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Proceedings Paper

Photrodes for physiological sensing
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Paper Abstract

This paper describes a paradigm shift in the technology for sensing electro-physiological signals. In recent years, SRICO has been developing small lithium niobate photonic electrodes, otherwise called "Photrodes” for measuring EEG and ECG signals. These extrinsic fiber-optic sensing devices exploit the extremely high electrical input impedance of Mach-Zehnder Intensity (MZI) electro-optic modulators to detect microvolt and millivolt physiological signals. Voltage levels associated with electrocardiograms are typically on the order of several millivolts, and such signals can be detected by capacitive pickup through clothing, i.e., the Photrode may be used in a non-contact mode. Electroencephalogram signals, which typically have an amplitude of several microvolts, require direct contact with the skin. However, this contact may be dry, eliminating the need for conductive gels. The electrical bandwidth of this photonic electrode system stretches from below 0.1 Hz to many tens of kHz and is constrained mainly by the signal processing electronics, not by the Photrode itself. The paper will describe the design and performance of Photrode systems and the challenging aspects of this new technology.

Paper Details

Date Published: 10 June 2004
PDF: 9 pages
Proc. SPIE 5317, Optical Fibers and Sensors for Medical Applications IV, (10 June 2004); doi: 10.1117/12.529473
Show Author Affiliations
Stuart A. Kingsley, SRICO, Inc. (United States)
Sriram Sriram, SRICO, Inc. (United States)
Andrea Pollick, SRICO, Inc. (United States)
John Marsh, SRICO, Inc. (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 5317:
Optical Fibers and Sensors for Medical Applications IV
Israel Gannot, Editor(s)

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