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Proceedings Paper

A bio-nanorobot design for drosophila therapeutic cloning
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Paper Abstract

To investigate Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT), we choose the Drosophila cloning based on a recent experiment (Haigh, MacDonald, Lioyd, Gen. V.169,1165, 2005) to be improving the adulthood rate in 2-week turn-around time. Original 1% success rate might be due to three less certain key steps: (i) The double membranes of a nucleus has at its pore led to the attached Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER), passing the genetic instruction to assemble amino acids, proteins and lipid at its smooth end. Also, any mismatch of nucleus with mitochondria (MT) having own small genome for energy production had led to reprogramming failure. (D. Wallace, UC Irvine, Nature,Vol. 439, pp.653). We ask "whether a guest DNA shall come with its servants, ER, MT, etc or not." It seemed to be logical to have a whole package replaced the embryonic host cell, equipped with all housekeeping, energy production and mitosis functionalities except the genetic information. To answer this hypothesis, we design a bio-NanoRobot having a surgical precision in removing the desired nucleus with or without its attached ER and MT material. The design is based on a real-time multiplexing principle of combining both the soft-contact-vision of the Nobel Laureate Binning called Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and the hard-grasp-action called NanoRobotTM by Xi and Szu, 2004. However, applying it, we must re-design a new bio-NanoRobot, consisting of two parts: (a) multiple resolution analysis (MRA) using AI to control a dual-resolution vision system: the soft-contact-vision AFM co-registered with a on-contact high resolution imaging; and (b) two cantilever arms capable to hold and enucleate a cell. The calibration and automation are controlled by AI Case-Based reasoning (CBR) together with AI Blackboard (BB) of the taxonomy, necessary for integrating different tool's tolerance and resolution at the same location. Moreover, keeping the biological sample in one place, while a set of tools rotates upon it similar to a set of microscopic lenses, we can avoid the non-real-time re-imaging, and inadvertent contamination. Applying an imposing electrical field, we can take the advantage of structure differences in smooth nuclear membranes inducing Van der Waal's forces versus random cytoplasm. (ii) The re-programming of transplanted cells to the ground state is unclear and usually relies on electrochemical means tested systematically in a modified 3D Caltech micro-fluidics. (iii) Our real-time MRA video-manipulator can elucidate the mitosis's tread-mill assembly mechanism in the development course of pluripotent stem cell differentiation into specialized tissue cell engineering. Such a combination bio-NanoRobot and micro-fluidic massive parallel assembly-line approach might not only replace the aspirating pipette with a self- enucleating Drosophila embryonic eggs, but also genetically reproduce a large amount of cloning embryonic eggs repeatedly for various re-programming hypotheses.

Paper Details

Date Published: 17 April 2006
PDF: 20 pages
Proc. SPIE 6247, Independent Component Analyses, Wavelets, Unsupervised Smart Sensors, and Neural Networks IV, 62470U (17 April 2006); doi: 10.1117/12.674725
Show Author Affiliations
Chia-Pin Chang, The George Washington Univ. (United States)
Harold Szu, The George Washington Univ. (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 6247:
Independent Component Analyses, Wavelets, Unsupervised Smart Sensors, and Neural Networks IV
Harold H. Szu, Editor(s)

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