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Proceedings Paper

1.5 µm to 0.87 µm optical upconversion by wafer fusion
Author(s): Hui Luo; Dayan Ban; Huichun C. Liu; Anthony J. SpringThorpe; Zbigniew R. Wasilewski; Margaret Buchanan
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Paper Abstract

An InGaAs photodetector array interconnected with a silicon readout IC is the industry standard for 1.2-1.6 μm imaging applications. However, the indium-bump technique it employs for interconnection makes it expensive. An alternative approach is to combine a CCD with a device that upconverts 1.2-1.6 μm radiation to a wavelength below 1 μm. Here we report the realization of a 1.5 μm to 0.87 μm optical upconversion device using wafer fusion technology. The device consists of an InGaAs/InP PIN photodetector and an AlGaAs/GaAs light emitting diode (LED). Incoming 1.5 μm light is absorbed by the InGaAs photodetector. The resulting photocurrent drives the GaAs LED, which emits at 0.87 μm. The PIN and LED structures are epitaxially grown on an InP and a GaAs substrate, respectively. The two wafers are wafer fused together, the GaAs substrate is removed, and the sample is processed using conventional microfabrication technology. In this paper, we first present the design and fabrication process of the device. We then discuss the approaches to increase device efficiency. We show, both experimentally and theoretically, that the active layer doping affects the LED internal quantum efficiency, especially under low current injection. An optimum doping value is obtained. The LED extraction efficiency is increased using several approaches, including micro-lens and surface scattering. Overall device efficiency is further improved by introducing a gain mechanism into the photodetector. Our results show the potentials of this integrated photodetector-LED device for 1.2-1.6 μm imaging applications.

Paper Details

Date Published: 20 December 2004
PDF: 12 pages
Proc. SPIE 5577, Photonics North 2004: Optical Components and Devices, (20 December 2004); doi: 10.1117/12.566894
Show Author Affiliations
Hui Luo, Institute for Microstructural Sciences/NRC (Canada)
Dayan Ban, Institute for Microstructural Sciences/NRC (Canada)
Huichun C. Liu, Institute for Microstructural Sciences/NRC (Canada)
Anthony J. SpringThorpe, Institute for Microstructural Sciences/NRC (Canada)
Zbigniew R. Wasilewski, Institute for Microstructural Sciences/NRC (Canada)
Margaret Buchanan, Institute for Microstructural Sciences/NRC (Canada)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 5577:
Photonics North 2004: Optical Components and Devices
John C. Armitage; Simon Fafard; Roger A. Lessard; George A. Lampropoulos, Editor(s)

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