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Investigation on micro-patterned gold-plated polymer substrate for a micro hydraulic actuator
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Paper Abstract

Plants have the ability to develop large mechanical force from chemical energy available with bio-fuels. The energy released by the cleavage of a terminal phosphate ion during the hydrolysis of a bio-fuel assists the transport of ions and fluids in cellular homeostasis. Materials that develop pressure and hence strain similar to the response of plants to an external stimuli are classified as nastic materials. This new class of actuators use protein transporters as functional units to move species and result in deformation [Leo et al 2005 (Proceedings of IMECE - 06)]. The ion transporters are hydrocarbons which are formed across the cellular membranes. The membranes that house the ion transporters are aggregates of phospholipids rigidized by cytoskeleton. Reconstituting these nano-machines on a harder matrix is quintessential to build a functional device. Artificial phospholipid membranes or Biliayer lipid membranes (BLM) have poor structural integrity and do not adhere to most surfaces. Patterned arrays of pores made on Poly-propylene glycol-diacrylate (PPG-DA) substrate, a photo curable polymer was made available to us for initial design iterations for an actuator. Hydrophobicity of PPG-DA posed initial problems to support a BLM. We modified the surface of micropatterned PPG-DA membrane by gold plating it. The surface of the porous PPG-DA membranes was plated with gold (Au). A 10nm seeding layer of Au was sputtered on the surface of the membrane. Further gold was reduced onto the sputtered gold surface [Supriya et al(Langmuir 2004, 20, 8870-8876)] by suspending the samples in a solution of hydroxylamine and Hydrogen tetrachloroaurate(III) trihydrate [HAuCl4.3H2O]. This reduction process increased the thickness of the gold, enhanced its adhesion to the PPG-DA substrate and improved the shapes of the pores. This surface modification of PPG-DA helped us form stable BLM with 1-Palmitoyl-2-Oleoyl-sn-Glycero-3- [Phospho-L-Serine] (Sodium Salt) (POPS), 1-Palmitoyl-2-Oleoyl-sn-Glycero- 3-Phosphoethanolamine (POPE) lipids. The observed ionic resistance of the BLM remained stable and sustained 4 mm water column for the the four hours observation period. This article describes the procedure we adopted to modify the PPG-DA substrate, form a BLM and the procedure to quantify the stability of the BLM formed with -amine and -thiol head groups in the lipids.

Paper Details

Date Published: 6 April 2006
PDF: 9 pages
Proc. SPIE 6170, Smart Structures and Materials 2006: Active Materials: Behavior and Mechanics, 61701U (6 April 2006); doi: 10.1117/12.658613
Show Author Affiliations
Vishnu Baba Sundaresan, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ. (United States)
Barbar Akle, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ. (United States)
Donald J. Leo, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ. (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 6170:
Smart Structures and Materials 2006: Active Materials: Behavior and Mechanics
William D. Armstrong, Editor(s)

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