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Proceedings Paper

Linear and nonlinear effects of electron paramagnetic resonance in high-Q cryogenic sapphire microwave resonators
Author(s): Daniel L. Creedon; Karim Benmessai; Warwick P. Bowen; Michael E. Tobar
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Paper Abstract

Cryogenic sapphire resonators operating in Whispering Gallery Modes have very high Q-factors (> 109) at microwave frequencies . Such a property makes them useful for a host of applications, which are only possible due to the additional inclusion of residual paramagnetic impurities that annul the frequency-temperature dependence of sapphire. More recently, residual Fe3+ impurities with parts-per-billion concentration within the lattice have been shown to create a three level system corresponding to the spin states of the ion. By pumping at 31.3 GHz, a stable 12.04 GHz maser signal (stability of parts in 1014) has been created without any stabilization circuitry. In addition, we have observed the fundamental thermal noise limit near 4 K by operating such masers in a bimodal conguration. Annealing one resonator in air has led to conversion of Fe2+ ions in the lattice to Fe3+, leading to an orders of magnitude increase in active ion concentration. At the post-annealing Fe3+ concentration of 150 ppb , we observe nonlinear eects such as a degenerate four-wave mixing due to a χ(3) magnetic nonlinearity as well as stable frequency comb generation.

Paper Details

Date Published: 6 February 2012
PDF: 10 pages
Proc. SPIE 8236, Laser Resonators, Microresonators, and Beam Control XIV, 82361R (6 February 2012); doi: 10.1117/12.912115
Show Author Affiliations
Daniel L. Creedon, The Univ. of Western Australia (Australia)
Karim Benmessai, The Univ. of Western Australia (Australia)
Warwick P. Bowen, The Univ. of Queensland (Australia)
Michael E. Tobar, The Univ. of Western Australia (Australia)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 8236:
Laser Resonators, Microresonators, and Beam Control XIV
Alexis V. Kudryashov; Alan H. Paxton; Vladimir S. Ilchenko, Editor(s)

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