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Proceedings Paper

Fabrication of 2D sub-micron structures in lithium niobate for photonic crystal applications
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Paper Abstract

We report on the fabrication and characterization of the first periodic sub-micron scale one- and two-dimensional surface structures in congruent 500 μm thick lithium niobate crystal samples. Structures with periods from 2 μm down to 500 nm, lateral feature sizes down to 200 nm and depths around 10 μm, largely compatible with conventional waveguide fabrication, have been obtained. Such structures are fabricated by selective wet etching of ferroelectric domain engineered samples obtained by electric field poling performed at an overpoling regime. Holographic lithography is here used to obtain sub-micron periodic insulating gratings to be used for selective ferroelectric domain reversal. The short-pitch fabricated structures are attractive in a wide range of applications, such as nonlinear short-wavelength conversion processes, backward second-harmonic generation, fabrication of novel tunable photonic crystal (PC) devices, electro-optically modulated Bragg gratings. Moreover moire beating effect is used in the photolithographic process to fabricate even more complex structures which could find applications in complicated photonic bandgap devices involving for example micro-ring resonators. In order to investigate the possibility to utilize these structures for PC applications, accurate and complete topographic characterization has been performed by using different techniques. Atomic force microscope provides high-resolution information about the lateral and depth feature size of the structures. Interferometric techniques, based on digital holography, have been used for wide field information about the homogeneity and periodicity of the structures.

Paper Details

Date Published: 26 August 2005
PDF: 9 pages
Proc. SPIE 5931, Nanoengineering: Fabrication, Properties, Optics, and Devices II, 593107 (26 August 2005); doi: 10.1117/12.617106
Show Author Affiliations
Simonetta Grilli, Istituto Nazionale di Ottica Applicata (Italy)
Pietro Ferraro, Istituto Nazionale di Ottica Applicata (Italy)
Lucia Sansone, Istituto Nazionale di Ottica Applicata (Italy)
Bruno Tiribilli, Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi - CNR (Italy)
Massimo Vassalli, Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi - CNR (Italy)
Paolo De Natale, Istituto Nazionale di Ottica Applicata (Italy)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 5931:
Nanoengineering: Fabrication, Properties, Optics, and Devices II
Elizabeth A. Dobisz; Louay A. Eldada, Editor(s)

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