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Proceedings Paper

Watermarking in JPEG bitstream
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Paper Abstract

In a previous work we proposed an algorithm to embed watermark bits directly in a compressed bitstream. The embedding algorithm is reversible, requires no decompression, causes no increase in file size, and is fast. The problem is that the watermarked bitstream will either lose format-compliance or suffer unacceptable visual degradation. We have now solved these problems for JPEG streams. The algorithm determines the AC VLC codespace that is actually used by the image. Watermarking specific VLCs places the resulting codewords outside of the used codespace, but still within the orignal VLC table specified in JPEG standard. To keep the watermarked stream format-compliant and visually acceptable, the run/size values of watermarked VLCs are remapped in a way to keep visual degradation to a minimum. Since watermarked VLCs are never used in the image, this remapping does not alter the image outside of watermarked VLC codespace.

Paper Details

Date Published: 21 March 2005
PDF: 10 pages
Proc. SPIE 5681, Security, Steganography, and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents VII, (21 March 2005); doi: 10.1117/12.585969
Show Author Affiliations
Robert J. Berger II, Lockheed Martin Corp. (United States)
Bijan G. Mobasseri, Villanova Univ. (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 5681:
Security, Steganography, and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents VII
Edward J. Delp III; Ping W. Wong, Editor(s)

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