development, theory and design, technology - material and construction, software and hardware, commissioning and tests, as well as pilot and practical applications. The applications concern mostly, which turned after several years to be a proud specialization of the WILGA Symposium, Internet engineering, high energy physics experiments, new power industry including fusion, nuclear industry, space and satellite technologies, telecommunications, smart municipal environment, as well as biology and medicine [6-8]. XXXVIIth WILGA Symposium was held on 29-31 January 2016 and gathered a few tens of young researchers active in the mentioned research areas. There were presented a few tens of technical papers which will be published in Proc.SPIE together with the accepted articles from the Summer Edition of the WILGA Symposium scheduled for 29.05-06.06.2016. This article is a digest of chosen presentations from WILGA Symposium 2016 Winter Edition. The survey is narrowed to a few chosen and main topical tracks, like electronics and photonics design using industrial standards like ATCA/MTCA, also particular designs of functional systems using this series of industrial standards. The paper, summarizing traditionally since many years the accomplished WILGA Symposium organized by young researchers from Warsaw University of Technology, is also the following part of a cycle of papers concerning their participation in design of new generations of electronic systems used in discovery experiments in Poland and in leading research laboratories of the world.
Photonics applications and web engineering: WILGA Summer 2016
Wilga Summer 2016 Symposium on Photonics Applications and Web Engineering was held on 29 May – 06 June. The Symposium gathered over 350 participants, mainly young researchers active in optics, optoelectronics, photonics, electronics technologies and applications. There were presented around 300 presentations in a few main topical tracks including: bio-photonics, optical sensory networks, photonics-electronics-mechatronics co-design and integration, large functional system design and maintenance, Internet of Thins, and other. The paper is an introduction the 2016 WILGA Summer Symposium Proceedings, and digests some of the Symposium chosen key presentations.
Material Engineering
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Spray coated nanosilver functional layers
J. Krzemiński, J. Szałapak, L. Dybowska-Sarapuk, et al.
Silver coatings are highly conductive functional layers. There are many different ways to product the silver coating but most of them need vacuum or high temperature. Spray coating is a technique that is free of this disadvantages – it doesn't need a cleanroom or high temperature. What's more the layer thickness is about 10 μm. In this article the spray coating process of silver nanolayer is described. Four different inks were tested and measured. The layer resistance was measured and show as a graph. After the layer resistance was measured the adhesion test was performed. The pull-off test was performed on testing machine with special self made module. To conclude the article include the test and measurements of spray coated nanosilver functional layers. The layers was examined for the current conductivity and adhesion force.
Investigation of adhesion of functional nanolayers to different substrates
J. Krzemiński, A. Skalski, J. Szałapak, et al.
The adhesion test are used in almost any industry. There are many different techniques and tools from scotch tape test to nanoscratch machine. The common test is pull-off test. Authors design the module for the testing machine and presented the researches about the adhesion of spray coated nanosilver layers to different substrates. In the article the main technique problems are discussed. Authors shows the typical graph result and described the separated sections. The experimental model was made and checked. The breaking forces of glass, Kapton and Aluminium samples are presented on the graph and discussed.
Optical characterization of pure and Al-doped ZnO prepared by sol-gel method
Radosław Belka, Justyna Kęczkowska, Justyna Kasińska
In this paper the preparation process and optical characterization of pure and Al3+ doped zinc oxide (Al:ZnO) coatings will be presented. ZnO based materials have been studied extensively due to their potential applications in optoelectronic devices as conductive gas sensors, transparent conductive, electrodes, solar cell windows, varistors, UVfilters or photovoltaic cells. It is II–VI semiconductor with wide-band gap of 3.37 eV and large exciton binding energy of 60meV. It is possible to improve the conductivity of ZnO coating by intentionally doping ZnO with aluminium ions during preparation process. Such transparent and conducting thin films, known as AZO (Aluminium Zinc Oxide) films, are very good candidate for application as transparent conducting materials in many optoelectronic devices. The well-known sol-gel method is used for preparation of solution, coated on glass substrates by dip coating process. Prepared samples were investigated by Raman and UV-VIS spectroscopy. Transmittance as well as specular and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy methods were used for studies of optical parameters. We found that Al admixture influences on optical bandgap of ZnO.
Thermal and electrical comparison of different joining techniques
J. Szałapak, K. Kiełbasiński, J. Krzemiński, et al.
After the enforcement of Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive, one of the biggest problems in electronics is finding a substitution for led solders. Meanwhile, working conditions for the electronics are tougher and tougher – the temperatures the joints have to withstand can be much higher than working temperatures of the soft solders. In current article, the authors present the Low Temperature Joining Technique (LTJT) with the use of pastes based on the mixture of silver nanoparticles and silver microflakes. The authors also show the technology of joining, justify their sintering parameters selection and compare their silver joints with Pb solder and adhesive. The joints prepared with pastes containing silver nanoparticles have much better electrical and thermal properties than the ones made with other techniques.
Structural investigation of anatase prepared at different calcination temperatures of sol-gel process
Titanium oxide displays, among others, catalytic and bactericidal properties, as well as the capacity to absorb UV radiation. The properties may differ significantly depending on the phase composition. This is why for the prospective applications it is necessary to determine the effect of the obtaining process parameters on the phase composition and, consequently, on the properties of the obtained samples. In our work we present results of Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction studies of TiO2 layers obtained in sol-gel method. The work will present effects of calcination temperature on the structure of the obtained layers. Raman Spectroscopy is a useful method of identification, allowing to distinguish the anatase phase from the rutile phase.
Comparative analysis of luminescent properties of germanate glass and double-clad optical fibers co-doped with Yb3+/Ho3+ ions
Marcin Pietrzycki, Marcin Kochanowicz, Patryk Romańczuk, et al.
The 2 μm and visible emission of low phonon (805 cm-1) germanate glasses and double – clad optical fiber co-doped with 0.7Yb2O3/(0.07-0.7)Ho2O3 ions have been investigated. Luminescence at 2 μm corresponding to Ho3+: 5I75I8 as well as upconversion luminescence in the visible spectral range corresponding to the Ho3+: 5S2(5F4)→5I8 (545 nm), and Ho3+: 5F55I8 (655 nm) transition, respectively were obtained. The optimization of the acceptor content and donor-acceptor ratio were conducted with the purpose of maximizing the luminescence intensity. The highest luminescence intensity in both spectral range was obtained in glass co-doped with 0.7Yb2O3/0.15 Ho2O3. Despite relatively small effective absorption coefficient of the optical fiber comparative analysis of luminescent properties of fabricated glasses (further core) and double – clad optical fiber showed significant contribution of reabsorption process of emitted ASE signal.
Analysis of quantum cutting in aluminosilicate glass co-doped with Yb3+/Eu3+ ions
Arkadiusz Kuczewski, Marcin Kochanowicz, Natalia Wieliczko, et al.
In the paper spectroscopic properties of aluminosilicate glasses co-doped with Eu3+/Yb3+ have been investigated. Optimization of rare-earth content has been performed by co-doping glass with xEu2O3–yYb2O3, x = 0.25, y = 0, 0.50, 0.75, 1, 1.25, 1.5 (mol %). Quantum cutting at 950-1100 nm (Yb3+:2F5/22F7/2) emission was achieved under the excitation of the Eu3+:5D3 energy level at 405 nm. Through the lifetime Eu3+:@616 (λexc=394 nm) measurement, the maximum of effective quantum efficiency (ηEQE) were determined as 136.5 % for glass co-doped with 0.25Eu2O3/1.5Yb2O3 (mol %). The obtained results show possibility to applied developed glass as active converter layer which may improve efficiency of silicon solar cells.
The FEM simulation of the thin walled aircraft engine corpus deformation during milling
A. Matras, M. Plaza
This paper discusses the results of the experimental research performed with the support of finite element method. The deformation of the thin walled aircraft engine corpus was analyzed based on a geometric model. Then, the boundary of the outer side of the part was loaded by the components of a cutting force during milling. The material model of the part was also defined in the simulation software. The analysis allowed to optimize feed rate in order to decrease the deformation of the part.
The construction of the milling process simulation models
The paper has aimed at presentation of the possibilities of using computer-based techniques into scope of machine cutting processes, and mostly of analytical and numerical modeling of the milling process for austenitic high-alloy chromium-nickel steel X 5 CrNi 18-10 and verification of the results experiments. The study was mostly focused on measuring and assessment of deformations in the given sample with the specific load. The simulations were executed in modern computer simulation software which supports such activities. These include: NX by Siemens and Simulia Abaqus. The selection of parameters was based on the real values measured during the milling process.
The influence of annealing on the electrical and optical properties of silicon-rich silicon nitride films
In this paper measurements results of electrical and optical properties of SiNx thin layers are presented. Layers were produced by chemical vapor deposition on n-type (100)-oriented silicon substrates. Measurements were performed for samples directly after deposition and for samples annealed in temperature of 1073 K.

Resistance Rp, capacity Cp, phase angle shift θ and dielectric loss factor tgδ were the measuring parameters on AC in the frequency range from 50 Hz to 5 MHz as a function of measurement temperature from the range 20 K – 373 K. Based on this, the conductivity σ and the activation energy of conductivity were determined. Photoluminescence spectra were recorded at room temperature in the spectral region of 350 – 800 nm using a He-Cd laser source with λ=325 nm.

The influence of annealing on the electrical and optical properties was explained. Current resonance phenomenon and reduction of photoluminescence spectra were observed.
The application of high-speed camera for analysis of chip creation process during the steel turning
Grzegorz Struzikiewicz
The paper presents the results of application of the high-speed camera Phantom v5.2 and Tracker program for the analysis of chip forming in the case of the AMS6265 steel turning. The experimental research was carried for two cutting speeds and different wear of cutting inserts.
Antibacterial activity of graphene layers
Ł. Dybowska-Sarapuk, A. Kotela, J. Krzemiński, et al.
The bacterial biofilm is a direct cause of complications in management of various medical conditions. There is an ongoing search for a feasible method to prevent its growth, as an alternative to antibiotics, which are ineffective. The aim of the study was to prepare and evaluate a detailed algorithm for production of graphene coatings, using economically efficient methods of printed electronics (such as ink-jet printing or spray coating), and assess their antibacterial properties. Based on the preliminary results of our work we suggest that graphene coating may inhibit the formation of microbial biofilms. Further research is needed to verify antibacterial properties of graphene coatings and its future applications in prevention of biofilm-related infections, e.g. by coating surgical instruments, catheters or tracheostomy tubes. In addition, we propose a series of hypotheses to be evaluated in further work.
Development of control system of metallic inclusions in granular materials based on the method of scanning signal
Leonid M. Zamihovskyi, Ivan T. Levytskyi, Konrad Gromaszek, et al.
The urgent problem of metallic inclusions control in the granular materials was considered in the article. The control method of metallic inclusions based on the scanning signal was proposed. A mathematical model of forming moving maximum of the magnetic field intensity by magnetic coils was developed. The design and selection of hardware components of the system was conducted. Specifically, unit of processing and signal forming was designed and manufactured. A test bench for testing developed method was made.
Low temperature electrical conductance in (FeCoZr)x(PbZrTiO3)(100-x) nanocomposite films
In this paper, the temperature and frequency dependences of conductivity, capacity and phase angle of two nanocomposite samples containing Fe0.45Co0.45Zr0.10 – based nanoparticles embedded in a doped PbZrTiO3 ferroelectric matrix were studied. AC measurements have been performed for the low temperatures (15 K ≤ TP) and within frequency range 50 Hz – 1 MHz. The nanocomposites studied were deposited by ion beam sputtering with use of different synthesis atmosphere in a vacuum chamber. The samples were subdued by a 15-min annealing in air in the temperatures of TA1 = 698 K and TA2 = 623 K. It was found that for the nanocomposite sample produced using low oxygen content in the synthesis atmosphere (x1 = 57.6 at.%) negative values of phase angle θ occur, which indicates capacitive type of conduction in the material. We can also notice the strong rapid frequency and temperature dependences of conductivity for this sample. It can be related with hopping carrier transport in the nanocomposite. For the nanocomposite sample with x2 = 57.6 at.%, which was produced using high oxygen content in the synthesis atmosphere we can observe occurrence of positive values of θ for frequencies f > 5×104 Hz. It can be related with the additional oxidation of Fe0.45Co0.45Zr0.10 nanoparticles during the annealing process (potential barriers surround nanoparticles). The type of carrier transport in the nanocomposite samples is defined as hopping.
High-temperature thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry of nanocomposites (FeCoZr)x(CaF2)100-x
In this work thermogravimetric-DTG/DSC analysis result for samples of nanocomposite metal-dielectric (FeCoZr)x(CaF2)100-x are presents. Series of samples with, metallic phase content x = 24 – 68 at.% were produced by ionbeam sputtering method in mixed atmosphere of gas argon and oxygen. Study of thermal properties, phase shifts and process of change in mass of nanocomposites were performed using the thermoanalytical system TGA/DSC-1/1600 HF (MettlerToledoInstruments). High-precision weight has a weighing range 1μg – 1g with an accuracy 1μg. The furnace makes it possible to regulate the temperature in range from room temperature to 1600°С and heating rate is 0.01 – 150°С/min. After analysis of the results established that initial and final mass of samples of the nanocomposite (FeCoZr)x(CaF2)100-x are different, namely the sample mass is increased by 2 – 20%. It is related to the oxidation of metallic phase particles of nanocomposite. DTG and DSC analysis demonstrated that oxidation of metallic phase is held in two steps, at first oxidized iron atoms, and followed oxidation of the cobalt atoms, what can be seen on the waveform in the form of two humps and whereby oxides Fe2O3, Fe3O4, Co2O3, Co3O4 are formed. Oxide coatings on the surface of atoms represents an additional barrier to electron transfer charges. When a voltage is applied to the layer of the nanocomposite are three possible ways to transfer of charges between atoms and particles of metal, whereby each has its own relaxation time.
Measurement and analysis of absolute quantum yield of Rhodamine B doped PMMA
Maciej Zyskowski, Piotr Miluski, Jacek Zmojda, et al.
In this paper, the absolute quantum yield of Rhodamine B (RhB) doped Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) has been characterized. The measurement results and analysis are shown. The used polymeric host (polymethyl methacrylate) assures good transparency and strong intensity of fluorescence spectra of RhB. The samples have been fabricated by radical polymerization process. The quantum yield for the different concentrations Rhodamine B concentration in the range 500-750nm have been calculated. The relationship between absolute quantum yield and concentration of the dye has been also analyzed. The maximum of quantum yield 94.49% was obtained for PMMA doped with RhB 5.39×10-6 mol. The good optical properties and high quantum yield allow numerous applications of used doped host in optoelectronics applications.
The implementation of a thermal imaging camera for testing the temperature of the cutting zone in turning
The paper presents research concerning temperature distribution in cutting zone in AMS 5643 steel turning with the help of a thermal imaging camera. Experimental studies served for the verification of the material model, used in simulation examinations for the optimization of cutting data.
Selective laser melting of metal micropowders with short-pulse laser
Selective laser melting is a unique additive technique which can manufacture solid metal objects but it require expensive, high power lasers. The primary aim of this work was to check is it possible to carry out this process by using lower power and high energy pulse laser. The secondary goal was to examine the influence of main technological parameters of selective laser melting on the quality and the thickness of produced layer. The requirements of metal powder, which allowed to obtain a layer with microthickness, were developed.
Experimental elaboration and analysis of dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells (DSSC) dyed by natural dyes and conductive polymers
In this paper we propose low cost and easy in development fully working dye-sensitized solar cell module made with use of a different sensitizing dyes (various anthocyanins and P3HT) for increasing the absorption spectrum, transparent conducting substrates (vaccum spattered chromium and gold), nanometer sized TiO2 film, iodide and methyl viologen dichloride based electrolyte, and a counter electrode (vaccum spattered platinum or carbon). Moreover, some of the different technologies and optimization manufacturing processes were elaborated for energy efficiency increase and were presented in this paper.
Simulation and optimization of physical phenomena when engine block machining: case study
Wojciech Zębala, Grzegorz Struzikiewicz, Ksenia Rumian, et al.
Paper presents researches of cutting force measurements and computer simulation of physical phenomena existing in the cutting zone. Stress distributions in the upper layer after machining were calculated with the numerical software, basing on the FEM method. Optimization of turning process was realized for the purpose to minimize the cutting force and stress values during stainless steel machining, belonging to the difficult-to-cut materials group.
Tool life modeling and computer simulation of tool wear when nickel-based material turning
Paper presents some tool life investigations, concerning modeling and simulation of tool wear when turning a difficult-to-cut material like nickel based sintered powder workpiece. A cutting tool made of CBN has its special geometry. The workpiece in the form of disc is an aircraft engine part. The aim of researches is to optimize the cutting data for the purpose to decrease the tool wear and improve the machined surface roughness.
