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Proceedings Paper

Soft X-Ray Transmission Gratings
Author(s): E. T. Arakawa; P. J. Caldwell; M. W. Williams
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Paper Abstract

A technique has been developed for producing transmission diffraction gratings suitable for use in the soft x-ray region. Thin self-supporting films of a transparent material are overlaid with several thousand opaque metallic strips per mm. Gratings with 2100, 2400, and 5600 1/mm have been produced and tested. Representative spectra over the wavelength range from 17.2 to 40.0 nm are given for a grating consisting of a 120-nm-thick Al support layer overlaid with 2400, 34-nm-thick, Ag strips/mm. The absolute transmittance is rblp at 30 nm, and the efficiency in the first order is ~16%. The observed resolution of rb2A is acceptable for many of the potential applications. These gratings have several advantages over the two presently available alternatives in the soft x-ray region (i.e., reflection gratings used at grazing incidence and free-standing metallic wire transmission gratings). Fabrication is relatively quick, simple, and cheap. The support layer can also serve as a filter and help conduct excessive heat away. Higher line densities and hence higher resolutions are possible, and when used at normal incidence the spectra are aberration free. Suitable materials, component thicknesses, and line densities can be chosen to produce a grating of optimum characteristics for a particular application.

Paper Details

Date Published: 10 February 1981
PDF: 4 pages
Proc. SPIE 0240, Periodic Structures, Gratings, Moire Patterns, and Diffraction Phenomena I, (10 February 1981); doi: 10.1117/12.965634
Show Author Affiliations
E. T. Arakawa, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States)
P. J. Caldwell, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States)
M. W. Williams, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 0240:
Periodic Structures, Gratings, Moire Patterns, and Diffraction Phenomena I
C. H. Chi; E. G. Loewen; C. L. O'Bryan III, Editor(s)

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