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Proceedings Paper

Compact EUV source and optics for direct structuring of surfaces
Author(s): Armin Bayer; Frank Barkusky; Christian Peth; Holger Töttger; Klaus Mann
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Paper Abstract

In recent years technological developments in the area of extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) have experienced great improvements. So far, intense light sources based on discharge or laser plasmas, light guiding and imaging optics, as well as detection devices are already available. Currently, the application of EUV radiation apart from microlithography, such as metrology, high-resolution microscopy, or surface analysis comes more and more into focus. The aim is to make use of the strong interaction between soft x-ray radiation and matter for surface-near probing, modification or structuring techniques. In this contribution, we demonstrate the surface-near direct structuring of different polymeric materials as well as lithium fluoride crystals using EUV radiation with a wavelength of 13.5 nm. The setup consists of a table-top EUV source based on a laser-induced plasma and a modified Schwarzschild objective with a resolution down to 1 μm. The mirrors of the employed objective were coated with Mo/Si multilayers, providing a transmittance of around 42 % (reflectivity ~65 % @ 13.5 nm per mirror). With a demagnification factor of 10 small foci are generated, leading to spot diameters of 30 μm in plasma imaging mode and down to 1 μm in mask imaging mode, respectively. The EUV energy density of ~100 mJ/cm2 obtained in the focus is sufficient to observe direct photo-ablation of polymers, e.g. PMMA. Thus, material interaction studies are currently in progress. The investigations revealed already that in contrast to common excimer laser ablation there are no incubation pulses when using EUV radiation. For lower energies the ablation rate is found to be linear with respect to the applied dose, whereas for higher energies a saturation behavior is observed. The mechanism of the process is briefly discussed. An additional diffraction experiment revealed the potential of the setup to generate periodic interference patterns with feature sizes in the sub-μm-range. By EUV irradiation of LiF samples surface-near defects within the crystal lattice are formed. These color-centers (mainly F2- and F3 + -color centers) are known to be stable at room temperature. They are able to emit characteristic radiation in the visible range after optical excitation with a wavelength around 450 nm. In the future structured areas of such color centers could be used as laser-active gain medium in distributed feedback lasers.

Paper Details

Date Published: 13 March 2007
PDF: 12 pages
Proc. SPIE 6458, Photon Processing in Microelectronics and Photonics VI, 64580Z (13 March 2007); doi: 10.1117/12.701971
Show Author Affiliations
Armin Bayer, Laser-Lab. Göttingen e.V. (Germany)
Frank Barkusky, Laser-Lab. Göttingen e.V. (Germany)
Christian Peth, Laser-Lab. Göttingen e.V. (Germany)
Holger Töttger, Laser-Lab. Göttingen e.V. (Germany)
Klaus Mann, Laser-Lab. Göttingen e.V. (Germany)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 6458:
Photon Processing in Microelectronics and Photonics VI
David B. Geohegan; Craig B. Arnold; Tatsuo Okada; Frank Träger; Jan J. Dubowski; Michel Meunier; Andrew S. Holmes, Editor(s)

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