Photonics
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Chaotic systems in optical communications
Communications application of chaotic oscillations of lasers with optoelectronic feedback was discussed. The possibility of eavesdropping of the transmission was analyzed. It was proved that if the rogue party precisely knows parameters of the chaotic system it may recreate the entire signals solely by observation of the optical signal power causing security breach.
Modeling of multi-channel MIMO-VLC systems in the indoor environment
Marcin Kowalczyk
The article presents a concept of simultaneous using multiple channels for data transmission (an approach MIMO- multiple input multiple output) in the visible light communication systems (VLC), which are considered here as their implementation inside buildings, in the aspect of their numerical modeling. There was presented both a mathematical description (a model) of such systems as well as obtained on this basis results in relation to the instances of MIMO-VLC system with two and four channels, respectively. The so-called non-imaging detectors were used at the receiver side . Obtained results allowed to gain a few valuable conclusions that were included in the last section of article.
Energy transfer mechanisms in heavy metal oxide glasses doped with lanthanide ions
Tomasz Ragin, Jacek Zmojda, Marcin Kochanowicz, et al.
In this paper, glasses based on bismuth, germanium, gallium and sodium oxides have been synthesized in terms of low phonon energy (724 cm-1) and high thermal stability (ΔT = 127°C). Synthesis process have been optimized using low vacuum conditions (approx. 60 mBar) to improve the transmittance in the mid-infrared region and decrease the content of hydroxide groups in the material structure. Glass doped with erbium ions has been pumped with high power diode (λexc = 980 nm) to obtain luminescence in the band of 2.7 μm as a result of Er3+: 4I11/24I13/2 radiative transition. For analysis of emission properties and energy transfer mechanisms, glasses co-doped with Er3+/Ho3+, Er3+/Pr3+, Er3+/Nd3+ ions have been synthesized. Obtained results indicated energy transfer phenomenon between lanthanide ions and elements forming the glass matrix. This demonstrates that developed heavy metal oxide glass doped with optimal rare earth elements system is an attractive material for mid-infrared applications.
Spectroscopic properties of Eu-doped antimony-germanate glass and glass-ceramics
J. Zmojda, M. Kochanowicz, P. Miluski, et al.
In our work we focused on possibility of obtaining phosphate nano-phase structures in antimony-germanate glasses doped with europium ions. The glasses with molar composition of 50(Sb2O3 - GeO2) – 50(SiO2 - Al2O3 - Na2O) doped with 0.5mol% Eu2O3 were prepared by standard melt-quenching method. In order to optimize glass-ceramic system the influence of phosphate concentration (up to 10mol%) on spectroscopic properties have been investigated. The symmetry nature of molecular structure around europium ions have been determined from the intensity ratio between (5D07F2)/(5D07F1) transitions. The effect of prominent Stark splitting of luminescence band at 612 nm characterised as “hypersensitive transition” into 3 sub-wavelength was observed in glasses with 1mol% and 3mol% of P2O5.
Optical profilometer
The profilometry plays a huge role in the most fields of science and technology. It allows to measure the profile of the surface with high-resolution. This technique is used in the fields like optic, electronic, medicine, automotive, and much more. The aim of the current work was to design and build optical profilometer based on the interference phenomena. The developed device has been working with He-Ne laser (632.8 nm). The optical parts have been chosen in order to reach the sized 2.0 mm x 1.6 mm of scanning area. The setup of the profilometer is based on Twyman-Green interferometer. Therefore, the phase distribution of the backreflected light from measured surface is recorded. The measurements are carried out with the aid of multiframe algorithms. In this approach we have used the Hariharan algorithm to obtain the exact value of the recorded phase. During tests, which have been carried out in order to check the functionality of the device, the interference patterns have been recoded and processed in order to obtain the 3D profile of measured surface. In this contribution the setup of the optical system, as well as signal processing methods are going to be presented. The brief discussion about the advantages and disadvantages, and usefulness of this approach will be carried out.
Holographic display with LED sources illumination and enlarged viewing angle
In this work we present holographic display that uses LED sources illumination and have enlarged viewing angle. In this holographic display design we employ phase only SLM because it allows to obtain reconstructions of high quality. Our setup realizes complex coding scheme and allows to reconstruct complex holographic images. Thus reconstruction of inplane holograms is possible. Holograms displayed on SLM are computer generated. For enlargement of angular field of view we use three spatially separated illumination sources and time multiplexing technique. In experimental part, where we display computer generated holograms, we show that it is possible to obtain holographic reconstructions of 3D object with extended viewing angle.
Stereo matching using oriented spatial Habor filters
Bohdan Rusyn, Yuri Lysak, Tomasz Ławicki, et al.
In this paper a method for solving stereo matching problem is presented. It is based on minimization of some energy functional by coarse-to-fine methods with using Habor filters. The solution such task, where presents of occlusions, weakly or periodic textured regions provides some ambiguity for optimization process, using coarse-to-fine method speed up matching process and reduces ambiguity. However due to using low-frequency filtration in coarse-to-fine method blurring of disparity function is appeared exceptionally near objects boundaries. To reduce this luck proposed method based on spatial Habor filtration is used.
Monitoring of the electrical parameters in off-grid solar power system
Adam Idzkowski, Katarzyna Leoniuk, Wojciech Walendziuk
The aim of this work was to make a monitoring dedicated to an off-grid installation. A laboratory set, which was built for that purpose, was equipped with a PV panel, a battery, a charge controller and a load. Additionally, to monitor electrical parameters from this installation there were used: LabJack module (data acquisition card), measuring module (self-built) and a computer with a program, which allows to measure and present the off-grid installation parameters. The program was made in G language using LabVIEW software. The designed system enables analyzing the currents and voltages of PV panel, battery and load. It makes also possible to visualize them on charts and to make reports from registered data. The monitoring system was also verified by a laboratory test and in real conditions. The results of this verification are also presented.
Paraxial parameters and aberration of seven-electrode axisymmetric cathodic lens
Ainur Kuttybayeva, Alpamys Ibrayev, Diliara Junussova, et al.
This paper describes the results of numeral research and analysis of paraxial parameters and dimensional aberrations of seven-electrode axisymmetric cathodic lens. The main finding is that in particular configurations using transaxial focusing elements much better conditions can be obtained to formulate electron and ion fluxes with necessary parameters of beam focusing
Modeling structures of 1D PhC for telecommunication applications
Zygmunt J. Zawistowski, Bożena Jaskorzyńska
Effective method of modeling 1-dimensional photonic crystals structures is presented. As an illustration of the method a concept of widely tunable narrow band drop filter is described. As an active electro-optic material a liquid crystal is used. Very good parameters are obtained so the presented structure is suitable for fast packet switched wavelength division multiplexing networks (WDM).
Processing laser beam spot images using the parallel-hierarchical network for classification and forecasting their energy center coordinates
Leonid I. Timchenko, Paweł Pijarski, Vladislav Zavadskiy, et al.
The paper presents a method of forecasting the energy center position of the laser beam images using the parallel-hierarchical network. Main steps for classification and forecast of energy center coordinates of laser beam spot images are described, which allow to develop a new information technology for their classification and forecast their energy center coordinates. Predictions based on the known neural networks and on the proposed method using the parallel-hierarchical network were evaluated experimentally.
Possibilities of applications of fiber Bragg gratings for thermonuclear fusion technology
The research on harnessing thermonuclear fusion is considered to be important for reaching global energetic safety as the future thermonuclear fusion reactors offer an inexhaustible and CO2 emission free source of electric power. The development of thermonuclear fusion reactors is a great interdisciplinary effort which needs participation of scientists dealing with many fields of physics and engineering. Due to the experimental character of the works (the best example is the effort for the development of ITER - International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) its crucial part is in the design and application of diagnostics operating in harsh thermonuclear environments. Fiber optics and especially fiber Bragg gratings are components which can operate feasibly in both irradiation and electromagnetic interference conditions. This paper is to give a prospect of application of fiber Bragg grating sensors in devices aimed on the research in the thermonuclear fusion field.
The low coherence Fabry-Perot interferometer with diamond and ZnO layers
D. Majchrowicz, W. Den, M. Hirsch
The authors present a fiber-optic Fabry-Pérot interferometer built with the application of diamond and zinc oxide (ZnO) thin layers. Thin ZnO films were deposited on the tip of a standard telecommunication single-mode optical fiber (SMF- 28) while the diamond layer was grown on the plate of silicon substrate. Investigated ZnO layers were fabricated by atomic layer deposition (ALD) and the diamond films were deposited using Microwave Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (μPE CVD) system. Different thickness of layers was examined. The measurements were performed for the fiber-optic Fabry-Pérot interferometer working in the reflective mode. Spectra were registered for various thicknesses of ZnO layer and various length of the air cavity. As a light source, two superluminescent diodes (SLD) with central wavelength of 1300 nm and 1550 nm were used in measurement set-up.
Improving the quality perception of digital images using modified method of the eye aberration correction
Roman Kvyetnyy, Olga Sofina, Pavel Orlyk, et al.
A new approach to solve the problem of image correction to improve the quality perception of graphic information by people with aberrations of the eye optical system is considered in given article. The model of higher order aberrations which may appear in the human eye optical system is described. The developed approach is based on the pre-processing of digital images and applying of the filtration methods to the adjusted images.
Performance analysis of the multimode fiber dispersion compensation with the use of compensating fiber
L. Maksymiuk, P. Belniak
SWDM systems are just to emerge in data-centers in order to reduce the number of fibers used and/or to increase the overall throughput. The biggest problem with employing such systems is the insufficient modal bandwidth in a wide range of wavelengths (850-940nm). Currently proposed solutions are based on the introduction of the new type multimode fiber, so-called wide-band MMF. Although the replacement of the legacy OM3/OM4 with new fibers enables employment of 4 channels SWDM, the bandwidth in side channels (850 and 940nm) is just accurate for current systems (each channel around 25Gbit/s at 300m), it does not provide any room for further future systems (requiring more bandwidth) development. We propose the other method to provide sufficient bandwidth in all SWDM channels. In our solution the legacy transmission OM3/OM4 fiber remains intact, however we compensate for modal dispersion by means of specially designed compensating fibers in all channels but 850nm (where the compensation is not required). In this paper we provide a series of numerical calculations performed with the use of custom designed numerical software in MatLab. We discuss the performance of our solution versus the length of the compensating fiber; we analyze the impact of launching conditions and chromatic dispersion (we assume multimode VCSEL and spectral dependent coupling). Presented results confirm the big potential of our solution for future high bitrate SWDM systems.
Spectral reflectance and transmission modeling of multi-cavity Fabry-Pérot interferometer with ZnO thin films
Marzena Hirsch, Agnieszka Szreder
In this paper spectral reflectance and transmission of a low-coherence fiber-optic Fabry-Pérot interferometer with thin ZnO layers is analyzed using a multi-cavity approach. In the investigated setup two standard single-mode optical fibers (SMF-28) with thin ZnO films deposited on their end-faces form an extrinsic Fabry-Pérot interferometer with air cavity. Calculations of the spectral response of the interferometer were performed for different thickness of the layers (50, 100, 150, 200 nm). Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that the use of ZnO thin films improves the reflectance of the interferometer. Moreover, addition of another cavity can make it possible to perform sensing of two different quantities (e.g. temperature and refractive index). The optimal lengths of the Fabry-Pérot cavities were selected using the results of modelling for achieving the best performance in a sensing application.
Correction of frequency response of infrared photodetector signal path
Katarzyna Opalska
The paper presents the investigations targeted at broadening the bandwidth of the high speed photodector signal path. Photodetector output signal is formed in the signal path composed of the photodiode with appropriate cooling circuitry, short segment of transmission line and a high-speed amplifier. Bandwidth widening is achieved by including extra circuits in the signal tract (lossless and possibly also lossy one), which – together with inevitable mismatch at both ends of the transmission line - enable correction of the frequency characteristic. The trade-offs between gain, ripples of the AC characteristic and bandwidth are studied and presented in the paper.
RGB imaging volumes alignment method for color holographic displays
Recent advances in holographic displays include increased interest in multiplexing techniques, which allow for extension of viewing angle, hologram resolution increase, or color imaging. In each of these situations, the image is obtained by a composition of a several light wavefronts and therefore some wavefront misalignment occurs. In this work we present a calibration method, that allows for correction of these misalignments by a suitable numerical manipulation of holographic data. For this purpose, we have developed an automated procedure that is based on a measurement of positions of reconstructed synthetic hologram of a target object with focus at two different reconstruction distances. In view of relatively long reconstruction distances in holographic displays, we focus on angular deviations of light beams, which result in a noticeable mutual lateral shift and inclination of the component images in space. A method proposed in this work is implemented in a color holographic display unit (single Spatial Light Modulator – SLM) utilizing Space- Division Method (SDM). In this technique, also referred as Aperture Field Division (AFD) method, a significant wavefront inclination is introduced by a color filter glass mosaic plate (mask) placed in front of the SLM. It is verified that an accuracy of the calibration method, obtained for reconstruction distance 700mm, is 34.5 μm and 0.02°, for the lateral shift and for the angular compensation, respectively. In the final experiment the presented method is verified through real-world object color image reconstruction.
Optical transmission testing based on asynchronous sampling techniques
T. Mrozek, K. Perlicki, G. Wilczewski
This paper presents a method of analysis of images obtained with the Asynchronous Delay Tap Sampling technique, which is used for simultaneous monitoring of a number of phenomena in the physical layer of an optical network. This method allows visualization of results in a form of an optical signal's waveform (characteristics depicting phase portraits). Depending on a specific phenomenon being observed (i.e.: chromatic dispersion, polarization mode dispersion and ASE noise), the shape of the waveform changes. Herein presented original waveforms were acquired utilizing the OptSim 4.0 simulation package. After specific simulation testing, the obtained numerical data was transformed into an image form, that was further subjected to the analysis using authors' custom algorithms. These algorithms utilize various pixel operations and creation of reports each image might be characterized with. Each individual report shows the number of black pixels being present in the specific image segment. Afterwards, generated reports are compared with each other, across the original-impaired relationship. The differential report is created which consists of a "binary key" that shows the increase in the number of pixels in each particular segment. The ultimate aim of this work is to find the correlation between the generated binary keys and the analyzed common phenomenon being observed, allowing identification of the type of interference occurring. In the further course of the work it is evitable to determine their respective values. The presented work delivers the first objective - the ability to recognize interference.
Characterization of mode group transfer matrix in multimode couplers using spatial light modulation
G. Stepniak, C. A. Bunge
In this paper, spatial light modulation is applied to investigate the selective mode properties of multimode fibers (MMF) and MMF couplers. Spatial light modulator is applied only on the MMF input to excite a selected linearly polarized eigenmode of the MMF. At the system output the impulse and frequency response is studied. By an additional time separation of mode groups achieved during propagation in the MMF, a mode group to mode group transfer matrix of the MMF coupler can be obtained.
The analysis of fluids by their refractive index using the tapered optical fiber
In this paper, we demonstrate a manufacture of the tapered optical fiber used to analyze the composition or quality of fluid by measuring the external refractive index of the desired analyte. They were made in two ways: using a laser plotter and professional station to do such a tapered fibers. The results prove that utilization of the tapered fiber is really useful to microfluidic domain.
On high speed transmission with the 850nm VCSELs
Jarosław P. Turkiewicz, Łukasz Chorchos, Rafael Puerta Ramirez, et al.
One of the key research challenges is development of energy efficient high bit rate data interconnects. The most promising solutions are based on 850 nm vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL) and multi mode fibre (MMF). In this paper options to realize energy efficient 850 nm data interconnects are discussed and evaluated.
Performance comparison of the 1310nm optical amplifiers
Łukasz Chorchos, Jarosław P. Turkiewicz
One of the key optical transmission components are optical amplifiers. In this paper studies on the amplification properties of the 1310 nm optical amplifiers are presented. The evaluated optical amplifiers are: semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) and praseodymium doped fibre amplifier (PDFA). The study is aimed to the dynamic operation in single- and multi- wavelength domain with the high rate signals namely 25 Gbit/s. The maximum obtained gain was 25.0 dB for SOA and 20.9 dB for PDFA. For the SOAs the minimum achieved value of the receiver sensitivity was -11.5 dBm for single channel and -11.5 dBm for DWDM case when for PDFA those values were -11.0 dBm and -10.9 respectively. The main advantage of the PDFA in comparison to the measured SOAs is higher saturation power.
Reconfigurable remote access unit for W-band radio-over-fiber transmission
Łukasz Chorchos, Simon Rommel, Jarosław P. Turkiewicz, et al.
