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HgCdTe APD-focal plane array development at DEFIR
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Paper Abstract

We report our latest development of HgCdTe electron avalanche photodiode (e-APD) with Cd compositions between 0.3 to 0.41; exponentially increasing gain, synonym of exclusive electron multiplication, was observed in all the devices up to M>600, associated with low noise factors F=1.2; a record high gain of M=7000 was measured in e-APDs with λc=4.6μm at 80K, which shows on the stability of the junction; the equivalent input dark current decreases with increasing band-gap and a record low value of 2 aA, was obtained in a λc=2.9 μm e-APD at M=24 and spectral response measurements have shown that the gain and quantum efficiency is conserved down to the UV. Dedicated ROICs have been designed for passive and active laser assisted imaging. A passive imaging ROIC for low flux application have been designed for a full frame readout speed of 1.5 kfps and an equivalent input noise lower than 2 electrons. Two active imaging ROICs have already been validated with e-APD arrays. Dual mode passive and active 2D (range gated) e-APDs FPAs have been made using with cut-off wavelengths ranging from 2.9μm to 5.3μm at T=80 K. On the best devices, the operability in gain and noise exceeds 99.6% and relative gain dispersion lower than 10 %, independently of the wavelength at gains M=10-100. First characterizations of multi-mode 3D/2D FPA have shown on a range resolution below 15 cm (1 ns).

Paper Details

Date Published: 28 October 2010
PDF: 8 pages
Proc. SPIE 7834, Electro-Optical and Infrared Systems: Technology and Applications VII, 78340O (28 October 2010); doi: 10.1117/12.865482
Show Author Affiliations
Johan Rothman, CEA LETI-DOPT (France)
Eric De Borniol, CEA LETI-DOPT (France)
Olivier Gravrand, CEA LETI-DOPT (France)
Sylvette Bisotto, CEA LETI-DOPT (France)
Laurent Mollard, CEA LETI-DOPT (France)
Fabrice Guellec, CEA LETI-DOPT (France)
Frederic Pistone, SOFRADIR (France)
Solène Courtas, SOFRADIR (France)
Xavier Lefoule, SOFRADIR (France)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 7834:
Electro-Optical and Infrared Systems: Technology and Applications VII
David A. Huckridge; Reinhard R. Ebert, Editor(s)

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