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Proceedings Paper

Imaging detector systems for soft x-ray and proton radiography
Author(s): Nicholas S. P. King; Stuart A. Baker; Steven A. Jaramillo; Kris Kwiatkowski; Stephen S. Lutz; Gary E. Hogan; Vanner H. Holmes; Christopher L. Morris; Paul T. Nedrow; Peter D. Pazuchanics; John S. Rohrer; Dan S. Sorenson; Richard T. Thompson
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Paper Abstract

Multi-pulse imaging systems have been developed for recording images from pulsed X-ray and proton radiographic sources. The number of successive images for x-ray radiography is limited to four being generated by 25 ns, pulsed sources in a close positioned geometry. The number of proton images are provided by the number of proton bursts (approximately 60 ns) delivered to the radiographic system. In both cases the radiation to light converter is a thin LSO crystal. The radiographic image formed is relayed by a direct, coherent bundle or lens coupling to a variety of electronic shuttered, cooled CCD cameras. The X-ray system is optimized for detecting bremmstrahlung, reflection geometry generated X-rays with end point energies below 300 keV. This has resulted in less than 200 μm thick LSO converters which are 25 x 25 mm2. The converter is attached to a UV transmitting fiberoptic which in turn is directly coupled to a coherent bundle. The image is relayed to a 25 mm microchannel plate image intensifier attached to a 4 image framing camera. The framing camera image is recorded by a 1600 x 1600 pixel, cooled CCD camera. The current proton radiography imaging system for dynamic experiments is based on a system of seven individual high-resolution CCD cameras, each with its own optical relay and fast shuttering. The image of the radiographed object is formed on a 1.7 mm thick tiles of LSO scintillator. The rapid shuttering for each of the CCD's is accomplished via proximity-focussed planar diodes (PPD), which require application of 300-to-500 ns long, 12 kV pulses to the PPD from a dedicated HV pulser. The diodes are fiber-optically coupled to the front face of the CCD chips. For each time-frame a separate CCD assembly is required. The detection quantum efficiency (DQE) of the system is about 0.4. This is due to the lens coupling inefficiency, the necessary demagnification (typically between 5:1 and 3:1) in the system optics, and the planar-diode photo-cathode quantum efficiency (QE) (of approximately 15%). More recently, we have incorporated a series of 4 or 9 image framing cameras to provide an increased number of images. These have been coupled to cooled CCD cameras as readouts. A detailed description of the x-ray and proton radiographic imaging systems are discussed as well as observed limitations in performance. A number of improvements are also being developed which will be described.

Paper Details

Date Published: 1 August 2003
PDF: 6 pages
Proc. SPIE 4948, 25th International Congress on High-Speed Photography and Photonics, (1 August 2003); doi: 10.1117/12.516915
Show Author Affiliations
Nicholas S. P. King, Los Alamos National Lab. (United States)
Stuart A. Baker, Bechtel Nevada Corp. (United States)
Steven A. Jaramillo, Los Alamos National Lab. (United States)
Kris Kwiatkowski, Los Alamos National Lab. (United States)
Stephen S. Lutz, Bechtel Nevada Corp. (United States)
Gary E. Hogan, Los Alamos National Lab. (United States)
Vanner H. Holmes, Los Alamos National Lab. (United States)
Christopher L. Morris, Los Alamos National Lab. (United States)
Paul T. Nedrow, Los Alamos National Lab. (United States)
Peter D. Pazuchanics, Los Alamos National Lab. (United States)
John S. Rohrer, Bechtel Nevada Corp. (United States)
Dan S. Sorenson, Los Alamos National Lab. (United States)
Richard T. Thompson, Bechtel Nevada Corp. (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 4948:
25th International Congress on High-Speed Photography and Photonics
Claude Cavailler; Graham P. Haddleton; Manfred Hugenschmidt, Editor(s)

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