There is a growing demand for cost-effective radio over fiber transmission techniques. In this paper, we propose and realize the reconfigurable remote access unit for radio over fiber transmission. The reconfigurable unit is build from the tunable filter and laser as well as remote controller. Successful generation of the mm wave signals up to 83 GHz with transmission at 1550 nm is demonstrated.
RIN measurements of the 850nm VCSELs
Łukasz Chorchos, Jarosław P. Turkiewicz
In this paper, the relative intensity noise (RIN) measurements studies of multimode 850nm vertical cavity surface emitting lasers are presented. The used method is based on the RF spectrum measurement of a biased and unmodulated laser. Further a method based on the oscilloscope measurements is applied. The results obtained for both methods are comparable and differ less than 2 dB. The obtained RINs were in the range from -143.87 to -139.45 dB/Hz for various VCSEL biases.
Versatile subnanosecond laser diode driver
Mateusz Żbik, Piotr Z. Wieczorek
This article presents a laser diode driver that provides a fast modulation of a laser beam. A pulsed current source was designed and built to test Infra-Red (I-R) receivers in the Time Domain (TD). The proposed solution allows to estimate pulse responses of various photodetectors, whereas the testing was performed with a PiN photodetector. The pulse response brings the information on the behavior of the device under test in a wide frequency range. In addition, an experimental application of the proposed method is presented too. System discussed in this paper has been fully designed and manufactured in Warsaw University of Technology (WUT) in Institute of Electronic Systems (ISE).
Optimization of group delay response of (apodized) tapered fiber Bragg grating by shaping taper transition and apodization window
This article presents implementation of the Simulated Annealing (SA) algorithm for tapered fiber Bragg gratings (TFBGs) design. Particularly, together with well-known Coupled Mode Theory (CMT) and Transfer Matrix Method (TMM) the algorithm optimizes the group delay response of TFBG, by simultaneous shaping of both apodization function and tapered fiber transition profile. Prior to the optimization process, numerical model for TFBG design has been validated. Preliminary results reveal great potential of the SA-based approach and with proper definition of the design criteria may be even applied for optimization of the spectral properties of TFBGs.
Custom FBGs inscription using modified phase mask method with precise micro- and nano-positioning
Konrad Markowski, Arkadiusz Perka, Kazimierz Jędrzejewski, et al.
In this paper, extensive study on the apodization of fiber Bragg gratings is presented. Particularly, not only influence of non-true and true apodization for gratings with uniform period is analyzed, but also the influence of both of these techniques impact on spectral properties of chirped gratings. Both numerical and experimental results are provided. For true apodized uniform gratings, impact on spectral response of true apodization is evaluated for three apodization windows, i.e. cos2, Gaussian and triangle.
A dual-parameter tilted fiber Bragg grating-based sensor for liquid level and temperature monitoring
Tomasz Osuch, Tomasz Jurek, Konrad Markowski, et al.
In this paper, the concept and experimental characterization of tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) based sensor for temperature and liquid level measurement are presented. It is shown that, when liquid level increases the peak amplitudes of cladding modes linearly decreases (in dB). In turn, changes in temperature causes a shift of the TFBG transmission spectrum, which can be accurately measured by monitoring the Bragg wavelength corresponding to the liquid level independent core mode. The main advantages of proposed sensor are simple design as well as linear responses to liquid level and temperature.
Polymer planar waveguide broadband differential interferometer
In the paper the planar waveguide based on SU-8 polymer were made on 2μm of silica (SiO2) on silicon (Si) substrates in order to obtain base for broadband interferometer. Analysis and calculation of sensitivity for single mode broadband differential interferometer were performed. Paper presents preliminary tests and analysis of such structures. Dilution of SU-8 solution for obtaining thin layer (below 500 nm) followed by elipsometric measurements is presented.
Automated Talbot interferometer for fiber Bragg gratings inscription with improved accuracy and repeatability
In this paper, methods for Bragg wavelength corrections in Talbot interferometer for FBG inscription are presented. As a result, a significant improvement of FBG inscription is achieved. Experimental results show that minimization of positioning errors of rotation stages, imperfections of Talbot interferometer construction as well as consideration of fiber dispersion, lead to a Bragg wavelength accuracy not worse than in commercially available gratings but within much wider spectral range. Proposed approach can compete in terms of Bragg wavelength accuracy with the recognized as more precise phase mask method.
System for rugged surface detection based on MEMS inertial sensor signals analysis
Daniel Paczesny, Adrian Ratajczyk, Zbigniew M. Wawrzyniak, et al.
The paper reports an application of the accelerometer for the sensing of rugged surface detection. MEMS accelerometers were investigated for steering control of the autonomous floor-cleaning robot to perform cleaning. Accelerometer signals were used to support signals from other ultrasound and vision sensors to detect the type of the floor and distinguish between rough and smooth floor. The main aim of the developed control system for an autonomous robot was to improve the detection of the floor type and investigate the use of the accelerometer for solving this problem. The test results have shown that the proposed system can be equipped with accelerometer sensor and reduce the error detection for floor type during cleaning.
Gradient-index POF without dopants: how the optical properties can be controlled by sole temperature treatment
C.-A. Bunge, M. Schüppert, M. Beckers, et al.
In this paper we present a novel melt-spinning fabrication process for graded-index polymer optical fibers that completely avoids additional dopants for the formation of the refractive-index profile. In the presented process the meltspun fiber is rapidly cooled down so that the inner and outer parts of the fiber solidify at different speeds resulting in a density gradient. This density variation leads to a refractive-index profile without any further dopants. We present achieved results for fibers made of PMMA, and also first preliminary results for bio polymers such as TPU.
Event-based image recognition applied in tennis training assistance
Zbigniew M. Wawrzyniak, Adam Kowalski
This paper presents a concept of a real-time system for individual tennis training assistance. The system is supposed to provide user (player) with information on his strokes accuracy as well as other training quality parameters such as velocity and rotation of the ball during its flight. The method is based on image processing methods equipped with developed explorative analysis of the events and their description by parameters of the movement. There has been presented the concept for further deployment to create a complete system that could assist tennis player during individual training.
Sensors and Measurements
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Electromagnetic obstacle detection in close distance
Michał Kurzela, Aleksander Burd
The main topic is the electronic system, designed and built to help car drivers during parking. It uses electromagnetism phenomena for making an estimation of arrangement of obstacles. The device works with close distance (about 5-15cm), depending on the material from which the obstacle is made.
Energy monitoring and managing for electromobility purposes
Zdenek Slanina, Tomas Docekal
This paper describes smart energy meter design and implementation focused on using in charging stations (stands) for electric vehicle (follows as EV) charging support and possible embedding into current smart building technology. In this article there are included results of research of commercial devices available in Czech republic for energy measuring for buildings as well as analysis of energy meter for given purposes. For example in described module there was required measurement of voltage, electric current and frequency of power network. Finally there was designed a communication module with common interface to energy meter for standard communication support between charging station and electric car. After integration into smart buildings (home automation, parking houses) there are pros and cons of such solution mentioned1,2.
Identification of gas powered motor propulsion group for small unmanned aerial vehicles
Daniel Oldziej, Wojciech Walendziuk, Karol Mirek
The present work aims at the dynamics identification of gas powered motor propulsion applied in remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) of the small or medium class. In subsequent chapters, the criteria indicating the choice of an electric or a gas power system are described. Moreover, the classification and characteristics of gas powered motor propulsions are presented. The main body of the article contains a laboratory stand dedicated to test the fumes from the motor propulsions in order to measure their static and dynamic characteristics. A wireless solution of acquiring the measurement data from the laboratory stand reflecting real working conditions of the repulsion is suggested. In further parts, the dynamics identification is done, and the transfer function of the object is presented.
Amplifiers dedicated for large area SiC photodiodes
P. Doroz, M. Duk, M. L. Korwin-Pawlowski, et al.
Large area SiC photodiodes find applications in optoelectronic sensors working at special conditions. These conditions include detection of UV radiation in harsh environment. Moreover, the mentioned sensors have to be selective and resistant to unwanted signals. For this purpose, the modulation of light at source unit and the rejection of constant current and low frequency component of signal at detector unit are used. The popular frequency used for modulation in such sensor is 1kHz. The large area photodiodes are characterized by a large capacitance and low shunt resistance that varies with polarization of the photodiode and can significantly modify the conditions of signal pre-amplification. In this paper two pre-amplifiers topology are analyzed: the transimpedance amplifier and the non-inverting voltage to voltage amplifier with negative feedback. The feedback loops of both pre-amplifiers are equipped with elements used for initial constant current and low frequency signals rejections. Both circuits are analyzed and compared using simulation and experimental approaches.
Experimental determination of the emissivity coefficient of selected materials
This paper concerns the experimental determination of the emissivity of selected materials (metals and alloys). In the first chapter the theoretical aspects are presented. Then ISO 18434-1:2008 norm, as the standard regulating all issues related to the emissivity and the way of its determination, is described. The aim of work was to modernize the laboratory stand for non-contact temperature measurements. The modernized laboratory stand was equipped with the modern data acquisition module (National Instruments NI 9203). It enabled to present temperature measurement data and to save it on the PC. As a result, students will be able to conduct more measurements and to make more conclusions about the emissivity of materials and its influence on a temperature result. Sample measurements and calculations were presented. The final element of study was to determine emissivity for each plate. It was made by calculations basing on the values: reference temperature (from Pt100 sensor) and non-contact temperature (from pyrometer). The emissivity values determined from these calculations were compared with the values obtained through published tables in the literature and with the values received by means of NEC Avio G100 thermographic camera. The expanded uncertainty of determined emissivity coefficient was also estimated.
Wireless powering for electrochemical sensor
System of wireless energy supply for a electrochemical sensor is presented. As a first step, various theoretical models of the sensor were considered and a new model, proper for the application studied, was proposed to enable further design stages. In the experiment conducted, it was verified, that the sensor, working in an amperometric mode and in the presence of constant or quasi-constant voltage supply, could be electrically approximated as element of the constant impedance value. Given this, power-consumption was calculated for the sensor using Ohm’s law and the proof of concept device was fabricated to evaluate performance of the sensor under theoretically calculated conditions. The results obtained were comparable to the data previously recorded using conventional laboratory potentiostat. For verification of the resistive character of the sensor, chronoamperometric method was employed, with sensor’s response complying with the theoretical prediction for quasi-constant powering signal and being influenced only by major voltage changes. Calculated power consumption of the sensor was Pmax. = 18.23μW. Concerning sensor’s requirement for quasiconstant voltage, simple half-wave rectifier was designed that was connected to the antenna used for powering signal reception. In the second experiment, calibration of the sensor was performed, yielding sensitivity s = 2.03 μA/μmol/L and linear correlation coefficient ρ = 0.986 and thus confirming proper operation of the device in the conditions considered.
The gravitational acceleration components elimination from the accelerometer measurement data
The present article contains methods determining of the gravitational acceleration components in the measurement signal of accelerometers. Eliminating those unwanted values of the MEMS sensors signals enables recording actual accelerations affecting an object. Only a signal transformed in this way can be used in order to estimate the object location or construct the inertial navigation systems. The theoretical part of the work presents methods of the orientation representation with the use of Euler angles and quaternions. An algorithm of quaternion formation with the use of the rotation angles and a direct method using the accelerometer measurement data in the vector form are also presented here. The theoretical description of three algorithms of the gravitational acceleration components elimination, in which the universal method used at the changeable object orientation in movement and methods used at constant orientation, are described. One of the presented algorithms exploited the global gravity vector transformation into a local system with the use of the Direct Cosine Matrix and quaternions. Other described algorithms were based on eliminating the constant value by applying a digital filter and appropriate algebraic transformations.
Analysis of the possibility of a PGA309 integrated circuit application in pressure sensors
Wojciech Walendziuk, Michal Baczewski, Adam Idzkowski
This article present the results of research concerning the analysis of the possibilities of applying a PGA309 integrated circuit in transducers used for pressure measurement. The experiments were done with the use of a PGA309EVM-USB evaluation circuit with a BD|SENSORS pressure sensor. A specially prepared MATLAB script was used in the process of the calibration setting choice and the results analysis. The article discusses the worked out algorithm that processes the measurement results, i.e. the algorithm which calculates the desired gain and the offset adjustment voltage of the transducer measurement bridge in relation to the input signal range of the integrated circuit and the temperature of the environment (temperature compensation). The checking procedure was conducted in a measurement laboratory and the obtained result were analyzed and discussed.
Mobile platform of altitude measurement based on a smartphone
Paweł Roszkowski, Marcin Kowalczyk
The article presents a low cost, fully - functional meter of altitude and pressure changes in a form of mobile application controlled by Android OS (operating system). The measurements are possible due to pressure sensor inserted in majority of latest modern mobile phones, which are known as smartphones. Using their computing capabilities and other equipment components like GPS receiver in connection with data from the sensor enabled authors to create a sophisticated handheld measuring platform with many unique features. One of them is a drawing altitude maps mode in which user can create maps of altitude changes just by moving around examined area. Another one is a convenient mode for altitude measurement. It is also extended with analysis tools which provide a possibility to compare measured values by displaying the data in a form of plots. The platform consists of external backup server, where the user can secure all gathered data. Moreover, the results of measurement's accuracy examination process which was executed after building the solution were shown. At the end, the realized meter of altitude was compared to other popular altimeters, which are available on the market currently.
Measurement of reactive power under asymmetrical nonsinusoid modes of electric networks with earthed neutral
Mykhailo J. Burbelo, Paweł Pijarski, Vladislav Zavadskiy, et al.
The article contains the analysis of opportunities to measure reactive power under asymmetrical nonsinusoid modes of three-phase networks with earthed neutral using classical and instantaneous power theories. It is shown that, under an insignificant mode asymmetry, one can apply any of powers. This being the case, the simplest way to carry out the measurement is to use the instantaneous power theory. With the increase in network mode asymmetry, it would be advisable to use the reactive power, which is based on the classical power theory.
Determining of combustion process state based on flame images analysis
This paper presents comparison image classification method of combustion biomass and pulverized coal. Presented research is related with 10% and 20% weight fraction of the biomass. Defined two class of combustion: stable and unstable for nine variants with different power, secondary air value parameters and fixed amount biomass. Used artificial neural networks and support vector machine to classify flame image which correspond with the state of the. combustion process.
Wideband 4-diode sampling circuit
Andrzej Wojtulewicz, Maciej Radtke
The objective of this work was to develop a wide-band sampling circuit. The device should have the ability to collect samples of a very fast signal applied to its input, strengthen it and prepare for further processing. The study emphasizes the method of sampling pulse shaping. The use of ultrafast pulse generator allows sampling signals with a wide frequency spectrum, reaching several gigahertzes. The device uses a pulse transformer to prepare symmetrical pulses. Their final shape is formed with the help of the step recovery diode, two coplanar strips and Schottky diode. Made device can be used in the sampling oscilloscope, as well as other measurement system.
Analysis of the thermal effect influence on the MEMS accelerometer sensors measurement results
In the study the results of the thermal effect influence on the measurements of three different analog accelerometer sensors (ADXL335, ADXL327, LIS344ALH) and one digital sensor (MPU-9255) are presented. The measurement data was registered within the -2°C ÷ 65°C temperature range. The first part of the article characterizes the procedure of determining the acceleration for analog and digital sensors. Moreover, the study includes the methods of determining parameters such as Zero-g Offset and sensitivity. The temperature parameters of the accelerometers, such as Sensitivity change vs. Temperature and Zero-g Offset vs. change Temperature, were also determined. The indicators were determined separately for each of the OX, OY, OZ axes for the investigated MEMS sensors. Finally, the obtained results were compared with the parameters guaranteed by the accelerometric sensor manufacturers.
Characterization of electrical appliances based on their immitance
Augustyn Wójcik, Wiesław Winiecki, Ryszard Kowalik
The article contains an overview of electrical devices parameters employed in non-intrusive load monitoring system. Most frequently used parameters of household appliances, based on current and power supply voltage waveforms, are presented. On the basis of performed experiments, the impact of the load on the pattern parameters is demonstrated. The new method for characterization of electrical devices based on their immitance parameters is proposed. The new set of parameters, calculated with the use of designed method and evaluated, is discussed.
Brushless DC electric motor application in environment CH4 sensor
The work includes using a brushless direct current motor ventilator as a machine which fills a container where methane sensor is researched. The main issue is to choose the best controlling method and implement it to self-made driver of the motor.
