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Proceedings Paper

Calibration of hard x-ray (15 - 50 keV) optics at the MPE test facility PANTER
Author(s): Heinrich Braeuninger; Wolfgang Burkert; Gisela D. Hartner; Oberto Citterio; Mauro Ghigo; Francesco Mazzoleni; Giovanni Pareschi; Daniele Spiga
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Paper Abstract

The Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik (MPE) in Garching, Germany, operates the large X-ray beam line facility PANTER for testing astronomical systems. At PANTER a number of telescopes like EXOSAT, ROSAT, SAX, JET-X, ABRIXAS, XMM and SWIFT operating in the soft energy range (0.02 - 15 keV) have been successfully calibrated. In the present paper we report on an important upgrade recently implemented that enables the calibration of hard X-ray optics (from 15 up to 50 keV). Currently hard X-ray optics based on single and multilayer coating are being developed for several future X-ray missions. The hard X-ray calibrations at PANTER are carried out by a high energy source based on an electron gun and several anodes, able to cover the energy range from 4.5 up to 50 keV. It provides fluxes up to 104 counts/sec/cm2 at the instrument chamber with a stability better than 1%. As detector a pn-CCD camera operating between 0.2 and 50 keV and a collecting area of 36 cm2 is used. Taking into account the high energy resolution of the CCD (145 eV at 6 keV), a very easy way to operate the facility in hard X-ray is in energy-dispersive mode (i.e. with a broad-band beam). A double crystal monochromator is also available providing energies up to 20 keV. In this paper we present the first results obtained by using PANTER for hard X-ray characterizations, performed on prototype multilayer optics developed by the Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera (OAB), Milano, Italy, and the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA), Cambridge, MA, USA.

Paper Details

Date Published: 29 January 2004
PDF: 11 pages
Proc. SPIE 5168, Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, (29 January 2004); doi: 10.1117/12.507999
Show Author Affiliations
Heinrich Braeuninger, Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik (Germany)
Wolfgang Burkert, Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik (Germany)
Gisela D. Hartner, Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik (Germany)
Oberto Citterio, Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera (Italy)
Mauro Ghigo, Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera (Italy)
Francesco Mazzoleni, Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera (Italy)
Giovanni Pareschi, Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera (Italy)
Daniele Spiga, Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera (Italy)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 5168:
Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy
Oberto Citterio; Stephen L. O'Dell, Editor(s)

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