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Proceedings Paper

Resist component leaching in 193-nm immersion lithography
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Paper Abstract

The leaching of ionic PAGs from model resist films into a static water volume is shown to follow first order kinetics. From the saturation concentration and the leaching time constant, the leaching rate at time zero is obtained which is a highly relevant parameter for evaluating lens contamination potential. The levels of leaching seen in the model resists generally exceed both static and rate-based dynamic leaching specifications. The dependence of leaching on anion structure shows that more hydrophobic anions have lower saturation concentration; however, the time constant of leaching increases with anion chain length. Thus in our model system, the initial leaching rates of nonaflate and PFOS anions are identical. Investigation of a water pre-rinse process unexpectedly showed that some PAG can still be leached from the surface although the pre-rinse times greatly exceeded the times required for saturation of the leaching phenomenon, which are expected to correspond to complete depletion of leachable PAG from the surface. A model is proposed to explain this phenomenon through re-organization of the surface as the surface energy changes during the air/water/air contact sequence of the pre-rinse process.

Paper Details

Date Published: 4 May 2005
PDF: 7 pages
Proc. SPIE 5753, Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XXII, (4 May 2005); doi: 10.1117/12.600782
Show Author Affiliations
Ralph R. Dammel, AZ Electronic Materials (United States)
Georg Pawlowski, AZ Electronic Materials (United States)
Andrew Romano, AZ Electronic Materials (United States)
Frank M. Houlihan, AZ Electronic Materials (United States)
Woo-Kyu Kim, AZ Electronic Materials (United States)
Raj Sakamuri, AZ Electronic Materials (United States)
David Abdallah, AZ Electronic Materials (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 5753:
Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XXII
John L. Sturtevant, Editor(s)

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