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Proceedings Paper

High-power x-ray generation using transition radiation
Author(s): Melvin A. Piestrup; D. G. Boyers; Cary I. Pincus; Qiang Li; J. L. Harris; J. C. Bergstrom; H. S. Caplan; R. M. Silzer; D. M. Skopik; Michael J. Moran; Xavier K. Maruyama
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Paper Abstract

In experiments using targets consisting of many thin metal foils, we have demonstrated that a narrow, forward-directed cone of transition radiation in the 0.8 to 60 keV spectral range can be generated by electron beams with moderate energies (between 17 and 500 MeV). We have measured the spectral and spatial photon densities of these radiators using low current electron beams. Using high currents, we have measured the total power of these radiators. A total power of 15.2 mW was measured from a beryllium radiator, 8.1 mW from the aluminum radiator, 4.8 mW from the titanium radiator, and 3.6 mW from the copper radiator. These values matched calculated predictions within experimental error. Both x-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits and Laue diffraction for the study of biological materials are possible applications of this radiation. In particular, using the Al and Be radiators we have exposed photoresist-coated silicon wafers. Exposure times of the bare resist were as short as 120 s for 5 cm2 of wafer area (this resist had a 230 mj/cm2 energy dose per unit area). The shortest time for mask/wafer exposure was 180 seconds for 5 cm2. Using an Intel mask, we obtained lithographs with features of 0.5 micrometers . In addition, we have calculated that the quasi-monochromatic bandwidth of transition radiation would be feasible for Laue diffraction of biological crystals. By designing transition radiators to emit x rays at the foil material's K-, L-, or M-shell photo-absorption edge, the x-ray spectrum is narrowed. The sources is then quasi-monochromatic and uses an electron beam whose energy is considerably lower than that needed for synchrotron sources.

Paper Details

Date Published: 1 December 1991
PDF: 26 pages
Proc. SPIE 1552, Short-Wavelength Radiation Sources, (1 December 1991); doi: 10.1117/12.50607
Show Author Affiliations
Melvin A. Piestrup, Adelphi Technology, Inc. (United States)
D. G. Boyers, Adelphi Technology, Inc. (United States)
Cary I. Pincus, Adelphi Technology, Inc. (United States)
Qiang Li, Adelphi Technology, Inc. (United States)
J. L. Harris, Adelphi Technology, Inc. (United States)
J. C. Bergstrom, Univ. of Saskatchewan (Canada)
H. S. Caplan, Univ. of Saskatchewan (Canada)
R. M. Silzer, Univ. of Saskatchewan (Canada)
D. M. Skopik, Univ. of Saskatchewan (Canada)
Michael J. Moran, Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (United States)
Xavier K. Maruyama, Naval Postgraduate School (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 1552:
Short-Wavelength Radiation Sources
Phillip Sprangle, Editor(s)

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