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Proceedings Paper

The fabrication and material characterization of PZT based functionally graded piezoceramics
Author(s): Paul W. Alexander; Diann Brei; John W. Halloran
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Paper Abstract

Functionally Graded Piezoceramics (FGP) increase actuator lifetime and provide complex deformations; however, to reap these benefits sophisticated grading and fabrication techniques beyond the conventional layered bonding techniques are required. This paper introduces the Dual Electro/Piezo Property (DEPP) gradient technique via MicroFabrication through CoeXtrusion (MFCX). The Dual Electro/Piezo Property (DEPP) grading technique pairs a high displacement lead zirconate titanate (PZT) piezoceramic with a high permittivity barium titanate (BT) dielectric. These compatible materials act synergistically to form dramatic gradients in permittivity across the structure, concentrating the electric field in the more piezoelectrically active region leading to electrically-efficient, large-displacement actuators; with the benefit of increased reliability stemming from the continuous gradients and monolithic nature of the ceramic. The DEPP variation was first evaluated independently of the MFCX process through fabrication and experimental characterization of a powder pressed bimorph. While simple one-dimensionally graded FGPs can be realized by this process, MFCX is needed for any complex, multidimensional gradient. The MFCX process was adapted for DEPP grading and demonstrated by creating a more complex linearly-graded FGP. Both the bimorph and linearly graded specimens had good material quality and generated high displacements correlating well with published FGP theory; with the linear gradient reducing internal stress levels, extending actuator lifetime. This paper presents a general FGP methodology that couples grading and fabrication to generate high yield, low cost monolithic actuators with complicated one-dimensional gradients. Extension of this research will pave the way for more complicated gradients yielding such deformation capabilities as warping, twisting, rippling, and dimpling.

Paper Details

Date Published: 17 May 2005
PDF: 14 pages
Proc. SPIE 5764, Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Smart Structures and Integrated Systems, (17 May 2005); doi: 10.1117/12.599749
Show Author Affiliations
Paul W. Alexander, Univ. of Michigan (United States)
Diann Brei, Univ. of Michigan (United States)
John W. Halloran, Univ. of Michigan (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 5764:
Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Smart Structures and Integrated Systems
Alison B. Flatau, Editor(s)

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