Researching the method of providing harmonicity to multi-level inverter
K. N. Taissariyeva, L. Ilipbaeva, G. Dzhobalaeva
In this work we consider the developed scheme of multi-level invertor, which is collected on IGBT transistors. Transistor switching, which provides harmonicity of output tension, is calculated on each level. For verification the settlement data, the imitating model of multilevel inverter was constructed in MatLab program. The output curve tension received at the exit of multilevel inverter’s imitating model was spread out to harmonious components. It allowed investigating most precisely harmonious structure of the received multi-level inverter’s tension curve. For ensuring output tension with a sinusoidal curve, researches and calculations of a corner of switching for each source of the multi-level inverter are conducted. Calculation of switching corner for each source for eight, twelve and twenty-six step single-phase inverters is carried out. For each step the necessary level of tension is provided, it carries out the harmonicity the whole inverter’s output tension. Calculations were carried out in algorithm presented below, in this case for eight, twelve, and twenty-six step inverters.
Electric scooter pilot project
Zdenek Slanina, Jan Dedek, Matej Golembiovsky
This article describes the issue of electric scooter development for educational and demonstration purposes on the Technical University of Ostrava. Electric scooter is equipped with a brushless motor with permanent magnets and engine controller, measuring and monitoring system for speed regulation, energy flow control and both online and off-line data analysis, visualization system for real-time diagnostics and battery management with balancing modules system. Implemented device brings a wide area for the following scientific research. This article also includes some initial test results and electric vehicles experiences.
Experimental studies of a prototype model of the multilevel 6KW-power inverter at supply by 12 accumulators
K. Taissariyeva, N. Issembergenov, G. Dzhobalaeva, et al.
The given paper considers the multilevel 6 kW-power transistor inverter at supply by 12 accumulators for transformation of solar battery energy to the electric power. At the output of the multilevel transistor inverter, it is possible to receive voltage close to a sinusoidal form. The main objective of this inverter is transformation of solar energy to the electric power of industrial frequency. The analysis of the received output curves of voltage on harmonicity has been carried out. In this paper it is set forth the developed scheme of the multilevel transistor inverter (DC-to-ac converter) which allows receiving at the output the voltage close to sinusoidal form, as well as to regulation of the output voltage level. In the paper, the results of computer modeling and experimental studies are presented.
Nichrome micro-heaters as actuators for microfluidic sensors
MEMS actuators are currently widely used in the industry. Micro-heaters, being a prime example, attracted much attention in recent years due to their good operating parameters and low cost fabrication process. This paper focuses on a design and development of a micro-heater to be used as an actuator in a multiparametric capillary sensor. The micro-heater is an evolution of a previous design and uses a 200nm-thick thin film of 80/20 NiCr alloy as a heating layer. The paper presents results of fabrication and testing of the micro-heater, including temperature distribution and resistance changes during the heating cycle. Additionally, is presented a PWM based control system providing the stability of power and temperature distribution.
The method of translation additive and multiplicative error in the instrumental component of the measurement uncertainty
The paper proposes a method of conversion additive and multiplicative errors, mathematical models are obtained by a Taylor expansion of the transformation equations used measuring instruments in the instrumental component of the measurement uncertainty.
Information measuring systems with mobile devices for identification of air pollution parameters caused by transport
Vitalii B. Mokin, Georgii V. Goriachev, Dmytro Y. Dziuniak, et al.
The analysis of modern information measuring systems (IMS) for identification model parameters of the air pollution is carried out. That allows to increase the accuracy of this identification due to their complex application. The known model based on the fuzzy knowledge base was adapted to this task. It is specified how the offered IMS can increase the accuracy of the parameters identification. The results of the experiment with the use of the offered IMS in Vinnytsia city presented in the paper.
A novel method of measurement of LC circuits Q-factor
Michał Kalisiak, Aleksander Burd
This paper presents a new method of measurement of quality factor of inductors and resonance circuits with usage of the effect of the formation of oscillations in sine wave oscillator. The article presents two different hardware realizations for parallel and series LC resonators.
Deterministic chaos in RL-diode circuits and its application in metrology
Volodymyr Kucheruk, Samuil Katsyv, Mykhailo Glushko, et al.
The paper investigated the possibility of measuring the resistive physical quantity generator using deterministic chaos based RL-diode circuit. A generalized structure of the measuring device using a deterministic chaos signal generator. To separate the useful component of the measurement signal of amplitude detector is proposed to use. Mathematical modeling of the RL-diode circuit, which showed a significant effect of the barrier and diffusion capacity of the diode on the occurrence of deterministic chaotic oscillations in this circuit. It is shown that this type deterministic chaos signal generator has a high sensitivity to a change in output voltage resistance in the range of 250 Ohms, which can be used to create the measuring devices based on it.
The influence of moisture on the activation energy of the conductivity of paper-oil insulation of power transformers
In the paper presents the influence of moisture content and electric field intensity on the activation energy of the conductivity DC electrical pressboard impregnated with insulating oil in the measuring temperature range of from 20 °C to 80 °C and the electric field intensity range from 10 kV/m to 1000 kV/m. With Arrhenius plots for each of the moisture content and for all seven of the electric field intensity was determined coefficients of determination R2, which are very close to one. This proves the high accuracy of approximation linear experimental results on the Arrhenius plots and highly accurate measurements of conductivity, accurate stabilization and measurements temperature. It was found that the moisture content of range from 1.15% to 6.5% wt. and the electric field intensity does not affect (in the margin of error) on the activation energy value of the DC conductivity, which is (1.0338 ± 0.02000) eV.
Heat flow meter for the diagnostics of pipelines
Bekbolat R. Nussupbekov, Dana Zh. Karabekova, Ayanbergen K. Khassenov, et al.
Thermal methods of nondestructive testing are widely used for the analysis of the thermal insulation of underground pipelines. In heat methadone nondestructive testing, the thermal energy is distributed in the test object. Temperature field of the object's surface is a source of information on the characteristics of heat transfer. This article describes the modifications we have developed some of the heat flux sensors. A common element of these devices is the battery thermoelectric sensor special design, acting as a thermoelectric converter heat flow.
Using spread spectrum for AMR magnetic sensor
David Vala
This contribution describe invention of Magnetometer with protection against detection by electronic counter- measure (ECM) registered by Czech patent office as patent no. 305322.1 Magnetic sensors are often part of dual use or security instruments and equipment. For this purpose is very interesting to build sensor with is hidden against electronic countermeasure. In this case is very important level and behavior of electromagnetic noise produced by sensor. And also electromagnetic compatibility of electronic devices is the area which significant grows nowadays too. As the consequence of this growth there is a continuous process of making more strict standards focused on electromagnetic radiation of electronic devices. Sensors technology begins to be a part of these issues due sensors bandwidth increasing and approaching to frequency of radio communication band. Nowadays microcontrollers and similar digital circuits are integrated into sensors devices and it brings new sources of electromagnetic radiation in modern smart sensors.
Conductometric device for measuring fluid concentrations in lab-on-foil technology
In this paper, we demonstrate a manufacture of the Lab-on-Foil device used to analyze a composition or concentration of fluid by measuring an electrical capacitance of flowing analyte. Lab-on-Foil devices allow to perform a full-fledged action on a very small volume of the substance. Their popularity is due to the low production cost, small size and short production time. In the paper it will be presented technology of the manufacturing, testing and implementation of components in the complete device.
Noncontact method of temperature measurement based on the phenomenon of the luminophor temperature decreasing
Vasyl V. Kukharchuk, Valerii F. Hraniak, Yurii G. Vedmitskyi, et al.
In the paper is suggested new noncontact method of temperature measurement based on the phenomenon of the luminophor temperature decreasing, is developed the construction of the primary measurement transformer, that implements suggested method, and got its transformation equation.
Research of insulating oil percolation in electrical pressboard using optical registration
Przemysław Rogalski, Czesław Kozak
The paper presents developed and built measuring system for oil percolation through electrical pressboard speed measurements. The system by using automatically controlled camera records the time of percolation. The rate of insulating oil Nytro Taurus, produced by Nynas company, penetration across electrical pressboard, produced by Weidman company, was investigated. The time dependence of insulating oil percolation on sample thickness has been designated. New method of pressboard capillaries radius determining on the basis of oil percolation speed experimental measurements has been developed. It was found that electrical pressboard capillary radius is from 45 nm to over 100 nm.
System for water level measurement based on pressure transducer
Daniel Paczesny, Michał Marzęcki, Michał Woyke, et al.
The paper reports system for water level measurement, which is designed to be used for measuring liquid levels in the tanks of an autonomous industrial cleaning robot. The selected method of measurement utilized by the designed system is based on pressure measurement. Such system is insensitive on vibrations, foams presence and liquid impurities. The influences of variable pressure on the measurements were eliminated by utilizing the differential method and as well as the system design. The system is capable of measuring water level in tanks up to 400 mm of height with accuracy of about 2,5%. The system was tested in a container during filling and emptying with various liquids. Performed tests exhibited the linearity of the sensor characteristic and the lack of hysteresis. Obtained sensitivity of the sensor prototype was approximately 6,2 mV/mm H2O.
The concept and architecture of data communication in autonomous cleaning robots
Daniel Paczesny, Bartosz Nowak, Grzegorz Tarapata, et al.
The paper presents description of concept of hardware and software architecture which can be easy implemented in autonomous cleaning robots. The requirement for such system is its reliability but still offering free and simple expansions and modifications. The paper describes considerations of the control and communication system, the date frame configuration and the software architecture. To show results of presented control and development system the specialised measurement stand was also proposed and described. All performed tests passed successfully and as a consequence the system architecture was implemented on dedicated cleaning robots.
Identification of needs and requirements defined by services subordinated to the Minister of the Interior and Administration in key technology and user interfaces to develop a concept of the Video Signals Integrator (VSI) system
Preventing and eliminating the risks of terrorist attacks or natural disasters as well as an increase in the security of mass events and critical infrastructure requires the application of modern technologies. Therefore there is a proposal to construct a tool that integrates video signals transmitted by devices that are a part of video monitoring systems functioning in Poland. The article presents selected results of research conducted by the Police Academy in Szczytno under the implemented project for national defense and security on “Video Signals Integrator" Acronym – VSI. Project Leader: Warsaw University of Technology. The consortium: Police Academy in Szczytno, Atende Software Ltd., VORTEX Ltd. No. DOBBio7/ 01/02/2015 funded by the National Centre for Research and Development.
Video signals integrator (VSI) system architecture
Grzegorz Kasprowicz, Grzegorz Pastuszak, Krzysztof Poźniak, et al.
The purpose of the project is development of a platform which integrates video signals from many sources. The signals can be sourced by existing analogue CCTV surveillance installations, recent internet-protocol (IP) cameras or single cameras of any type. The system will consist of portable devices that provide conversion, encoding, transmission and archiving. The sharing subsystem will use distributed file system and also user console which provides simultaneous access to any of video streams in real time. The system is fully modular so its extension is possible, both from hardware and software side. Due to standard modular technology used, partial technology modernization is also possible during a long exploitation period.
Biomedical
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Temporary tattoo for wireless human pulse measurement
Andrzej Pepłowski, Daniel Janczak, Patrycja Krzemińska, et al.
Screen-printed sensor for measuring human pulse was designed and first tests using a demonstrator device were conducted. Various materials and sensors’ set ups were compared and the results are presented as the starting point for fabrication of fully functional device. As a screen printing substrate, commercially available temporary tattoo paper was used. Using previously developed nanomaterials-based pastes design of a pressure sensor was printed on the paper and attached to the epidermis. Measurements were aimed at determining sensors impedance constant component and its variability due to pressure wave caused by the human pulse. The constant component was ranging from 2kΩ to 6kΩ and the variations of the impedance were ranging from ±200Ω to ±2.5kΩ, depending on the materials used and the sensor’s configuration. Calculated signal-to-noise ratio was 3.56:1 for the configuration yielding the highest signal level. As the device’s net impedance influences the effectiveness of the wireless communication, the results presented allow for proper design of the sensor for future health-monitoring devices.
The use of statistical characteristics of measured signals to increasing the reliability of the rhinomanometric diagnosis
Yana Nosova, Natalia Shushliapina, Sergii V. Kostishyn, et al.
The article concerns the assessment of possibilities to increase the reliability of the rhinomanometry diagnosis using statistical characteristics of measured signals and corresponding differential pressure of an air flow in the nasal cavity during respiration. An original method for testing the patient's nasal breathing during forced inspiration has been proposed. It shows the influence of the space dimension of informative parameters on the diagnosis error probability. It has been proving that taking into account during the measurement experiment the dynamic modes in the operation of the diagnostic object, you can obtain the information redundancy that improves the reliability of diagnosis.
An informational model of sportsman’s competitive activities
Sergii M. Zlepko, Sergii V. Tymchyk, Anastasia O. Novikova, et al.
The informational model of sportsman’s competitive activities, developed by authors, which allows estimating the degree of sportsman’s training and preparedness for competitions and achievement of high results is considered in the article. The algorithm of model functioning and evaluating the level of sportsman training are suggested.
The use of strain gauge platform and virtual reality tool for patient stability examination
Wojciech Walendziuk, Lukasz Wysk, Marcin Skoczylas
Virtual reality is one of the fastest growing information technologies. This paper is only a prelude to a larger study on the use of virtual reality tools in analysing bony labyrinth and sense of balance. Problems with the functioning of these areas of the body are a controversial topic in debate among specialists. The result of still unresolved imbalance treatments is a constant number of people reporting this type of ailment. Considering above, authors created a system and application that contains a model of virtual environment, and a tool for the modification of the obstacles in 3D space. Preliminary studies of patients from a test group aged 22-49 years were also carried out, in which behaviour and sense of balance in relation to the horizontal curvature of the virtual world around patient has been analysed. Experiments carried out on a test group showed that the shape of the curve and the virtual world space and age of patient has a major impact on a sense of balance. The data obtained can be linked with actual disorders of bony labyrinth and human behaviour at the time of their occurrence. Another important achievement that will be the subject of further work is possible use a modified version of the software for rehabilitation purposes.
Implementation of control system for optogenetic devices and home-cage environments
In this article there is presented an implementation of control system for the extended experiments involving both the advanced functionalities of home-cage environments and optogenetic mechanisms. The issues associated with the system from control perspective are shown. The introduced novel mechanisms of developed system are discussed. Exemplary upcoming experiments with the utilization of the system are presented.
Objective models of EMG signals for cyclic processes such as a human gait
Luiza Babska, Monika Selegrat, Jacek J. Dusza
EMG signals are small potentials appearing at the surface of human skin during muscle work. They arise due to changes in the physiological state of cell membranes in the muscle fibers. They are characterized by a relatively low frequency range (500 Hz) and a low amplitude signal (of the order of μV), making it difficult to record. Raw EMG signal is inherently random shape. However we can distinguish certain features related to the activation of the muscles of a deterministic or quasi-deterministic associated with the movement and its parametric description. Objective models of EMG signals were created on the base of actual data obtained from the VICON system installed at the University of Physical Education in Warsaw. The object of research (healthy woman) moved repeatedly after a fixed track. On her body 35 reflective markers to record the gait kinematics and 8 electrodes to record EMG signals were placed. We obtained research data included more than 1,000 EMG signals synchronized with the phases of gait. Test result of the work is an algorithm for obtaining the average EMG signal received from the multiple registration gait cycles carried out in the same reproducible conditions. The method described in the article is essentially a pre-finding measurement data from the two quasi-synchronous signals at different sampling frequencies for further processing. This signal is characterized by a significant reduction of high frequency noise and emphasis on the specific characteristics of individual records found in muscle activity.
Quality improvement of diagnosis of the electromyography data based on statistical characteristics of the measured signals
Karina G. Selivanova, Oleg G. Avrunin, Sergii M. Zlepko, et al.
Research and systematization of motor disorders, taking into account the clinical and neurophysiologic phenomena, are important and actual problem of neurology. The article describes a technique for decomposing surface electromyography (EMG), using Principal Component Analysis. The decomposition is achieved by a set of algorithms that uses a specially developed for analyze EMG. The accuracy was verified by calculation of Mahalanobis distance and Probability error.
Identification and bioinformatics comparison of two novel phosphatases in monoecious and gynoecious cucumber lines
Magdalena E. Pawełkowicz, Michał Wojcieszek, Paweł Osipowski, et al.
Two Arabidopsis thaliana genes from the PP2C family of protein phosphatases (AtABI1 and AtABI2) were used to find orthologous genes in the Cucumis sativus L. cv. Borszczagowski (cucumber) genome. Cucumber has been used as a model plant for sex expression studies because although it has been defined as a monoecious species, numerous genotypes are known to produce only female, only male, or hermaphroditic flowers. We identified two new orthologous genes of AtABI1 and AtABI2 in the cucumber genome and named them CsABI1 and CsABI2. To determine the relationships between the regulation of CsABI1 and CsABI2 and flower morphogenesis in cucumber, we performed various computational analyses to define the structure of the genes, and to predict regulatory elements and protein motifs in their sequences. We also performed an expression analysis to identify differences in the expression levels of CsABI1 and CsABI2 in vegetative and generative tissues (leaf, shoot apex, and flower buds) of monoecious (B10) and gynoecious (2gg) cucumber lines. We found that the expressions of CsABI1 and CsABI2 differed in male and female floral buds, and correlated these findings with the abscisic acid signaling pathways in male and female flowers.
