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Proceedings Paper

Pixel array detector for the capture of femtosecond duration x-ray images
Author(s): Hugh T. Philipp; Lucas J. Koerner; Marianne Hromalik; Mark W. Tate; Sol M. Gruner
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Paper Abstract

An imaging Pixel Array Detector (PAD) is being developed to record x-ray scattering images from single particles at the SLAC Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) x-ray free electron laser. The LCLS will deliver x-ray pulses of 5-200 femtosecond duration 120 times per second. Proposed experiments require that the scatter from each pulse be independently recorded. This necessitates a detector with a charge integrating front-end because the high instantaneous arrival rate of photons (> 1000 photons per pixel in femtoseconds) exceeds the processing speed capabilities of digital counting detectors. Other capabilities of the PAD are a frame rate >120 Hz, a full-well depth in excess of 2000 8-keV photons, a detective quantum efficiency near unity, and the ability to readily differentiate between 0 and 1 photons per pixel. The detector will be a 4x4 array of subunit tiles. Each tile consists of two silicon chips solder-bump bonded together. A pixelated 500 micron thick, fully depleted silicon chip converts x-ray energy into charge carriers. The charge created is conveyed by solder connecting bumps to a CMOS ASIC in which each pixel has its own signal processing electronics. Each tile has ~190 x 190 pixels, resulting in a detector of > 760 x 760 pixels. Tests of prototype 16x16 readout pixel arrays show a read noise equivalent to 0.14 8-keV photons. Features of the detector include an in-pixel parallel 14-bit digitization scheme, and the capability to be configured with an adaptable, 2-level, 2D gain profile. The development of the read-out electronics and the effects of tiling on dead area are also discussed.

Paper Details

Date Published: 18 September 2007
PDF: 8 pages
Proc. SPIE 6703, Ultrafast X-Ray Sources and Detectors, 67030O (18 September 2007); doi: 10.1117/12.733866
Show Author Affiliations
Hugh T. Philipp, Cornell Univ. (United States)
Lucas J. Koerner, Cornell Univ. (United States)
Marianne Hromalik, Cornell Univ. (United States)
Mark W. Tate, Cornell Univ. (United States)
Sol M. Gruner, Cornell Univ. (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 6703:
Ultrafast X-Ray Sources and Detectors
Zenghu Chang; George A. Kyrala; Jean-Claude Kieffer, Editor(s)

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