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Proceedings Paper

CRISM (Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars) on MRO (Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter)
Author(s): Scott L. Murchie; Raymond E. Arvidson; Peter Bedini; K. Beisser; Jean-Pierre Bibring; J. Bishop; John D. Boldt; Tech H. Choo; R. Todd Clancy; Edward Hugo Darlington; D. Des Marais; R. Espiritu; Melissa J. Fasold; Dennis Fort; Richard N. Green; E. Guinness; John R. Hayes; C. Hash; Kevin J. Heffernan; J. Hemmler; Gene A. Heyler; David C. Humm; J. Hutchison; Noam R. Izenberg; Robert E. Lee; Jeffrey Jeffrey Lees; David A. Lohr; Erick R. Malaret; T. Martin; Richard V. Morris; John F. Mustard; Edgar A. Rhodes; Mark S. Robinson; Ted L. Roush; Edward D. Schaefer; Gordon G. Seagrave; Peter R. Silverglate; S. Slavney; Mark F. Smith; Kim Strohbehn; Howard W. Taylor; Patrick L. Thompson; Barry E. Tossman
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Paper Abstract

CRISM (Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars) is a hyperspectral imager that will be launched on the MRO (Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter) spacecraft in August 2005. MRO’s objectives are to recover climate science originally to have been conducted on the Mars Climate Orbiter (MCO), to identify and characterize sites of possible aqueous activity to which future landed missions may be sent, and to characterize the composition, geology, and stratigraphy of Martian surface deposits. MRO will operate from a sun-synchronous, near-circular (255x320 km altitude), near-polar orbit with a mean local solar time of 3 PM. CRISM’s spectral range spans the ultraviolet (UV) to the mid-wave infrared (MWIR), 383 nm to 3960 nm. The instrument utilizes a Ritchey-Chretien telescope with a 2.12° field-of-view (FOV) to focus light on the entrance slit of a dual spectrometer. Within the spectrometer, light is split by a dichroic into VNIR (visible-near-infrared, 383-1071 nm) and IR (infrared, 988-3960 nm) beams. Each beam is directed into a separate modified Offner spectrometer that focuses a spectrally dispersed image of the slit onto a two dimensional focal plane (FP). The IR FP is a 640 x 480 HgCdTe area array; the VNIR FP is a 640 x 480 silicon photodiode area array. The spectral image is contiguously sampled with a 6.6 nm spectral spacing and an instantaneous field of view of 61.5 μradians. The Optical Sensor Unit (OSU) can be gimbaled to take out along-track smear, allowing long integration times that afford high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at high spectral and spatial resolution. The scan motor and encoder are controlled by a separately housed Gimbal Motor Electronics (GME) unit. A Data Processing Unit (DPU) provides power, command and control, and data editing and compression. CRISM acquires three major types of observations of the Martian surface and atmosphere. In Multispectral Mapping Mode, with the gimbal pointed at planet nadir, data are collected at frame rates of 15 or 30 Hz. A commandable subset of wavelengths is saved by the DPU and binned 5:1 or 10:1 cross-track. The combination of frame rates and binning yields pixel footprints of 100 or 200 m. In this mode, nearly the entire planet can be mapped at wavelengths of key mineralogic absorption bands to select regions of interest. In Targeted Mode, the gimbal is scanned over ±60° from nadir to remove most along-track motion, and a region of interest is mapped at full spatial and spectral resolution. Ten additional abbreviated, pixel-binned observations are taken before and after the main hyperspectral image at longer atmospheric path lengths, providing an emission phase function (EPF) of the site for atmospheric study and correction of surface spectra for atmospheric effects. In Atmospheric Mode, the central observation is eliminated and only the EPF is acquired. Global grids of the resulting lower data volume observation are taken repeatedly throughout the Martian year to measure seasonal variations in atmospheric properties.

Paper Details

Date Published: 30 December 2004
PDF: 12 pages
Proc. SPIE 5660, Instruments, Science, and Methods for Geospace and Planetary Remote Sensing, (30 December 2004); doi: 10.1117/12.578976
Show Author Affiliations
Scott L. Murchie, Johns Hopkins Univ. (United States)
Raymond E. Arvidson, Washington Univ. in St. Louis (United States)
Peter Bedini, Johns Hopkins Univ. (United States)
K. Beisser, Johns Hopkins Univ. (United States)
Jean-Pierre Bibring, Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale (France)
J. Bishop, NASA Ames Research Ctr. (United States)
John D. Boldt, Johns Hopkins Univ. (United States)
Tech H. Choo, Johns Hopkins Univ. (United States)
R. Todd Clancy, Univ. of Colorado/Boulder (United States)
Edward Hugo Darlington, Johns Hopkins Univ. (United States)
D. Des Marais, NASA Ames Research Ctr. (United States)
R. Espiritu, Applied Coherent Technology Corp. (United States)
Melissa J. Fasold, Johns Hopkins Univ. (United States)
Dennis Fort, Johns Hopkins Univ. (United States)
Richard N. Green, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States)
E. Guinness, Washington Univ. in St. Louis (United States)
John R. Hayes, Johns Hopkins Univ. (United States)
C. Hash, Applied Coherent Technology Corp. (United States)
Kevin J. Heffernan, Johns Hopkins Univ. (United States)
J. Hemmler, Johns Hopkins Univ. (United States)
Gene A. Heyler, Johns Hopkins Univ. (United States)
David C. Humm, Johns Hopkins Univ. (United States)
J. Hutchison, Johns Hopkins Univ. (United States)
Noam R. Izenberg, Johns Hopkins Univ. (United States)
Robert E. Lee, Johns Hopkins Univ. (United States)
Jeffrey Jeffrey Lees, Johns Hopkins Univ. (United States)
David A. Lohr, Johns Hopkins Univ. (United States)
Erick R. Malaret, Applied Coherent Technology Corp. (United States)
T. Martin, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States)
Richard V. Morris, NASA Johnson Space Ctr. (United States)
John F. Mustard, Brown Univ. (United States)
Edgar A. Rhodes, Johns Hopkins Univ. (United States)
Mark S. Robinson, Northwestern Univ. (United States)
Ted L. Roush, NASA Ames Research Ctr. (United States)
Edward D. Schaefer, Johns Hopkins Univ. (United States)
Gordon G. Seagrave, Johns Hopkins Univ. (United States)
Peter R. Silverglate, Johns Hopkins Univ. (United States)
S. Slavney, Washington Univ. in St. Louis (United States)
Mark F. Smith, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Kim Strohbehn, Johns Hopkins Univ. (United States)
Howard W. Taylor, Johns Hopkins Univ. (United States)
Patrick L. Thompson, Johns Hopkins Univ. (United States)
Barry E. Tossman, Johns Hopkins Univ. (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 5660:
Instruments, Science, and Methods for Geospace and Planetary Remote Sensing
Carl A. Nardell; Paul G. Lucey; Jeng-Hwa Yee; James B. Garvin, Editor(s)

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