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Proceedings Paper

Infrared Microradiometry Of Thermal Inkjet Heaters
Author(s): O. Muller; R. E. Drews
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Paper Abstract

Thermal inkjet heaters were studied by infrared microradiometry using an apparatus similar to that reported in the literature. An InSb infrared sensor is mounted on a modified Leitz microscope equipped with a 36X reflecting objective. The system looks at a spot on the heater about 14 μm in diameter. The locally emitted infrared output is used as a qualitative measure of the local temperature. The temperature distribution on the heater surface is studied by constructing two-dimensional temperature contour maps. Current pulsing is carried out in air or in the presence of a high boiling point liquid. Other variables include pulse width, frequency, voltage, and heater geometry. Temperature profiles obtained in this way are in good agreement with those obtained from modeling calculations. Cycling has been carried out with several different passivation coatings with an emphasis on Ta passivation. Microradiometry of Ta-passivated heaters is complicated by the formation of Ta2O5 under most pulsing conditions and Ta2O5 has a much higher emissivity than tantalum. Burn-in curves (infrared output versus time) are used to monitor this oxidation process. Since the Ta2O5 thickness is not uniform over the heater surface, an accurate interpretation of the temperature contour maps of Ta-covered heaters is not easy. Microradiometry data of oxidized Ta heaters are supplemented with data obtained using optical microscopy, SEM, and profilometry. By overstressing heaters, hot spots were generated and studied using temperature contour maps. Subsequently, failed heaters were studied using SEM, and from these data failure mechanisms are postulated.

Paper Details

Date Published: 6 July 1989
PDF: 12 pages
Proc. SPIE 1079, Hard Copy Output, (6 July 1989); doi: 10.1117/12.952790
Show Author Affiliations
O. Muller, Xerox Corporation (United States)
R. E. Drews, Xerox Corporation (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 1079:
Hard Copy Output
Leo Beiser; Stephen L. Corsover; John M. Fleischer; Vsevolod S. Mihajlov; Ken-Ichi Shimazu, Editor(s)

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