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Proceedings Paper

High efficiency 1.55 µm Geiger-mode single photon counting avalanche photodiodes operating near 0oC
Author(s): Ping Yuan; Joseph Boisvert; Rengarajan Sudharsanan; Takahiro Isshiki; Paul McDonald; Michael Salisbury; Mingguo Liu; Joe C. Campbell
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Paper Abstract

Recent developments in three-dimension imaging, quantum cryptography, and time-resolved spectroscopy have stimulated interest in single-photon counting avalanche photodiodes (APD) operating in the short wavelength infrared region. For visible and near infrared wavelengths, Silicon Geiger-mode APDs have demonstrated excellent photon detection efficiency (PDE) and low dark current rate (DCR)1. Recently, MIT Lincoln Laboratories, Boeing Spectrolab, and Boeing SVS have demonstrated Geiger-mode (GM) APD focal plane arrays (FPA) operating at 1.06 μm. However for longer wavelength sensitivity around 1.55 μm, GM-APDs have to be cooled to 180~240 K to achieve a usable DCR. Power consumption, package weight and size and APD PDE all suffer with this cooling requirement. In this paper we report the development of an InP/InGaAs GM-APD structure with high PDE and low DCR at 273K. The photon collection efficiency was optimized with a single step-graded quaternary layer and a 3.5 μm InGaAs absorption layer, which provides a broadband coverage from 0.95 μm to 1.62 μm. The InP multiplication layer and the charge layer are carefully tailored to minimize the DCR and maximize the PDE. Despite having a low bandgap absorber layer InGaAs, these APDs demonstrated excellent dark current, optical responsivity, and superior DCR and PDE at 1.55 μm. The DCR and PDE were evaluated on 25 μm diameter APDs at 273 K. DCRs as low as 20 kHz have been measured at a 2 V overbias, while PDEs at 1.55 μm exceed 30% at 2 V overbias.

Paper Details

Date Published: 1 February 2008
PDF: 9 pages
Proc. SPIE 6900, Quantum Sensing and Nanophotonic Devices V, 69001B (1 February 2008); doi: 10.1117/12.763896
Show Author Affiliations
Ping Yuan, Boeing Spectrolab, Inc. (United States)
Joseph Boisvert, Boeing Spectrolab, Inc. (United States)
Rengarajan Sudharsanan, Boeing Spectrolab, Inc. (United States)
Takahiro Isshiki, Boeing Spectrolab, Inc. (United States)
Paul McDonald, Boeing Spectrolab, Inc. (United States)
Michael Salisbury, Boeing SVS, Inc. (United States)
Mingguo Liu, Univ. of Virginia (United States)
Joe C. Campbell, Univ. of Virginia (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 6900:
Quantum Sensing and Nanophotonic Devices V
Rengarajan Sudharsanan; Christopher Jelen, Editor(s)

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