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Frequency conversion by the transformation-optical analogue of the cosmological redshift
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Paper Abstract

Recently, there has been a lot of interest in electromagnetic analogues of general relativistic effects. Using the techniques of transformation optics, the material parameters of table-top devices have been calculated such that they implement several effects that occur in outer space, e.g., the implementation of an artificial event horizon inside an optical fiber, an inhomogeneous refractive index profile to mimic celestial mechanics, or an omnidirectional absorber based on an equivalence with black holes. In this communication, we show how we have extended the framework of transformation optics to a time-dependent metric-the Robertson-Walker metric, a popular model for our universe describing the cosmological redshift. This redshift occurs due to the expansion of the universe, where a photon of frequency ωem emitted at instance tem, will be measured at a different frequency ωobs at time tobs. The relation between these two frequencies is given by ωobsa(tobs) = ωema(tem), where a(t) is the time-dependent scale factor of the expanding universe. Our results show that the transformation-optical analogue of the Robertson-Walker metric is a medium with linear, isotropic, and homogeneous material parameters that evolve as a given function of time. The electromagnetic solutions inside such a medium are frequency shifted according to the cosmological redshift formula. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that a finite slab of such a material allows for the frequency conversion of an optical signal without the creation of unwanted sidebands. Because the medium is linear, the superposition principle remains applicable and arbitrary wavepackets can be converted [V. Ginis, P. Tassin, B. Craps, and I. Veretennicoff Opt. Express 18, 5350-5355 (2010)1].

Paper Details

Date Published: 9 September 2011
PDF: 7 pages
Proc. SPIE 8093, Metamaterials: Fundamentals and Applications IV, 80931M (9 September 2011); doi: 10.1117/12.894065
Show Author Affiliations
Vincent Ginis, Vrije Univ. Brussel (Belgium)
Philippe Tassin, Vrije Univ. Brussel (Belgium)
Iowa State Univ. (United States)
Ben Craps, Vrije Univ. Brussel (Belgium)
Irina Veretennicoff, Vrije Univ. Brussel (Belgium)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 8093:
Metamaterials: Fundamentals and Applications IV
Allan D. Boardman; Nader Engheta; Mikhail A. Noginov; Nikolay I. Zheludev, Editor(s)

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