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Proceedings Paper

Transition-metal- and rare-earth-doped ZnO: a comparison of optical, magnetic, and structural behavior of bulk and thin films
Author(s): W. E Fenwick; M. H Kane; R. Varatharajan; T. Zaidi; Z. Fang; B. Nemeth; D. J. Keeble; H. El-Mkami; G. M. Smith; J. Nause; C. J. Summers; I. T. Ferguson
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Paper Abstract

Recent theoretical predictions of ferromagnetic behavior in transition metal (TM)-doped ZnO have focused significant attention on these materials for use as spintronic materials. Moreover, rare earth (RE) elements in wide bandgap semiconductors would be useful not only in spintronics but also in optoelectronic applications. This work presents results obtained from an investigation into the optical, magnetic, and structural properties of transition-metal (TM)- doped ZnO and rare earth (RE) doped ZnO (TM = Mn, Co, Ni, and Fe; RE = Gd, Eu, and Tb) bulk crystals and thin films. Properties of TM- and RE-doped ZnO bulk crystals and thin films were studied and compared in order to better understand the nature of these dopant centers and their effects on the properties of the host crystal. Optical properties confirm the incorporation of substitutional transition metal ions on cation sites. While most thin film samples show ferromagnetic behavior, the magnetic response of the bulk crystals varies. This suggests that the magnetic behavior of TM-doped ZnO is highly dependent on growth conditions, and growth conditions which favor the formation of grain boundaries and interfaces may be more likely to result in ferromagnetic behavior. Origins of this ferromagnetic behavior are still under investigation. Defect luminescence observed in the RE-doped samples suggests that these materials may prove useful in optoelectonic applications as well.

Paper Details

Date Published: 20 February 2007
PDF: 8 pages
Proc. SPIE 6474, Zinc Oxide Materials and Devices II, 64741Q (20 February 2007); doi: 10.1117/12.717788
Show Author Affiliations
W. E Fenwick, Georgia Institute of Technology (United States)
M. H Kane, Georgia Institute of Technology (United States)
R. Varatharajan, Cermet, Inc. (United States)
T. Zaidi, Georgia Institute of Technology (United States)
Z. Fang, Georgia Institute of Technology (United States)
B. Nemeth, Cermet, Inc. (United States)
D. J. Keeble, Univ. of Dundee (United Kingdom)
H. El-Mkami, Univ. of St. Andrews (United Kingdom)
G. M. Smith, Univ. of St. Andrews (United Kingdom)
J. Nause, Cermet, Inc. (United States)
C. J. Summers, Georgia Institute of Technology (United States)
I. T. Ferguson, Georgia Institute of Technology (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 6474:
Zinc Oxide Materials and Devices II
Ferechteh Hosseini Teherani; Cole W. Litton, Editor(s)

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