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Proceedings Paper

Simulations of avalanche breakdown statistics: probability and timing
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Paper Abstract

Important avalanche breakdown statistics for Single Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs), such as avalanche breakdown probability, dark count rate, and the distribution of time taken to reach breakdown (providing mean time to breakdown and jitter), were simulated. These simulations enable unambiguous studies on effects of avalanche region width, ionization coefficient ratio and carrier dead space on the avalanche statistics, which are the fundamental limits of the SPADs. The effects of quenching resistor/circuit have been ignored. Due to competing effects between dead spaces, which are significant in modern SPADs with narrow avalanche regions, and converging ionization coefficients, the breakdown probability versus overbias characteristics from different avalanche region widths are fairly close to each other. Concerning avalanche breakdown timing at given value of breakdown probability, using avalanche material with similar ionization coefficients yields fast avalanche breakdowns with small timing jitter (albeit higher operating field), compared to material with dissimilar ionization coefficients. This is the opposite requirement for abrupt breakdown probability versus overbias characteristics. In addition, by taking band-to-band tunneling current (dark carriers) into account, minimum avalanche region width for practical SPADs was found to be 0.3 and 0.2 μm, for InP and InAlAs, respectively.

Paper Details

Date Published: 28 April 2010
PDF: 8 pages
Proc. SPIE 7681, Advanced Photon Counting Techniques IV, 76810K (28 April 2010); doi: 10.1117/12.850145
Show Author Affiliations
Jo Shien Ng, The Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom)
Chee Hing Tan, The Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom)
John P. R. David, The Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 7681:
Advanced Photon Counting Techniques IV
Mark A. Itzler; Joe C. Campbell, Editor(s)

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