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Proceedings Paper

Fabrication of tapered air-core defects in 3D photonic crystals for multifunctional scanning-probe NSOM tips
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Paper Abstract

We propose a fabrication method to realize tapered defects in three-dimensional photonic crystals. This process utilizes a combination of electron-beam lithography and ultraviolet interference lithography to create embedded defects within the photonic crystal lattice. We exploit the natural scattering profile of the electron beam within the thick resist film to create conical defects, where the angle of the cone can be tuned by adjusting the electron beam's accelerating voltage. The process begins by exposing a dot with e-beam, which generates a latent cone structure. This is followed by an exposure to an interference pattern formed by four coherent UV laser beam, which generates a 3D lattice surrounding the defects. Upon post-exposure bake, the areas that have received greater than threshold dose are crosslinked, yielding after developer treatment a 3D polymer photonic crystal with conical embedded defect. Subsequently, this structure is used as a template for backfilling with silicon via chemical vapor deposition. Further processing with standard silicon micormachining places the structure at the end of a cantilever that can be used in an instrument similar to an atomic force microscope or scanning probe microscope. We anticipate that these structures will find applications in multifunctional nanoprobe microscopy, because photonic-crystal defects can confine optical modes to smaller regions, with low propagation loss, than is possible with conventional tapered-fiber NSOM tips.

Paper Details

Date Published: 23 January 2006
PDF: 9 pages
Proc. SPIE 6110, Micromachining Technology for Micro-Optics and Nano-Optics IV, 61100I (23 January 2006);
Show Author Affiliations
Garrett J. Schneider, Univ. of Delaware (United States)
Janusz Murakowski, Univ. of Delaware (United States)
Dennis W. Prather, Univ. of Delaware (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 6110:
Micromachining Technology for Micro-Optics and Nano-Optics IV
Eric G. Johnson; Gregory P. Nordin; Thomas J. Suleski, Editor(s)

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