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Proceedings Paper

High refractive index nanoparticle fluids for 193-nm immersion lithography
Author(s): Markos Trikeriotis; Robert Rodriguez; Michael F. Zettel; Aristeidis Bakandritsos; Woo Jin Bae; Paul A. Zimmerman; Christopher K. Ober; Emmanuel P. Giannelis
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Paper Abstract

A critical issue preventing the implementation of 193nm immersion lithography (193i) to the 32nm node is the availability of high refractive index (n > 1.8) and low optical absorption fluids. To overcome these issues, we have synthesized high refractive index nanoparticles and introduced them into the immersion fluid to increase the refractive index. Hydrolysis and sol-gel methods have been implemented to grow high refractive index nanoparticles with diameters of 3-4nm. Depending on the synthetic route, it is possible to produce stable suspensions of nanoparticles in either aqueous or organic solvents, making it possible to synthesize a stable high-index immersion fluid.

Paper Details

Date Published: 1 April 2009
PDF: 6 pages
Proc. SPIE 7273, Advances in Resist Materials and Processing Technology XXVI, 72732A (1 April 2009); doi: 10.1117/12.814408
Show Author Affiliations
Markos Trikeriotis, Cornell Univ. (United States)
Robert Rodriguez, Cornell Univ. (United States)
Michael F. Zettel, Cornell Univ. (United States)
Aristeidis Bakandritsos, Cornell Univ. (United States)
Woo Jin Bae, Cornell Univ. (United States)
Paul A. Zimmerman, Intel Corp. assignee to SEMATECH Inc. (United States)
Christopher K. Ober, Cornell Univ. (United States)
Emmanuel P. Giannelis, Cornell Univ. (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 7273:
Advances in Resist Materials and Processing Technology XXVI
Clifford L. Henderson, Editor(s)

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