Application of SVM classifier in thermographic image classification for early detection of breast cancer
Witold Oleszkiewicz, Paweł Cichosz, Dariusz Jagodziński, et al.
This article presents the application of machine learning algorithms for early detection of breast cancer on the basis of thermographic images. Supervised learning model: Support vector machine (SVM) and Sequential Minimal Optimization algorithm (SMO) for the training of SVM classifier were implemented. The SVM classifier was included in a client-server application which enables to create a training set of examinations and to apply classifiers (including SVM) for the diagnosis and early detection of the breast cancer. The sensitivity and specificity of SVM classifier were calculated based on the thermographic images from studies. Furthermore, the heuristic method for SVM's parameters tuning was proposed.
Feature selection and definition for contours classification of thermograms in breast cancer detection
Dariusz Jagodziński, Mateusz Matysiewicz, Łukasz Neumann, et al.
This contribution introduces the method of cancer pathologies detection on breast skin temperature distribution images. The use of thermosensitive foils applied to the breasts skin allows to create thermograms, which displays the amount of infrared energy emitted by all breast cells. The significant foci of hyperthermia or inflammation are typical for cancer cells. That foci can be recognized on thermograms as a contours, which are the areas of higher temperature. Every contour can be converted to a feature set that describe it, using the raw, central, Hu, outline, Fourier and colour moments of image pixels processing. This paper defines also the new way of describing a set of contours through theirs neighbourhood relations. Contribution introduces moreover the way of ranking and selecting most relevant features. Authors used Neural Network with Gevrey`s concept and recursive feature elimination, to estimate feature importance.
Contour classification in thermographic images for detection of breast cancer
Rafał Okuniewski, Robert M. Nowak, Paweł Cichosz, et al.
Thermographic images of breast taken by the Braster device are uploaded into web application which uses different classification algorithms to automatically decide whether a patient should be more thoroughly examined. This article presents the approach to the task of classifying contours visible on thermographic images of breast taken by the Braster device in order to make the decision about the existence of cancerous tumors in breast. It presents the results of the researches conducted on the different classification algorithms.
Asymmetry features for classification of thermograms in breast cancer detection
Robert M. Nowak, Rafał Okuniewski, Witold Oleszkiewicz, et al.
The computer system for an automatic interpretation of thermographic pictures created by the Br-aster devices uses image processing and machine learning algorithms. The huge set of attributes analyzed by this software includes the asymmetry measurements between corresponding images, and these features are analyzed in presented paper. The system was tested on real data and achieves accuracy comparable to other popular techniques used for breast tumour detection.
Automatic recognition of thermographic examinations for early detection of breast cancer
Mateusz Matysiewicz, Łukasz Neumann, Robert M. Nowak, et al.
This article describes the processing and classification of thermographic examinations taken with device developed by Braster SA. The device records the surface temperature of the breast skin using the liquid crystal matrices. Images are analyzed with the use of machine learning algorithms. The result of classification is available after a few minutes and when it detects suspicious changes patient may be referred for detailed examinations.
Bioinformatic investigation of the role of ubiquitins in cucumber flower morphogenesis
Magdalena Pawełkowicz, Paweł Osipowski, Michał Wojcieszek, et al.
Three cDNA clones were used to screen cucumber genome in order to find genes and proteins. Functional annotation reveals that they are correlated with ubiquitination pathways. Various bioinformatics tools were used to screen and check protein sequences features such as: the presence of specific domains, transmembrane regions, cleavage site and cellular placement. The computational analysis for promotor region shows many binding sites for transcription factors, which could regulate the expression of genes. In order to check gene expression levels in developing flower buds of monoecious (B10) and gynoecious (2gg) cucumber lines, the real – time PCR technique was applied. The expression was checked for the whole buds and only for the 3rd and 4th whorls of bud when generative organ are form which were obtained by Laser Capture Microdissection (LCM) technique.
Device to determine the level of peripheral blood circulation and saturation
Tetyana I. Kozlovska, Sergii V. Sander, Sergii M. Zlepko, et al.
The paper evaluated the diagnostic value of laser photoplethysmography when examining patients with chronic lower limb ischemia. A statistical analysis of the research results was made, and diagrams of relationship between the degrees of ischemia and blood flow are presented. Development of the device to determine the level of peripheral blood circulation and saturation was presented. Also additional accessories in the form of optical fibers for different applications were suggested.
The utility of optical detection system (qPCR) and bioinformatics methods in reference gene expression analysis
Agnieszka Skarzyńska, Magdalena Pawełkowicz, Wojciech Pląder, et al.
Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction is consider as the most reliable method for gene expression studies. However, the expression of target gene could be misinterpreted due to improper normalization. Therefore, the crucial step for analysing of qPCR data is selection of suitable reference genes, which should be validated experimentally. In order to choice the gene with stable expression in the designed experiment, we performed reference gene expression analysis. In this study genes described in the literature and novel genes predicted as control genes, based on the in silico analysis of transcriptome data were used. Analysis with geNorm and NormFinder algorithms allow to create the ranking of candidate genes and indicate the best reference for flower morphogenesis study. According to the results, genes CACS and CYCL were characterised the most stable expression, but the least suitable genes were TUA and EF.
Human ECG indicators for fast screening and evaluation
Telemedical system design and implementation requires numerous steps. It is necessary to evaluate the operation of algorithms responsible for analysis and detection of life-threatening situations. By performing ECG analysis it is possible to obtain information about the overall patient health condition as well as detailed information about the circulatory system condition. To achieve that goal one must gather, filter and process data. Data was gathered using a purposely built device from a group of four volunteers. Available data set was processed to obtain information about the patients condition. Pan-Tompkins algorithm was used to detect R peaks and calculate heart rhythm. Afterward the rest of parameters were extracted in time domain using windowed peak detection and polynomial estimation. The parameters were calculated as delays between appropriate points in the signal. The method proved to be able to extract parameters in some of the cases, and proved limited effectiveness in situations where physical activity was significant. It was nevertheless possible to eliminate noise from the mains, the trend and higher frequency noise Further improvements need to be introduced to increase the method’s robustness in the presence of significant muscle noise.
Optical fiber head for monitoring of heart rate and blood oxygenation
Kacper Hoffmann, Agata Baranowska, Jacek Zmojda, et al.
In this article we presented possibility of heart rate and blood oxygenation measurements by classic displacement optical fiber sensor in reflection mode. Based on numerical analysis of sensor head characteristics the optimal construction was developed. Three LED diodes at the wavelengths of 530nm (green), 650nm (red) and 850nm (infrared) were used for determine heart rate and saturation of blood during “in vivo” measurements. Developed sensor head allows noninvasive and continuously monitoring of blood parameters.
A device for conducting a dynamic modes of UIAB therapy with automatic process testing
Hryhoriy I. Barylo, Zenon Yu. Hotra, Oleksandr T. Kozhukhar, et al.
The structure and circuit of the implemented device is using an environmentally friendly radiation sources and pulse photo stimulus modes with frequencies that correspond frequencies processes in BL to create bio resonance effects to accelerate the procedures. Proposed one of the possible hardware solutions are based on usage of dynamic irradiation modes and automatic continuous optical testing procedures UIAB and PP. The changes of the optical characteristics of BL provides the doctor continuous information on the effectiveness of the procedure on the patient's condition.
Development of implantable light source for optogenetics
Konstantin Rusakov, Czesław Radzewicz
The research described here aims at a design and fabrication of a light emitting module for a mobile optogenetic device for animals that are freely moving in the IntelliCage system cages. The device is designed to stimulate selected brain areas of the animal with light. The approach described here is based on a LED chip attached to the tip of a cannula which will be directly implanted into a mouse’s brain. The device has been fabricated and tested in a laboratory. In addition, we have observed optogenetic effect on the slice of mice brain tissue in vitro stimulated with our implants.
Novelty detection for breast cancer image classification
Pawel Cichosz, Dariusz Jagodziński, Mateusz Matysiewicz, et al.
Using classification learning algorithms for medical applications may require not only refined model creation techniques and careful unbiased model evaluation, but also detecting the risk of misclassification at the time of model application. This is addressed by novelty detection, which identifies instances for which the training set is not sufficiently representative and for which it may be safer to restrain from classification and request a human expert diagnosis. The paper investigates two techniques for isolated instance identification, based on clustering and one-class support vector machines, which represent two different approaches to multidimensional outlier detection. The prediction quality for isolated instances in breast cancer image data is evaluated using the random forest algorithm and found to be substantially inferior to the prediction quality for non-isolated instances. Each of the two techniques is then used to create a novelty detection model which can be combined with a classification model and used at the time of prediction to detect instances for which the latter cannot be reliably applied. Novelty detection is demonstrated to improve random forest prediction quality and argued to deserve further investigation in medical applications.
Liquid crystal foil for the detection of breast cancer
Michał Biernat, Marcin Trzyna, Agnieszka Byszek, et al.
Breast cancer is the most common malignant tumor in females around the world, representing 25.2% of all cancers in women. About 1.7 million women were diagnosed with breast cancer worldwide in 2012 with a death rate of about 522,0001,2. The most frequently used methods in breast cancer screening are imaging methods, i.e. ultrasonography and mammography. A common feature of these methods is that they inherently involve the use of expensive and advanced equipment. The development of advanced computer systems allowed for the continuation of research started already in the 1980s3 and the use of contact thermography in breast cancer screening. The physiological basis for the application of thermography in medical imaging diagnostics is the so-called dermothermal effect related to higher metabolism rate around focal neoplastic lesion. This phenomenon can occur on breast surface as localized temperature anomalies4. The device developed by Braster is composed of a detector that works on the basis of thermotropic liquid crystals, image acquisition device and a computer system for image data processing and analysis. Production of the liquid crystal detector was based on a proprietary CLCF technology (Continuous Liquid Crystal Film). In 2014 Braster started feasibility study to prove that there is a potential for artificial intelligence in early breast cancer detection using Braster’s proprietary technology. The aim of this study was to develop a computer system, using a client-server architecture, to an automatic interpretation of thermographic pictures created by the Braster devices.
Computer-aided analysis of signals from a low-coherence Fabry-Perot interferometer used for measurements of biological samples
The aim of the study was to develop an automated computer-aided system for analysis of spectrograms obtained from measurements of biological samples performed with a low-coherence Fabry-Pérot interferometer. Information necessary to determine dispersion characteristics of measured materials can be calculated from the positions of the maxima and minima that are present in their spectra. The main challenge faced during the development of the system was reliable detection of these maxima and minima in the presence of noise, without requiring substantial user interaction, and with an acceptable computational complexity.
Methods and fiber optics spectrometry system for control of photosensitizer in tissue during photodynamic therapy
Vladimir V. Kholin, Oksana M. Chepurna, Irina O. Shton, et al.
Photodynamic cancer therapy is used as an alternative or in combination with conventional treatments. PDT involves three key components: a photosensitizer, a light source and tissue oxygen. The combination of these three components leads to the chemical destruction of any tissues which have either selectively taken up the photosensitizer or have been locally exposed to light. In our research we used Charge-coupled device (CCD) spectrometers to measure intensity of the fluorescence signal. Devices allow receiving and processing signal in a CCD structure at a wide range of wavelengths. We have established a system for measuring the fluorescence of tumor tissue. These results are important for determining the dose of laser radiation and optimal time for laser action without damaging healthy tumor.
Miniature subcutaneous optogenetic device
Jakub Jarosiński, Grzegorz Kasprowicz, Bartłomiej Juszczyk, et al.
The objective of this article is to present a prototype of miniature, low power implantable device, suitable for optogenetics. The device is designed to control the light stimulation by generating the signal that controls the LEDs. Another function of the device is to gather the data from measurement sensors, sending it through the wireless interface and to provide location service functionality.
Preprocessing for classification of thermograms in breast cancer detection
Łukasz Neumann, Robert M. Nowak, Rafał Okuniewski, et al.
Performance of binary classification of breast cancer suffers from high imbalance between classes. In this article we present the preprocessing module designed to negate the discrepancy in training examples. Preprocessing module is based on standardization, Synthetic Minority Oversampling Technique and undersampling. We show how each algorithm influences classification accuracy. Results indicate that described module improves overall Area Under Curve up to 10% on the tested dataset. Furthermore we propose other methods of dealing with imbalanced datasets in breast cancer classification.
The effect of electromagnetic radiation of wireless connections on morphology of amniotic fluid
Vsevolod O. Novikov, Natalia Titova, Olexand Azarhov, et al.
The article considers the effect of wireless networks on the morphology of amniotic fluid (AF) to demonstrate possible risks involving pregnant women. The analysis of AF thesiograms after exposure of the model fluid to Wi-Fi, 3G and β- radiation was chosen as the research method. A comparative analysis of facies structures is carried out, and depth maps of the facies structure are created. This comparative analysis permits an evaluation of the efficiency of morphological changes. It is shown that AF control facies differ in the concentration of areas with a narrow peripheral area and ellipsoidal formations of crystalloids in circumferences center. After exposure of different types of radiation onto AF, the facies structures collapse and form their own conglomerates. The obtained results show that the considered types of radiation have a negative effect on AF.
The optical diagnostics of parameters of biological tissues of human intact skin in near-infrared range
Vasyl Petruk, Sergii Kvaternyuk, Boris Bolyuh, et al.
Melanoma skin is difficult to diagnose in the early stages of development despite its location outside. Melanoma is difficult to visually differentiate from benign melanocytic nevi. In the work we investigated parameters of human intact skin in near-infrared range for different racial and gender groups. This allows to analyze statistical differences in the coefficient of diffuse reflection and use them in the differential diagnosis of cancer by optical methods subject.
An application of Chan-Vese method used to determine the ROI area in CT lung screening
The article presents two approaches of determining the ROI area in CT lung screening. First approach is based on a classic method of framing the image in order to determine the ROI by using a MaZda tool. Second approach is based on segmentation of CT images of the lungs and reducing the redundant information from the image. Of the two approaches of an Active Contour, it was decided to choose the Chan-Vese method. In order to determine the effectiveness of the approach, it was performed an analysis of received ROI texture and extraction of textural features. In order to determine the effectiveness of the method, it was performed an analysis of the received ROI textures and extraction of the texture features, by using a Mazda tool. The results were compared and presented in the form of the radar graphs. The second approach proved to be effective and appropriate and consequently it is used for further analysis of CT images, in the computer-aided diagnosis of sarcoidosis.
Polarimetric characterisation of histological section of skin with pathological changes
This work focuses on the further development of the optical methods based on polarization detection to improve the reliability of the results of evaluation of structural changes in biological tissues. The paper presents an experimental study of tissues with pathological alterations to assess the capacity of differentiation of pathological conditions when using averaged local Mueller matrix elements. Experiments were carried out in direct scattering mode in histological samples of human epidermis. The practical significance of the results is the widespread application of the methodology for laser polarimetric analysis of structural changes in anisotropic tissues to identify and assess the degree of pathology in medical diagnosis of skin diseases.
Modular control system for optogenetic experiments
Mikołaj Sowiński, Paweł Kulik, Grzegorz Kasprowicz, et al.
This article presents a modular control system used in Eco-HAB experimentation system. Features specific to the solution are covered. Control system is described in details. The architecture is outlined in the context of requirements to be met. Modes of utilization of implantable device, time synchronization, localization service and antenna driving oscillation fine-tuning as well as preliminary experiments in preparation are described.
Real-time processing of EMG signals for bionic arm purposes
Ferran Olid Dominguez, Zbigniew M. Wawrzyniak
This paper is connected with the problem of prostheses, that have always been a necessity for the human being. Bio-physiological signals from muscles, electromyographic signals have been collected, analyzed and processed in order to implement a real-time algorithm which is capable of differentiation of two different states of a bionic hand: open and closed. An algorithm for real-time electromyographic signal processing with almost no false positives is presented and it is explained that in bio-physiological experiments proper signal processing is of great importance.
Hough transform for human action recognition
Nowadays, the demand of computer analysis, especially regarding team sports, continues drastically growing. More and more decisions are made by electronic devices for the live to become ‘easier’ to a certain context. There already exist application areas in sports, during which critical situations are being handled by means of digital software. This paper aims at the evaluation and introduction to the necessary foundation which would make it possible to develop a concept similar to that of ‘hawk-eye’, a decision-making program to evaluate the impact of a ball with respect to a target line and to apply it to the sport of volleyball. The pattern recognition process is in this case performed by means of the mathematical model of Hough transform which is able of identifying relevant lines and circles in the image in order to later on use them for the necessary evaluation of the image and the decision-making process.
