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Proceedings Paper

Biological Effects Of Ultrasound On Cultured Mammalian Cells
Author(s): B. I. Martins; M. R. Raju; T. L. Hayes; C. A. Tobias
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Paper Abstract

Ultrasonic waves are sonic vibrations of frequencies above 16 to 20 KHz which is the upper limit of audibility for the human ear. Above 15 MHz, ultrasonic waves are referred to as microwave ultrasound because at these high frequencies ultrasound tends to act like electromagnetic radiation even though particle vibration is still being produced. Due to practical limitations set by ultrasonic generators the upper limit of ultrasonic frequencies is around 500 MHz. The frequencies of biological interest are in the range of a few KHz to a few MHz.

Paper Details

Date Published: 1 February 1975
PDF: 7 pages
Proc. SPIE 0047, Application of Optical Instrumentation in Medicine III, (1 February 1975); doi: 10.1117/12.954048
Show Author Affiliations
B. I. Martins, University of Maryland at Baltimore (United States)
M. R. Raju, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (United States)
T. L. Hayes, University of California (United States)
C. A. Tobias, University of California (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 0047:
Application of Optical Instrumentation in Medicine III
Paul L. Carson; Edward L. Chaney; William R. Hendee, Editor(s)

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