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Proceedings Paper

Automated segmentation of reference tissue for prostate cancer localization in dynamic contrast enhanced MRI
Author(s): Pieter C. Vos; Thomas Hambrock M.D.; Jelle O. Barentsz M.D.; Henkjan J. Huisman
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Paper Abstract

For pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis of Dynamic Contrast Enhanced (DCE) MRI the arterial input function needs to be estimated. Previously, we demonstrated that PK parameters have a significant better discriminative performance when per patient reference tissue was used, but required manual annotation of reference tissue. In this study we propose a fully automated reference tissue segmentation method that tackles this limitation. The method was tested with our Computer Aided Diagnosis (CADx) system to study the effect on the discriminating performance for differentiating prostate cancer from benign areas in the peripheral zone (PZ). The proposed method automatically segments normal PZ tissue from DCE derived data. First, the bladder is segmented in the start-to-enhance map using the Otsu histogram threshold selection method. Second, the prostate is detected by applying a multi-scale Hessian filter to the relative enhancement map. Third, normal PZ tissue was segmented by threshold and morphological operators. The resulting segmentation was used as reference tissue to estimate the PK parameters. In 39 consecutive patients carcinoma, benign and normal tissue were annotated on MR images by a radiologist and a researcher using whole mount step-section histopathology as reference. PK parameters were computed for each ROI. Features were extracted from the set of ROIs using percentiles to train a support vector machine that was used as classifier. Prospective performance was estimated by means of leave-one-patient-out cross validation. A bootstrap resampling approach with 10,000 iterations was used for estimating the bootstrap mean AUCs and 95% confidence intervals. In total 42 malignant, 29 benign and 37 normal regions were annotated. For all patients, normal PZ was successfully segmented. The diagnostic accuracy obtained for differentiating malignant from benign lesions using a conventional general patient plasma profile showed an accuracy of 0.64 (0.53-0.74). Using the automated per-patient calibration method the diagnostic performance improved significantly to 0.76 (0.67-0.86, p=0.017) , whereas the manual per-patient calibration showed a diagnostic performance of 0.79 (0.70-0.89, p=0.01). In conclusion, the results show that an automated per-patient reference tissue PK model is feasible. A significantly better discriminating performance compared to the conventional general calibration was obtained and the diagnostic accuracy is similar to using manual per-patient calibration.

Paper Details

Date Published: 9 March 2010
PDF: 8 pages
Proc. SPIE 7624, Medical Imaging 2010: Computer-Aided Diagnosis, 76240F (9 March 2010); doi: 10.1117/12.845501
Show Author Affiliations
Pieter C. Vos, Radboud Univ. Nijmegen Medical Ctr. (Netherlands)
Thomas Hambrock M.D., Radboud Univ. Nijmegen Medical Ctr. (Netherlands)
Jelle O. Barentsz M.D., Radboud Univ. Nijmegen Medical Ctr. (Netherlands)
Henkjan J. Huisman, Radboud Univ. Nijmegen Medical Ctr. (Netherlands)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 7624:
Medical Imaging 2010: Computer-Aided Diagnosis
Nico Karssemeijer; Ronald M. Summers, Editor(s)

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