Research Experiments
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Connections between femtoscopy results in small and large systems
Adam Kisiel
At the Large Hadron Collider nuclei are accelerated to speeds comparable to the speed of light. They are then collided and the resulting fireball quickly expands and is converted into thousands of particles. The LHC has the possibility to collide Pb ions and protons. A separate running mode enables asymmetric collisions of protons with Pb ions. A Pb ion, consisting of 208 nucleons can be considered “large” and a collision of two such ions produces a system which is at least an order of magnitude larger than its constituents. It is predicted that a new state of matter – Quark Gluon Plasma, consisting of deconfined quarks and gluons is created in such conditions. In contrast the collision of two protons is expected to be “small”. It is often treated as a “reference system”, where the creation of the QGP is not expected. However, this reasoning is based mostly on the expected size of the system created in pp collisions. It is therefore crucial to measure the size of both systems and confront it with the expectations. An intriguing question arises for p-Pb collisions, whether they should be treated as “small” or “large”. We shortly introduce the technique of femtoscopy, used to measure the size of the particle emitting system. We discuss its connection to the dynamics of the colllision evolution. We present recent femtoscopic results for pp, p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions and discuss the similarities and differences observed.
The development of algorithms for the deployment of new version of GEM-detector-based acquisition system
Rafał D. Krawczyk, Tomasz Czarski, Piotr Kolasiński, et al.
This article is an overview of what has been implemented in the process of development and testing the GEM detector based acquisition system in terms of post-processing algorithms. Information is given on mex functions for extended statistics collection, unified hex topology and optimized S-DAQ algorithm for splitting overlapped signals. Additional discussion on bottlenecks and major factors concerning optimization is presented.
Automatization of hardware configuration for plasma diagnostic system
A. Wojenski, K. T. Pozniak, G. Kasprowicz, et al.
Soft X-ray plasma measurement systems are mostly multi-channel, high performance systems. In case of the modular construction it is necessary to perform sophisticated system discovery in parallel with automatic system configuration. In the paper the structure of the modular system designed for tokamak plasma soft X-ray measurements is described. The concept of the system discovery and further automatic configuration is also presented. FCS application (FMC/ FPGA Configuration Software) is used for running sophisticated system setup with automatic verification of proper configuration. In order to provide flexibility of further system configurations (e.g. user setup), common communication interface is also described. The approach presented here is related to the automatic system firmware building presented in previous papers. Modular construction and multichannel measurements are key requirement in term of SXR diagnostics with use of GEM detectors.
Modeling of serial data acquisition structure for GEM detector system in Matlab
Piotr Kolasinski, Krzysztof T. Pozniak, Tomasz Czarski, et al.
This article presents method of modeling in Matlab hardware architecture dedicated for FPGA created by languages like VHDL or Verilog. Purposes of creating such type of model with its advantages and disadvantages are described. Rules presented in this article were exploited to create model of Serial Data Acquisition algorithm used in X-ray GEM detector system. Result were compared to real working model implemented in VHDL. After testing of basic structure, other two structures were modeled to see influence parameters of the structure on its behavior.
Algorithm for fast event parameters estimation on GEM acquired data
Paweł Linczuk, Rafał D. Krawczyk, Krzysztof T. Poźniak, et al.
We present study of a software-hardware environment for developing fast computation with high throughput and low latency methods, which can be used as back-end in High Energy Physics (HEP) and other High Performance Computing (HPC) systems, based on high amount of input from electronic sensor based front-end. There is a parallelization possibilities discussion and testing on Intel HPC solutions with consideration of applications with Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) measurement systems presented in this paper.
Test systems of the STS-XYTER2 ASIC: from wafer-level to in-system verification
Krzysztof Kasinski, Weronika Zubrzycka
The STS/MUCH-XYTER2 ASIC is a full-size prototype chip for the Silicon Tracking System (STS) and Muon Chamber (MUCH) detectors in the new fixed-target experiment Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) at FAIR-center, Darmstadt, Germany. The STS assembly includes more than 14000 ASICs. The complicated, time-consuming, multi-step assembly process of the detector building blocks and tight quality assurance requirements impose several intermediate testing to be performed for verifying crucial assembly steps (e.g. custom microcable tab-bonding before wire-bonding to the PCB) and - if necessary - identifying channels or modules for rework. The chip supports the multi-level testing with different probing / contact methods (wafer probe-card, pogo-probes, in-system tests). A huge number of ASICs to be tested restricts the number and kind of tests possible to be performed within a reasonable time. The proposed architectures of test stand equipment and a brief summary of methodologies are presented in this paper.
Digital filters in radio detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory
Zbigniew Szadkowski, Dariusz Głas
Ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) are the most energetic observable particles in Universe. The main challenge in detecting such energetic particles is very small flux. Most experiments focus on detecting Extensive Air Showers (EAS), initiated by primary UHECR particle in interaction with particles of the atmosphere. One of the observation method is detecting the radio emission from the EAS. This emission was theoretically suggested in 1960's, but technological development allow successful detection only in the last several years. This detection technique is used by Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA). Most of the emission can be observed in frequency band 30 - 80 MHz, however this range is contaminated by radio frequency interferences (RFI). These contaminations must be reduced to decrease false trigger rate. Currently, there are two kind of digital filters used in AERA. One of them is median filter, based on Fast Fourier Transform. Second one is the notch filter, which is a composition of four infinite impulse response filters. Those filters have properly work in AERA radio detectors for many years. Dynamic progress in electronics allows to use more sophisticated algorithms of RFI reduction. Planned modernization of the AERA radio detectors' electronic allows to use finte impulse response (FIR) filters, which can fast adapt to environment conditions. These filters are: Least Mean Squares (LMS) filter and filter based on linear prediction (LP). Tests of new kind of filters are promising and show that FIR filters can be used in next generation radio detectors in AERA experiment.
Proton femtoscopy at BES
Sebastian Siejka
Through experiments with heavy-ion collisons at high energies we can study the properties of nuclear matter under extreme conditions. The information on the sizes of the particle-emitting sources can be inferred via the method of femtoscopy. The femtoscopy method uses Quantum Statistics effects and the Final State Interactions to determine the space-time properties of the source. The radii of the sources extracted from two-baryon femtoscopy along with those obtained from two-meson and meson-baryon correlations provide complementary information about the source characteristics. In this report we present recent STAR results of proton-proton, antiproton-antiproton and proton-antiproton correlation functions from Au+Au collisions at √sNN of 7.7 GeV, 11.5 GeV and 39 GeV.
Studying the mechanisms of particle production using the angular correlations
Recent preliminary results from ALICE on two-particle angular correlations in √s = 7 TeV proton-proton data revealed surprising structures in the ΔηΔφ correlation functions for like-sign baryon pairs. Those effects are clearly connected to the mechanisms of particle production. In order to gain new insights on this topic, in this work we show detailed studies of two-particle angular correlations obtained with Pythia Monte Carlo model. We conclude that the considered model does not reproduce experimental observations and therefore new constraints on the baryon production mechanisms should be proposed.
Timing module for MTCA MCH
M. Gumiński, G. Kasprowicz
White Rabbit is an extension of Precise Time Protocol for synchronous Ethernet networks. Network created with dedicated WR switches enable synchronisation of WR capable devices with 1 ns precision. MicroTCA on the other hand is open standard defining cost efficient shelves capable of housing AMC modules used for data processing.

Presented article give further introduction to WR and MTCA standard. The most important aspects of MTCA system are described, with focus on shelf controller and its functionality. Following part describes timing difficulties in MTCA systems and possible solutions. Main section describes extension module for MCH, capable of implementing White Rabbit node and distributing acquired timing to all modules connected to MTCA. Conclusions are given at the end of the article.
Overview of recent results from the Beam Energy Scan program in the STAR experiment
It is believed, that shortly after the Big Bang the Universe existed in the state of the Quark Gluon Plasma, where quarks and gluons act as quasi-free particles. During relativistic heavy ion collisions this state of matter can be reproduced. Quantum Chromo-Dynamics (QCD) calculations show possible existence of the critical point and the 1st order phase transition between hadron gas and QGP. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider’s (RHIC) program called Beam Energy Scan (BES) was developed for experimental verification of above QCD predictions. Within this program the Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC (STAR) experiment gathered data from gold-gold collisions at √sNN = 7.7, 11.5, 14.5, 19.6, 27, 39, 62.4 and 200 GeV. This data are analysed by STAR Collaboration in search for answers to questions concerning the nuclear matter phases, namely: what is the collision energy for the onset of the QGP formation? What is the nature of a phase transition between QGP and hadron gas? Is there a critical point and if yes, where is it situated? In this proceedings a few of the latest STAR results that address these questions are presented.
Visualization stabilization methods for the CERN ALICE high energy physics experiment
Visual data 3D reconstruction is an important challenge in the LHC ALICE detector experiment. Visualization of 3D data is also an important subject of photonics in general. In this paper we have proposed several solutions enabling effective perception and location based visualization of data provided by detectors in high energy physics experiments.
Quarkonia production vs event activity
Leszek Kosarzewski
Quarkonia studies are important for understanding the properties of quark-gluon plasma produced in heavy-ion collisions. The production mechanism of quarkonia is not well understood. Studies of quarkonia production vs. event activity may provide information about overall particle production mechanism and about the interplay of hard and soft processes in a collision. In this paper, the overview of recent results of quarkonia vs. event activity from RHIC and LHC is presented. The preliminary results of Υ production in ρ+ρ at √s = 500GeV from the STAR experiment are also presented. These results may give an answer, whether the behavior of Υ vs. event activity is similar at LHC and RHIC.
SOLPEX x-ray polarimeter detector luminescence background calculated using Geant4 simulation software
The Soft X-ray Solar polarimeter-spectrometer (SOLPEX) experiment is planned to be placed in Roscosmos’ Multipurpose Laboratory Module “NAUKA” on International Space Station (ISS) in 2019. The experiment is design to detect polarization and X-ray spectra of solar flares. Due to very high, few percent, linear polarization detection limit, accurate background estimation and modeling is crucial.

Calculating the background photoelectric effect, Compton scattering and Bremsstrahlung were taken into account. Luminescence background from particles produced in solar flares was simulated using Geant4. Additionally, theoretical spectra was modeled in order to simulate full SOLPEX detector response for M5 and X1 solar flare classes.
Simulation of Caliste-SO single pixel response
J. Barylak, A. Barylak, T. Mrozek, et al.
The paper presents a method for determining the pixel response using Geant4 package. The response is calculated for cadmium telluride sensor of Caliste-SO detector. Caliste-SO will be used in STIX instrument on board Solar Orbiter, which is M-class mission of the ESA’s program Cosmic Vision 2015-2025. Solar Orbiter is to be launched in October 2018. STIX instrument will provide imaging spectroscopy of solar hard X-ray emissions (4 – 150 keV) using a Fourier-imaging technique. Response of pixels in pixelized Caliste-SO detector vary between each other due to different sizes and locations. This can influence the scientific data obtained from STIX. Additionally, in the simulation we considered detector effects, like: hole tailing, damage layer, Fano and electronic noise.
GEM detectors development for radiation environment: neutron tests and simulations
Maryna Chernyshova, Sławomir Jednoróg, Karol Malinowski, et al.
One of the requests from the ongoing ITER-Like Wall Project is to have diagnostics for Soft X-Ray (SXR) monitoring in tokamak. Such diagnostics should be focused on tungsten emission measurements, as an increased attention is currently paid to tungsten due to a fact that it became a main candidate for the plasma facing material in ITER and future fusion reactor. In addition, such diagnostics should be able to withstand harsh radiation environment at tokamak during its operation. The presented work is related to the development of such diagnostics based on Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) technology. More specifically, an influence of neutron radiation on performance of the GEM detectors is studied both experimentally and through computer simulations. The neutron induced radioactivity (after neutron source exposure) was found to be not pronounced comparing to an impact of other secondary neutron reaction products (during the exposure).
Technological aspects of GEM detector design and assembling for soft x-ray application
E. Kowalska-Strzęciwilk, M. Chernyshova
Various types of Micro Pattern Gas Detectors (MPGDs) found applications as tracking detectors in high energy particle physics experiments and as well as imaging detectors, especially for soft X-rays. These detectors offer several advantages like high count rate capability, good spatial and energy resolution, low cost and possibility of constructing large area detectors with very small dead area. Construction, like the triple Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector has become a standard detector, which is widely used for different imaging applications. Some examples of such applications are: monitoring the impurity in plasma, imaging system for mapping of some parameters like pigment distributions using X-ray fluorescence technique[1], proton range radiography system for quality assurance in hadron therapy. Measuring of the Soft X-Ray (SXR) radiation of magnetic fusion plasma is a standard way of accessing valuable information, for example, about particle transport and MHD. The paper is focused on the design of GEM based soft Xray radiation detecting system which is under development. It is dedicated to study soft X-ray emission of plasma radiation with focus on tungsten emission lines energy region. The paper presents the designing, construction and assembling of a prototype of two triple-GEM detectors for soft-X ray application on the WEST device.
Algorithms development for the GEM-based detection system
The measurement system based on GEM - Gas Electron Multiplier detector - is developed for soft X-ray diagnostics of tokamak plasmas. The multi-channel setup is designed for estimation of the energy and the position distribution of an Xray source. The focal measuring issue is the charge cluster identification by its value and position estimation. The fast and accurate mode of the serial data acquisition is applied for the dynamic plasma diagnostics. The charge clusters are counted in the space determined by 2D position, charge value and time intervals. Radiation source characteristics are presented by histograms for a selected range of position, time intervals and cluster charge values corresponding to the energy spectra.
How THERMINATOR model works for BES program
Krzysztof Brzeziński, Paweł Szymański, Hanna Zbroszczyk
Phenomenological models are used in simulations of heavy-ion collisions. They are based on Monte Carlo methods. One of these models is Therminator. In order to adapt THERMINATOR to energies from the Beam Energy Scan Program, some input parameters of the generator need to be estimated.

Femtoscopy of two particles gives information about space-time characteristics of the source. To check compatibility between the experimental data and the data from the THERMINATOR correlation functions are calculated and the source sizes for identical pion are determined. The sizes calculated for various energies from the STAR experiment are compared with the STAR experimental data.
Pi of the Sky involvement in LSC-Virgo electromagnetic follow-up project
Adam Zadrożny, Marcin Sokołowski, Lech Mankiewicz, et al.
Pi of the Sky took part in LSC-Virgo's Electromagnetic (EM) Follow-up project during first science run of Advanced LIGO detectors between September 2015 and January 2016. More than 60 astronomical teams have signed Memorandum-of-Understanding with LSC-Virgo for EM Follow-up project. LSC-Virgo's EM Follow-up is aimed for searching electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational wave transient candidates. Observing an event both in EM and gravitational wave band might be a important step forward to multi-messenger astronomy. The aim of this paper is to show algorithms used by Pi of the Sky for analysing data taken during the science runs.
Development and validation of the Overlap Muon Track Finder for the CMS experiment
J. Dobosz, P. Miętki, K. Zawistowski, et al.
Present article is a description of the authors contribution in upgrade and analysis of performance of the Level-1 Muon Trigger of the CMS experiment. The authors are students of University of Warsaw and Gdansk University of Technology. They are collaborating with the CMS Warsaw Group. This article summarises students' work presented during the Students session during the Workshop XXXVIII-th IEEE-SPIE Joint Symposium Wilga 2016. In the first section the CMS experiment is briefly described and the importance of the trigger system is explained. There is also shown basic difference between old muon trigger strategy and the upgraded one. The second section is devoted to Overlap Muon Track Finder (OMTF). This is one of the crucial components of the Level-1 Muon Trigger. The algorithm of OMTF is described. In the third section there is discussed one of the event selection aspects - cut on the muon transverse momentum pT . Sometimes physical muon with pT bigger than a certain threshold is unnecessarily cut and physical muon with lower pT survives. To improve pT selection modified algorithm was proposed and its performance was studied. One of the features of the OMTF is that one physical muon often results in several muon candidates. The Ghost-Buster algorithm is designed to eliminate surplus candidates. In the fourth section this algorithm and its performance on different data samples are discussed. In the fifth section Local Data Acquisition System (Local DAQ) is briefly described. It supports initial system commissioning. The test done with OMTF Local DAQ are described. In the sixth section there is described development of web application used for the control and monitoring of CMS electronics. The application provides access to graphical user interface for manual control and the connection to the CMS hierarchical Run Control.
