Share Email Print

Proceedings Paper

Development of the water-window imaging x-ray microscope
Format Member Price Non-Member Price
PDF $17.00 $21.00

Paper Abstract

The Water Window Imaging X-Ray Microscope is a doubly reflecting, multilayer optical system configured to operate within the biologically important narrow spectral range known as the `water window.'' Within this x-ray waveband, which lies between the K absorption edges of oxygen (23.3 angstroms) and carbon (43.62 angstroms), water is relatively highly transmissive and carbon is highly absorptive. Consequently, this high resolution microscope can obtain high contrast images of carbon-based structures within living cells in aqueous physiological environments. This new multilayer x-ray microscope should afford ultrasensitive detection and analysis advantages not available with conventional microscopes. The Stanford/MSFC/LLNL Rocket X-Ray Spectroheliograph flight of 1987 achieved the first solar images with a doubly reflecting multilayer telescope and conclusively established the power of multilayer optics. During the MSFC X-Ray Microscope program, we theoretically established that high resolution multilayer x-ray imaging microscopes could be achieved with spherical optics in the Schwarzschild configuration and with aspherical optics. Advanced flow polishing techniques were used to fabricate ultrasmooth concave and convex spherical mirror substrates of zerodur and hemlite-grade sapphire. Atomic force microscopy and Zygo profilometer tests revealed these mirror substrates to have surface smoothness ranging from 0.5 angstrom rms (sapphire) to 2.0 angstroms rms (zerodur). In this paper, we discuss the fabrication and testing of the optical and mechanical components of the x-ray microscope.

Paper Details

Date Published: 1 January 1992
PDF: 12 pages
Proc. SPIE 1546, Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics, (1 January 1992); doi: 10.1117/12.51246
Show Author Affiliations
Richard B. Hoover, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
David L. Shealy, Univ. of Alabama/Birmingham (United States)
Phillip C. Baker, Baker Consulting (United States)
Troy W. Barbee Jr., Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (United States)
Arthur B. C. Walker II, Stanford Univ. (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 1546:
Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics
Richard B. Hoover, Editor(s)

© SPIE. Terms of Use
Back to Top
Sign in to read the full article
Create a free SPIE account to get access to
premium articles and original research
Forgot your username?