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Proceedings Paper

Design and evaluation of sparse quantization index modulation watermarking schemes
Author(s): Bruno Cornelis; Joeri Barbarien; Ann Dooms; Adrian Munteanu; Jan Cornelis; Peter Schelkens
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Paper Abstract

In the past decade the use of digital data has increased significantly. The advantages of digital data are, amongst others, easy editing, fast, cheap and cross-platform distribution and compact storage. The most crucial disadvantages are the unauthorized copying and copyright issues, by which authors and license holders can suffer considerable financial losses. Many inexpensive methods are readily available for editing digital data and, unlike analog information, the reproduction in the digital case is simple and robust. Hence, there is great interest in developing technology that helps to protect the integrity of a digital work and the copyrights of its owners. Watermarking, which is the embedding of a signal (known as the watermark) into the original digital data, is one method that has been proposed for the protection of digital media elements such as audio, video and images. In this article, we examine watermarking schemes for still images, based on selective quantization of the coefficients of a wavelet transformed image, i.e. sparse quantization-index modulation (QIM) watermarking. Different grouping schemes for the wavelet coefficients are evaluated and experimentally verified for robustness against several attacks. Wavelet tree-based grouping schemes yield a slightly improved performance over block-based grouping schemes. Additionally, the impact of the deployment of error correction codes on the most promising configurations is examined. The utilization of BCH-codes (Bose, Ray-Chaudhuri, Hocquenghem) results in an improved robustness as long as the capacity of the error codes is not exceeded (cliff-effect).

Paper Details

Date Published: 15 September 2008
PDF: 12 pages
Proc. SPIE 7073, Applications of Digital Image Processing XXXI, 70731M (15 September 2008); doi: 10.1117/12.796692
Show Author Affiliations
Bruno Cornelis, Vrije Univ. Brussel (Belgium)
Joeri Barbarien, Vrije Univ. Brussel (Belgium)
Ann Dooms, Vrije Univ. Brussel (Belgium)
Adrian Munteanu, Vrije Univ. Brussel (Belgium)
Jan Cornelis, Vrije Univ. Brussel (Belgium)
Peter Schelkens, Vrije Univ. Brussel (Belgium)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 7073:
Applications of Digital Image Processing XXXI
Andrew G. Tescher, Editor(s)

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