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Proceedings Paper

Impact of water and top-coats on lithographic performance in 193-nm immersion lithography
Author(s): Shinji Kishimura; Roel Gronheid; Monique Ercken; Mireille Maenhoudt; Takahiro Matsuo; Masayuki Endo; Masaru Sasago
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Paper Abstract

We have investigated the impact of water and top-coats on the resist in water immersion lithography by analyzing the dissolution behavior and the film constitution. We used a resist development analyzer (RDA) and a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) to study the dissolution behavior. The film constitution was studied through the gradient shaving preparation (GSP) method in combination with TOF-SIMS. The GSP/TOF-SIMS method reveals the constitution of a top-coat/resist film. We found that, in a resist, the photo acid generator (PAG) anion at a depth of about 30 nm from the surface leached into water and a surface insoluble layer formed during immersion. The estimated amount of leaching was about 5% of the original content. The formation of an intermixing layer with a low dissolution rate was observed for some top-coat and resist combinations. The thickness of the intermixing layer and the formation behavior were made clear. We believe the intermixing layer was caused by the top-coat solvent eluting resist components. In a top-coat, a PAG existed within the top-coat and the PAG anion leached into the water. Top-coats blocked gaseous decomposed products from the resist film during PEB. These results are useful for estimating patterning characteristics and the defectivity due to materials for actual immersion exposure.

Paper Details

Date Published: 4 May 2005
PDF: 11 pages
Proc. SPIE 5753, Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XXII, (4 May 2005); doi: 10.1117/12.598532
Show Author Affiliations
Shinji Kishimura, IMEC (Belgium)
Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. (Japan)
Roel Gronheid, IMEC (Belgium)
Monique Ercken, IMEC (Belgium)
Mireille Maenhoudt, IMEC (Belgium)
Takahiro Matsuo, Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. (Japan)
Masayuki Endo, Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. (Japan)
Masaru Sasago, Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. (Japan)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 5753:
Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XXII
John L. Sturtevant, Editor(s)

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