High Performance Computing
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Analysis of the positivity of fractional standard and descriptor continuous-time linear systems by the use of Caputo-Fabrizio definition
Tadeusz Kaczorek
Using the Caputo-Fabrizio definition of fractional order derivative the positivity and asymptotic stability of the fractional standard and descriptor continuous-time linear systems are investigated. The solution to the matrix fractional differential state equations is derived. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the positivity and asymptotic stability of the fractional linear systems are established. Tests for checking of the asymptotic stability of the systems are given. The Weierstrass-Kronecker theorem on the decomposition of the regular pencil is extended to the fractional descriptor continuous-time linear systems described by the Caputo-Fabrizio derivative. A method for computing of the solution of the continuoustime systems is presented. Necessary and sufficient conditions for positivity and stability of the descriptor systems are established.
Conception of discrete systems decomposition algorithm using p-invariants and hypergraphs
Ł. Stefanowicz
In the article author presents an idea of decomposition algorithm of discrete systems described by Petri Nets using pinvariants. Decomposition process is significant from the point of view of discrete systems design, because it allows separation of the smaller sequential parts. Proposed algorithm uses modified Martinez-Silva method as well as author’s selection algorithm. The developed method is a good complement of classical decomposition algorithms using graphs and hypergraphs.
Automatic latency equalization in VHDL-implemented complex pipelined systems
In the pipelined data processing systems it is very important to ensure that parallel paths delay data by the same number of clock cycles. If that condition is not met, the processing blocks receive data not properly aligned in time and produce incorrect results. Manual equalization of latencies is a tedious and error-prone work. This paper presents an automatic method of latency equalization in systems described in VHDL. The proposed method uses simulation to measure latencies and verify introduced correction. The solution is portable between different simulation and synthesis tools. The method does not increase the complexity of the synthesized design comparing to the solution based on manual latency adjustment. The example implementation of the proposed methodology together with a simple design demonstrating its use is available as an open source project under BSD license.
Version control friendly project management system for FPGA designs
In complex FPGA designs, usage of version control system is a necessity. It is especially important in the case of designs developed by many developers or even by many teams. The standard development mode, however, offered by most FPGA vendors is the GUI based project mode. It is very convenient for a single developer, who can easily experiment with project settings, browse and modify the sources hierarchy, compile and test the design. Unfortunately, the project configuration is stored in files which are not suited for use with Version Control System (VCS). Another important problem in big FPGA designs is reuse of IP cores. Even though there are standard solutions like IEEE 1685-2014, they suffer from some limitations particularly significant for complex systems (e.g. only simple types are allowed for IP-core ports, it is not possible to use parametrized instances of IP-cores). Additionally, the overhead associated with packaging of IP-cores is significant and not justified for simple reusable blocks.

This paper presents a system aimed at storing the whole design in a VCS oriented form. The hierarchy of sources is described with textual ”extended project (EPRJ) files” which are fully controlled by the user and may also be put in a VCS. The IP blocks may be easily added to the project just by including the accompanying EPRJ file. Both absolute and relative file paths may be used which allows the flexible structure of directories. The sources of locally developed IP blocks may be stored in directories located inside the main source tree, while sources of independently developed blocks, using separate VCS repositories, may be located outside that tree. The environment allows splitting the design into smaller parts, which are synthesized independently. That reduces the time needed to recompile the whole design if only a few blocks are modified. The system creates the standard project, which can be used for convenient interactive work with the design. After the interactive session, the user should transfer changes of settings into the system files (also under VCS control). With that approach, it is always possible to recreate any stable version of the project from the VCS. The system also provides a possibility of automated rebuilding of the design from the VCS stored files. That is especially useful for ”build servers” used in serious projects. The development of the system was inspired by the needs of firmware development for the CBM experiment. The system has been developed mainly for Xilinx Vivado tools, but adaptation for Altera Quartus is planned in the nearest future. The system is developed as a free and Open Source solution.
Application of temporal LNC logic in artificial intelligence
Marek Adamek, Jan Mulawka
This paper presents the temporal logic inference engine developed in our university. It is an attempt to demonstrate implementation and practical application of temporal logic LNC developed in Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University in Warsaw.1 The paper describes the fundamentals of LNC logic, architecture and implementation of inference engine. The practical application is shown by providing the solution for popular in Artificial Intelligence problem of Missionaries and Cannibals in terms of LNC logic. Both problem formulation and inference engine are described in details.
Classification of Polish shale gas boreholes using measurement data
Kacper Radzikowski, Robert Nowak, Jarosław Arabas, et al.
In this article we propose the algorithm for computing the degree of similarity between two shale gas boreholes. The algorithm uses data and measurements from already existing and examined boreholes, and uses K-nearest neighbours algorithm for calculating the similarity between each known borehole, and a new borehole, as a form of classification. Several experiments were conducted, in order to assess the complexity and correctness of the algorithm. This article describes the proposed method, and the experiments, as well as results.
BFT replication resistant to MAC attacks
Maciej Zbierski
Over the last decade numerous Byzantine fault-tolerant (BFT) replication protocols have been proposed in the literature. However, the vast majority of these solutions reuse the same authentication scheme, which makes them susceptible to a so called MAC attack. Such vulnerability enables malicious clients to undetectably prevent the replicated service from processing incoming client requests, and consequently making it permanently unavailable. While some BFT protocols attempted to address this issue by using different authentication mechanisms, they at the same time significantly degraded the performance achieved in correct environments. This article presents a novel adaptive authentication mechanism which can be combined with practically any Byzantine fault-tolerant replication protocol. Unlike previous solutions, the proposed scheme dynamically switches between two operation modes to combine high performance in correct environments and liveness during MAC attacks. The experiment results presented in the article demonstrate that the proposed mechanism can sufficiently tolerate MAC attacks without introducing any observable overhead whenever no faults are present.
Gate-based decomposition of index generation functions
Tadeusz Łuba, Grzegorz Borowik, Cezary Jankowski
Index Generation Functions may be useful in distribution of IP addresses, virus scanning, or undesired data detection. Traditional approach leads to universal cells based decomposition. In this paper an original method is proposed. The proposed multilevel logic synthesis method based on functional decomposition uses gates instead of cells. Furthermore, it preserves advantages of functional decomposition and is well suited for ROM-based synthesis of Index Generation Functions.
Methods for reliability evaluation of trust and reputation systems
Trust and reputation systems are a systematic approach to build security on the basis of observations of node’s behaviour. Exchange of node’s opinions about other nodes is very useful to indicate nodes which act selfishly or maliciously. The idea behind trust and reputation systems gets significance because of the fact that conventional security measures (based on cryptography) are often not sufficient. Trust and reputation systems can be used in various types of networks such as WSN, MANET, P2P and also in e-commerce applications.

Trust and reputation systems give not only benefits but also could be a thread itself. Many attacks aim at trust and reputation systems exist, but such attacks still have not gain enough attention of research teams. Moreover, joint effects of many of known attacks have been determined as a very interesting field of research. Lack of an acknowledged methodology of evaluation of trust and reputation systems is a serious problem. This paper aims at presenting various approaches of evaluation such systems. This work also contains a description of generalization of many trust and reputation systems which can be used to evaluate reliability of such systems in the context of preventing various attacks.
Monitoring of distributed systems using historical debuggers
Michał Komorowski
Historical debuggers are tools that give insight into the history of program execution. This functionality is usually achieved by recording logs (execution traces). There are many tools of this kind but only limited number of them is capable of monitoring of distributed systems. It is a serious problem as the majority of contemporary information systems has distributed nature. This paper shows how to monitor and trace distributed systems using historical debuggers that were designed to work locally. The proposed concept consists of an approach for the correlation of execution traces that were recorded on different nodes of a distributed system that was monitored.
Dependability analysis of WRT54GL router
Piotr Gawkowski, Marcin Dzieżyc
The paper presents the methodology, techniques and achieved results of dependability analysis of popular WRT54GL router using complex Software Implemented Fault Injection (SWIFI) system. Several problems and their solutions are discussed and presented, for instance, the SWIFI in embedded system, high controllability over the injected faults and observability of their effects, and the automation of the experiments. They are presented on the background of the achieved dependability results.
Development of dialog system powered by textual educational content
Oleg V. Bisikalo, Sergei M. Dovgalets, Paweł Pijarski, et al.
The advances in computer technology require an interconnection between a man and computer, more specifically, between complex information systems. The paper is therefore dedicated to creation of dialog systems, able to respond to users depending on the implemented textual educational content. To support the dialog there had been suggested the knowledge base model on the basis of the unit and a fuzzy sense relation. Lexical meanings is taken out from the text by processing the syntactic links between the allologs of all the sentences and the answer shall be generated as the composition of a fuzzy ratios upon the formal criterion. The information support technology had been put to an evaluation sample test, which demonstrates the combination of information from some sentences in the final response.
Evaluation of uncertainty of control by measurement with logical conditions
Vladimir M. Dubovoi, Maria S. Yukhymchuk, Daniel Sawicki, et al.
The method for evaluation of uncertainty in control by measurement systems with logical conditions under impact of parametric perturbations was proposed. The method is based on the linearization relay and logical transformations. Relay ones were linearized by harmonic method. Logical ones were linearized by arithmetic decomposition of logical function. Efficiency of method proved by comparison of results in simulation system.
Evaluation of multilayer perceptron algorithms for an analysis of network flow data
Jędrzej Bieniasz, Mariusz Rawski, Krzysztof Skowron, et al.
The volume of exchanged information through IP networks is larger than ever and still growing. It creates a space for both benign and malicious activities. The second one raises awareness on security network devices, as well as network infrastructure and a system as a whole. One of the basic tools to prevent cyber attacks is Network Instrusion Detection System (NIDS). NIDS could be realized as a signature-based detector or an anomaly-based one. In the last few years the emphasis has been placed on the latter type, because of the possibility of applying smart and intelligent solutions. An ideal NIDS of next generation should be composed of self-learning algorithms that could react on known and unknown malicious network activities respectively. In this paper we evaluated a machine learning approach for detection of anomalies in IP network data represented as NetFlow records. We considered Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) as the classifier and we used two types of learning algorithms – Backpropagation (BP) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). This paper includes a comprehensive survey on determining the most optimal MLP learning algorithm for the classification problem in application to network flow data. The performance, training time and convergence of BP and PSO methods were compared. The results show that PSO algorithm implemented by the authors outperformed other solutions if accuracy of classifications is considered. The major disadvantage of PSO is training time, which could be not acceptable for larger data sets or in real network applications. At the end we compared some key findings with the results from the other papers to show that in all cases results from this study outperformed them.
Quantum search simulation with Wolfram Mathematica
We consider Grover's algorithm of quantum search for one or several integers out of N = 2n, where n is a number of quantum bits in the memory register. There is a black-box or subroutine containing information about hidden integers and it can easily recognize these integers but we do not know which ones out of N they are. To find the hidden items we can do no better with a classical computer than to apply the subroutine repeatedly to all possible integers until we hit on the special one and in the worst case we have to repeat this procedure N times. We have analyzed the Grover algorithm carefully and showed that it enables to speed up this search quadratically, although its realization requires to know a number of hidden items. The lower bound for the probability of successful solving the search problem has been obtained. The validity of the results was demonstrated by simulation of the Grover search algorithm using the package QuantumCircuit written in the Wolfram Mathematica language.
Modeling adaptive non-repudiation security services
Marcin A. Tunia
Non-repudiation security service helps to protect an electronic system against false denial of performing certain actions by the participants of communication involving that system. In the development process of such a security service it is important to implement all the necessary elements and adapt them in accordance with the defined protection scope. There are several types of non-repudiation and cases of their use. In this paper the author focuses on the situation when a nonrepudiation service is being implemented on an application server. All necessary actions of the users i.e. of people and/or machines are recorded by the service. Currently a new type of security services called “context-aware security services” is under studies. This type of service involves acquiring and processing additional information in order to provide flexible protection. This paper presents the elements of non-repudiation security service and how the elements can be modeled with context awareness support including reputation systems.
A method of transition conflict resolving in hierarchical control
The paper concerns the problem of automatic solving of transition conflicts in hierarchical concurrent state machines (also known as UML state machine). Preparing by the designer a formal specification of a behaviour free from conflicts can be very complex. In this paper, it is proposed a method for solving conflicts through transition predicates modification. Partially specified predicates in the nondeterministic diagram are transformed into a symbolic Boolean space, whose points of the space code all possible valuations of transition predicates. Next, all valuations under partial specifications are logically multiplied by a function which represents all possible orthogonal predicate valuations. The result of this operation contains all possible collections of predicates, which under given partial specification make that the original diagram is conflict free and deterministic.
The compressed average image intensity metric for stereoscopic video quality assessment
The following article depicts insights towards design, creation and testing of a genuine metric designed for a 3DTV video quality evaluation. The Compressed Average Image Intensity (CAII) mechanism is based upon stereoscopic video content analysis, setting its core feature and functionality to serve as a versatile tool for an effective 3DTV service quality assessment. Being an objective type of quality metric it may be utilized as a reliable source of information about the actual performance of a given 3DTV system, under strict providers evaluation. Concerning testing and the overall performance analysis of the CAII metric, the following paper presents comprehensive study of results gathered across several testing routines among selected set of samples of stereoscopic video content. As a result, the designed method for stereoscopic video quality evaluation is investigated across the range of synthetic visual impairments injected into the original video stream.
Fault tolerance techniques for embedded telemetry system: case study
Kazimierz Krosman, Janusz Sosnowski
This paper presents software methods of improving fault tolerance in embedded systems. These methods have been adapted to a telemetry system dedicated to tracking vehicles for logistics purposes. The developed telemetry system allows us to monitor vehicle position and some technical parameters via GSM communication. It comprises the capability of remote software reconfiguration. To evaluate dependability of the system we use a fault injection technique based on simulating bit-flip errors within memory cells. For this purpose an original testbed has been developed. It provides not only the capability of disturbing internal state of the tested system (via JTAG interface) but also the possibility of controlling system input states and observing its behavior (in particular output signals) according to specified test scenarios. The whole test process is automatized. The paper presents a case study related to a commercial product but the described methodology and techniques can be extended for other embedded systems.
Reduction of influence of gain errors on performance of adaptive sub-ranging A/D converters with simplified architecture
Konrad Jędrzejewski, Łukasz Malkiewicz
The paper presents the results of studies pertaining to the influence of gain errors of inter-stage amplifiers on performance of adaptive sub-ranging analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). It focuses on adaptive sub-ranging ADCs with simplified architecture of the analog part – using only one amplifier and a low resolution digital-to-analog converter, that is identical to that of known conventional sub-ranging ADCs. The only difference between adaptive subranging ADCs with simplified architecture and conventional sub-ranging ADCs is the process of determination of output codes of converted samples. The adaptive sub-ranging ADCs calculate the output codes on the basis of sub-codes obtained in particular stages of conversion using an adaptive algorithm. Thanks to application of the optimal adaptive algorithm, adjusted to the parameters of possible components imperfections and internal noises, the adaptive ADCs outperform, in terms of effective resolution per cycle, conventional sub-ranging ADCs forming the output codes using simple lower-level bit operations. Optimization of the conversion algorithm used in adaptive ADCs leads however to high sensitivity of adaptive ADCs performance to the inter-stage gain error. An effective method for reduction of this sensitivity in adaptive sub-ranging ADCs with simplified architecture is proposed and discussed in the paper.
RPython high-level synthesis
Radoslaw Cieszewski, Maciej Linczuk
The development of FPGA technology and the increasing complexity of applications in recent decades have forced compilers to move to higher abstraction levels. Compilers interprets an algorithmic description of a desired behavior written in High-Level Languages (HLLs) and translate it to Hardware Description Languages (HDLs). This paper presents a RPython based High-Level synthesis (HLS) compiler. The compiler get the configuration parameters and map RPython program to VHDL. Then, VHDL code can be used to program FPGA chips. In comparison of other technologies usage, FPGAs have the potential to achieve far greater performance than software as a result of omitting the fetch-decode-execute operations of General Purpose Processors (GPUs), and introduce more parallel computation. This can be exploited by utilizing many resources at the same time. Creating parallel algorithms computed with FPGAs in pure HDL is difficult and time consuming. Implementation time can be greatly reduced with High-Level Synthesis compiler. This article describes design methodologies and tools, implementation and first results of created VHDL backend for RPython compiler.
Uniform asymptotic analysis of electromagnetic signal evolution in dispersive Lorentz medium
Uniform asymptotic technique, developed by Bleistein and Handelsman, is applied to find asymptotic representation for the evolution of harmonic, amplitude modulated signal in a dispersive Lorentz medium. The results obtained are uniform in space and time and under mature space/time conditions recover Sommerfeld and Brillouin precursors followed by the main signal. In a special case Sommerfeld and here obtained results are in full agreement.
