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Proceedings Paper

TEM calibration methods for critical dimension standards
Author(s): Ndubuisi G. Orji; Ronald G. Dixson; Domingo I. Garcia-Gutierrez; Benjamin D. Bunday; Michael Bishop; Michael W. Cresswell; Richard A. Allen; John A. Allgair
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Paper Abstract

One of the key challenges in critical dimension (CD) metrology is finding suitable calibration standards. Over the last few years there has been some interest in using features measured with the transmission electron microscope (TEM) as primary standards for linewidth measurements. This is because some modes of TEM can produce lattice-resolved images having scale traceability to the SI (Systeme International d'Unites or International System of Units) definition of length through an atomic lattice constant. As interest in using calibration samples that are closer to the length scales being measured increases, so will the use of these TEM techniques. An area where lattice-traceable images produced by TEM has been used as a primary standard is in critical dimension atomic force microscope (CD-AFM) tip width calibration. Two modes of TEM that produce crystal lattice-traceable images are high resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM) and high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscope (HAADF-STEM). HR-TEM produces lattice-traceable images by interference patterns of the diffracted and transmitted beams rather than the actual atomic columns, while HAADF-STEM produces direct images of the crystal lattice. The difference in how both of these techniques work could cause subtle variations in the way feature edges are defined. In this paper, we present results from width samples measured using HR-TEM and HAADF-STEM. Next we compare the results with measurements taken from the same location by two different CD-AFMs. Both of the CD-AFM instruments used for this work have been calibrated using a single crystal critical dimension reference material (SCCDRM). These standards, developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and SEMATECH, used HR-TEM for traceable tip-width calibration. Consequently, the present work and the previous SCCDRM work provide a mutual cross-check on the traceability of the width calibration. Excellent agreement was observed.

Paper Details

Date Published: 5 April 2007
PDF: 10 pages
Proc. SPIE 6518, Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography XXI, 651810 (5 April 2007); doi: 10.1117/12.713368
Show Author Affiliations
Ndubuisi G. Orji, National Institute of Standards and Technology (United States)
Ronald G. Dixson, National Institute of Standards and Technology (United States)
Domingo I. Garcia-Gutierrez, Advanced Technology Development Facility (United States)
Benjamin D. Bunday, International SEMATECH Manufacturing Initiative (United States)
Michael Bishop, International SEMATECH Manufacturing Initiative (United States)
Michael W. Cresswell, National Institute of Standards and Technology (United States)
Richard A. Allen, National Institute of Standards and Technology (United States)
John A. Allgair, International SEMATECH Manufacturing Initiative (United States)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 6518:
Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography XXI
Chas N. Archie, Editor(s)

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