New simulation method of the parallel-hierarchical network for data processing based on network representation as a collection of number sets
Leonid I. Timchenko, Natalia I. Kokriatskaya, Мarina P. Poddubetskaya, et al.
The article describes a new simulation method for the parallel-hierarchical network based on number sets. Software was developed that simulates G-transformations at each level of the network according to preselected elements. In addition, software was developed that simulates the basic network of certain dimension by forming its number sets. Obtained results may be used for solving problems of processing and organizing large data volumes, including graphic ones.
Entropy-based consistent model driven architecture
A description of software architecture is a plan of the IT system construction, therefore any architecture gaps affect the overall success of an entire project. The definitions mostly describe software architecture as a set of views which are mutually unrelated, hence potentially inconsistent. Software architecture completeness is also often described in an ambiguous way. As a result most methods of IT systems building comprise many gaps and ambiguities, thus presenting obstacles for software building automation. In this article the consistency and completeness of software architecture are mathematically defined based on calculation of entropy of the architecture description. Following this approach, in this paper we also propose our method of automatic verification of consistency and completeness of the software architecture development method presented in our previous article as Consistent Model Driven Architecture (CMDA). The proposed FBS (Functionality-Behaviour-Structure) entropy-based metric applied in our CMDA approach enables IT architects to decide whether the modelling process is complete and consistent. With this metric, software architects could assess the readiness of undergoing modelling work for the start of IT system building. It even allows them to assess objectively whether the designed software architecture of the IT system could be implemented at all. The overall benefit of such an approach is that it facilitates the preparation of complete and consistent software architecture more effectively as well as it enables assessing and monitoring of the ongoing modelling development status. We demonstrate this with a few industry examples of IT system designs.
Usage of the hybrid encryption in a cloud instant messages exchange system
Roman N. Kvyetnyy, Olexander N. Romanyuk, Evgenii O. Titarchuk, et al.
A new approach for constructing cloud instant messaging represented in this article allows users to encrypt data locally by using Diffie - Hellman key exchange protocol. The described approach allows to construct a cloud service which operates only by users encrypted messages; encryption and decryption takes place locally at the user party using a symmetric AES encryption. A feature of the service is the conferences support without the need for messages reecryption for each participant. In the article it is given an example of the protocol implementation on the ECC and RSA encryption algorithms basis, as well as a comparison of these implementations.
Method of determining of keywords in English texts based on the DKPro Core
Oleg V. Bisikalo, Waldemar Wójcik, Olexand V. Yahimovich, et al.
The new method of the keywords determining based on finding the connections between word forms of the English text with the instrumental capabilities of package DKPro Core is suggested in this article. The method, which is illustrated with examples of analysis, aimed at solving problems of efficient processing of text documents – indexing, abstracting, clustering and classification. As a result of theoretical and experimental studies it is found that the developed method found more keywords, specified by the author of the text, compared to analogues and had better quality characteristics. The proposed method of determining of the keywords differs from existing in that it uses additional information about the complex relationships between members of an English sentence.
New trends in logic synthesis for both digital designing and data processing
Grzegorz Borowik, Tadeusz Łuba, Krzysztof Poźniak
FPGA devices are equipped with memory-based structures. These memories act as very large logic cells where the number of inputs equals the number of address lines. At the same time, there is a huge demand in the market of Internet of Things for devices implementing virtual routers, intrusion detection systems, etc.; where such memories are crucial for realizing pattern matching circuits, IP address tables, and other. Unfortunately, existing CAD tools are not well suited to utilize capabilities that such large memory blocks offer due to the lack of appropriate synthesis procedures. This paper presents methods which are useful for memory-based implementations: minimization of the number of input variables and functional decomposition.
Modelling reduced sparse data
Ryszard Kozera, Lyle Noakes
In this paper we discuss the problem of fitting to an ordered collection of points in arbitary Euclidean space called reduced data. We are not given here the corresponding interpolation knots. Instead, these are estimated by new knots upon minimizing a relevant highly nonlinear optimization scheme based on natural spline interpolation. The existence of a global minimizer (i.e. the collection of interpolation knots in ascending order) is also addressed in this paper. Finally, Leap-Frog optimization tool is used to compute these knots approximating the unknown interpolation knots. This numerical scheme is subsequently compared with the Secant Method. Two illustrative examples are given.
Analysis of data throughput in communication between PLCs and HMI/SCADA systems
Martin Mikolajek, Jiri Koziorek
This paper is focused on Analysis of data throughout in communication between PLCs and HMI/SCADA systems. The first part of paper discusses basic problematic communication between PLC and HMI systems. Next part is about specific types of communications PLC - HMI requests. For those cases paper is talking about response and data throughput1-3 . Subsequent section of this article contains practical parts with various data exchanges between PLC Siemens and HMI. The possibilities of communication that are described in this article are focused on using OPC server for visualization software, custom HMI system and own application created by using .NET with Technology. The last part of this article contains some communication solutions.
Comparison of H.265/HEVC encoders
Maciej Trochimiuk
The H.265/HEVC is the state-of-the-art video compression standard, which allows the bitrate reduction up to 50% compared with its predecessor, H.264/AVC, maintaining equal perceptual video quality. The growth in coding efficiency was achieved by increasing the number of available intra- and inter-frame prediction features and improvements in existing ones, such as entropy encoding and filtering. Nevertheless, to achieve real-time performance of the encoder, simplifications in algorithm are inevitable. Some features and coding modes shall be skipped, to reduce time needed to evaluate modes forwarded to rate-distortion optimisation. Thus, the potential acceleration of the encoding process comes at the expense of coding efficiency. In this paper, a trade-off between video quality and encoding speed of various H.265/HEVC encoders is discussed.
An FPGA-based reconfigurable DDC algorithm
B. Juszczyk, G. Kasprowicz
This paper describes implementation of reconfigurable digital down converter in an FPGA structure. System is designed to work with quadrature signals. One of the main criteria of the project was to provied wide range of reconfiguration in order to fulfill various application rage. Potential applications include: software defined radio receiver, passive noise radars and measurement data compression. This document contains general system overview, short description of hardware used in the project and gateware implementation.
The covert channel over HTTP protocol
Waldemar Graniszewski, Jacek Krupski, Krzysztof Szczypiorski
The paper presents a new steganographic method - the covert channel is created over HTTP protocol header, i.e. trailer field. HTTP protocol is one of the most frequently used in the Internet. The popularity of the Web servers and network traffic from, and to them, is one of the requirements for undetectable message exchange. To study this kind of the information hiding technique an application in Javascript language based on the Node.js framework was written. The results of the experiment that was performed to send a message in the covert channel are also presented.
Improving the quality of the ECG signal by filtering in wavelet transform domain
Róża Dzierżak, Wojciech Surtel, Grzegorz Dzida, et al.
The article concerns the research methods of noise reduction occurring in the ECG signals. The method is based on the use of filtration in wavelet transform domain. The study was conducted on two types of signal - received during the rest of the patient and obtained during physical activity. For each of the signals 3 types of filtration were used. The study was designed to determine the effectiveness of various wavelets for de-noising signals obtained in both cases. The results confirm the suitability of the method for improving the quality of the electrocardiogram in case of both types of signals.
Application of optical flow algorithms and flame image sequences analysis in combustion process diagnostics
J. Tanaś, A. Kotyra
Co-combusting pulverized coal and biomass is a very complex process. One way of determining the state of the combustion process is analyzing flame image sequences. Several video streams of co-combusting biomass and pulverized coal with different combustion settings were recorded with a high-speed camera at the laboratory stand. Taking into account dynamic changes between successive frames of such video streams the optical flow algorithms were applied for obtaining the information about the combustion process state.
Subpixel edge detection method based on low-frequency filtering
A method of edge detection in images is proposed basing that based on low-frequency filtering. The method uses polynomial interpolation to determine the coordinates of the edge point with subpixel accuracy. Some experiments have been results also have been provided.
A survey over possible intra prediction optimizations in the H.265/HEVC encoder
Andrzej Abramowski
The H.265/HEVC standard is state-of-the-art solution in the field of video compression. It utilizes various techniques to maximize achieved compression efficiency, including quad-tree syntax organization and powerful prediction algorithms. The quad-tree approach allows the flexible adaptation to various texture characteristics at the expense of the dramatic increase in computational complexity. This results in very long encoding times, especially while using the reference software, known as HM. However, over the years, miscellaneous heuristics were developed to accelerate the selection of the optimal CTU division and the prediction mode. This paper is an overview of the most promising heuristics, designed for intra frames.
Architecture of the parallel hierarchical network for fast image recognition
Leonid Timchenko, Waldemar Wójcik, Natalia Kokriatskaia, et al.
Multistage integration of visual information in the brain allows humans to respond quickly to most significant stimuli while maintaining their ability to recognize small details in the image. Implementation of this principle in technical systems can lead to more efficient processing procedures. The multistage approach to image processing includes main types of cortical multistage convergence. The input images are mapped into a flexible hierarchy that reflects complexity of image data. Procedures of the temporal image decomposition and hierarchy formation are described in mathematical expressions. The multistage system highlights spatial regularities, which are passed through a number of transformational levels to generate a coded representation of the image that encapsulates a structure on different hierarchical levels in the image. At each processing stage a single output result is computed to allow a quick response of the system. The result is presented as an activity pattern, which can be compared with previously computed patterns on the basis of the closest match. With regard to the forecasting method, its idea lies in the following. In the results synchronization block, network-processed data arrive to the database where a sample of most correlated data is drawn using service parameters of the parallel-hierarchical network.
The method of parallel-hierarchical transformation for rapid recognition of dynamic images using GPGPU technology
Leonid Timchenko, Andrii Yarovyi, Nataliya Kokriatskaya, et al.
The paper presents a method of parallel-hierarchical transformations for rapid recognition of dynamic images using GPU technology. Direct parallel-hierarchical transformations based on cluster CPU-and GPU-oriented hardware platform. Mathematic models of training of the parallel hierarchical (PH) network for the transformation are developed, as well as a training method of the PH network for recognition of dynamic images. This research is most topical for problems on organizing high-performance computations of super large arrays of information designed to implement multi-stage sensing and processing as well as compaction and recognition of data in the informational structures and computer devices. This method has such advantages as high performance through the use of recent advances in parallelization, possibility to work with images of ultra dimension, ease of scaling in case of changing the number of nodes in the cluster, auto scan of local network to detect compute nodes.
Efficient treatment of offsets of internal components in adaptive sub-ranging A/D converters
Ł. Małkiewicz, K. Jędrzejewski
One of the constraints in manufacturing of sub-ranging ADCs with high ENOB, is a necessity to provide that the internal components have very small offsets. Application of readily available solutions consisting in designing “large” components or using dynamic offset cancelation techniques, increases die size and power consumption. The paper proposes an alternative approach free of these unwanted consequences. There are developed and analyzed three methods of reduction of the influence of offsets on the performance of adaptive sub-ranging ADCs that do not require any changes in the structure of their analog part, varying in whether and where the offsets are compensated. On the basis of the results of simulation analysis, we recommend the latter of the examined methods as most preferable in all conditions, enabling elimination of the influence of offsets to the extent depending on the accuracy of their postproduction measurement and representation in the digital part of the converter. Its application allows improvement of achievable ENOB and significant weakening of the requirements to offsets of the internal components and, in effect, reduction of power consumption and manufacturing costs of the adaptive sub-ranging ADCs.
Digital signal processing techniques for pitch shifting and time scaling of audio signals
In this paper, we present the techniques used for modifying the spectral content (pitch shifting) and for changing the time duration (time scaling) of an audio signal. A short introduction gives a necessary background for understanding the discussed issues and contains explanations of the terms used in the paper. In subsequent sections we present three different techniques appropriate both for pitch shifting and for time scaling. These techniques use three different time-frequency representations of a signal, namely short-time Fourier transform (STFT), continuous wavelet transform (CWT) and constant-Q transform (CQT). The results of simulation studies devoted to comparison of the properties of these methods are presented and discussed in the paper.
Modeling and performance analysis of QoS data
Dariusz Strzeciwilk, Włodzimierz M. Zuberek
The article presents the results of modeling and analysis of data transmission performance on systems that support quality of service. Models are designed and tested, taking into account multiservice network architecture, i.e. supporting the transmission of data related to different classes of traffic. Studied were mechanisms of traffic shaping systems, which are based on the Priority Queuing with an integrated source of data and the various sources of data that is generated. Discussed were the basic problems of the architecture supporting QoS and queuing systems. Designed and built were models based on Petri nets, supported by temporal logics. The use of simulation tools was to verify the mechanisms of shaping traffic with the applied queuing algorithms. It is shown that temporal models of Petri nets can be effectively used in the modeling and analysis of the performance of computer networks.
Performance analysis and acceleration of cross-correlation computation using FPGA implementation for digital signal processing
R. Selma
Paper describes comparison of cross-correlation computation speed of most commonly used computation platforms (CPU, GPU) with an FPGA-based design. It also describes the structure of cross-correlation unit implemented for testing purposes. Speedup of computations was achieved using FPGA-based design, varying between 16 and 5400 times compared to CPU computations and between 3 and 175 times compared to GPU computations.
Adapting Eclat algorithm to parallel environments with Charm++ library
Marek Puścian, Waldemar Grabski
In this paper we describe Eclat algorithm that is adapted to deal with growing data repositories. The presented solution utilizes Master-Slave scheme to distribute data mining tasks among available computation nodes. Several improvements have been proposed and successfully implemented using Charm++ library. This paper introduces optimization techniques to reduce communication cost and synchronization overhead. It also discusses results of the performance of parallel Eclat algorithm against different databases and compares it with parallel Apriori algorithm. The proposed approach has been illustrated with many experiments and measurements performed using multiprocessor and multithreaded computer platform.
Dynamic partial reconfiguration of logic controllers implemented in FPGAs
Grzegorz Bazydło, Remigiusz Wiśniewski
Technological progress in recent years benefits in digital circuits containing millions of logic gates with the capability for reprogramming and reconfiguring. On the one hand it provides the unprecedented computational power, but on the other hand the modelled systems are becoming increasingly complex, hierarchical and concurrent. Therefore, abstract modelling supported by the Computer Aided Design tools becomes a very important task. Even the higher consumption of the basic electronic components seems to be acceptable because chip manufacturing costs tend to fall over the time.

The paper presents a modelling approach for logic controllers with the use of Unified Modelling Language (UML). Thanks to the Model Driven Development approach, starting with a UML state machine model, through the construction of an intermediate Hierarchical Concurrent Finite State Machine model, a collection of Verilog files is created. The system description generated in hardware description language can be synthesized and implemented in reconfigurable devices, such as FPGAs. Modular specification of the prototyped controller permits for further dynamic partial reconfiguration of the prototyped system. The idea bases on the exchanging of the functionality of the already implemented controller without stopping of the FPGA device. It means, that a part (for example a single module) of the logic controller is replaced by other version (called context), while the rest of the system is still running. The method is illustrated by a practical example by an exemplary Home Area Network system.
Extraction of essential features by quantum density
In this paper we consider the problem of feature extraction, as an essential and important search of dataset. This problem describe the real ownership of the signals and images. Searches features are often difficult to identify because of data complexity and their redundancy. Here is shown a method of finding an essential features groups, according to the defined issues. To find the hidden attributes we use a special algorithm DQAL with the quantum density for thej-th features from original data, that indicates the important set of attributes. Finally, they have been generated small sets of attributes for subsets with different properties of features. They can be used to the construction of a small set of essential features. All figures were made in Matlab6.
Leverage estimation for multi-output neural networks
Tomasz Grel, Stanislaw Jankowski
The article deals with the problem of computing the leverages for multi-output neural networks. The leverages can be subsequently used for determining which learning examples have the strongest influence on the model. Therefore computing them may provide researchers with important insights about the constructed model. More specifically they can be used to detect over fitting. A step by step algorithm for computing the Jacobian matrix and the leverages is presented, along with an example application to a synthetic problem.
Deep learning classifier based on NPCA and orthogonal feature selection
Stanisław Jankowski, Zbigniew Szymański, Uladzimir Dziomin, et al.
In this paper the idea of deep learning classifier is developed. The effectiveness of discriminative classifier, as e.g. multilayer perceptron, support vector machine can be improved by adding the data preprocessing blocks: orthogonal feature selection (Gram-Schmidt method) and nonlinear principal component analysis. We present the case study of various structures of deep learning systems (scenarios).
Real-time detecting and tracking ball with OpenCV and Kinect
This paper presents a way to detect and track ball with using the OpenCV and Kinect. Object and people recognition, tracking are more and more popular topics nowadays. Described solution makes it possible to detect ball based on the range, which is set by the user and capture information about ball position in three dimensions. It can be store in the computer and use for example to display trajectory of the ball.